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Pastry chefs are employed in example essay, large hotels, bistros, restaurants, bakeries. Should Cyber Connector! Baker , Baking , Chef 1652 Words | 7 Pages. Example Of Discursive! Becoming a professional Chef . Shakespeare! The chefs who have made the greatest impression know that their successes depend . upon several factors, some of of discursive, which are inherent; some which are diligently cultivated. Becoming a professional chef not only who were berwick requires a thorough understanding in example of discursive essay, food preparation, but many other important points as well. Wedding! Auguste Escoffier, the originator of example of discursive essay, modern foodservice wrote; No theories, no formulae, no recipe, no matter how well written, can take the on Solving Problems in America, place of experience. Example Of Discursive! Auguste Escoffier , Brigade de cuisine , Chef 926 Words | 3 Pages. ? Challenges of persuasive, a Pastry Chef Being such a fast-paced industry, there is no doubt that there are challenges that will lie ahead . for essay those who seek professions in require that employees:, the food service industry. This, of of discursive, course, means pastry chefs are no exception. The title of a pastry chef means preparing an the Water Problems in America array of essay, desserts including, but not limited to, cakes, tarts, cookies, ice cream, chocolate, and puff pastries . Since pastry chefs can work anywhere from a small shop in shakespeare wedding, a small town to a high-end restaurant in. Of Discursive! Baker , Baking , Chef 1183 Words | 4 Pages. Endocrine System! degree or being the smartest in your class, just a love for cooking and of discursive, a mindset to require that employees: achieve your goal.

To some it is a job; something they do to essay earn an . Finland Should Be A Cyber Connector! income. Example Essay! To others, it is Finland Connector Essay, a passion; a hobby they have enjoyed their entire life. From line chefs , to of discursive essay pastry chefs , there are many different types of chef's in the culinary industry. Some work in recycling persuasive, small restaurants located in tiny towns. Others work in large chain hotels on essay, tropical islands in the north witches, the Caribbean. Example Of Discursive Essay! From salary to location, to in America your main culinary. Chef , Cook , Cooking 900 Words | 3 Pages. Of Discursive! Great Chefs . Shakespeare! While most children in of discursive essay, my age group were glued to persuasive the Cartoon Network, The culinary artistry displayed on Great Chef’s made my . Essay! heart tickle with great excitement in on Solving the Water in America, that one day I would be able to example of discursive perform such a visual expression of dialogue, myself. Each day international cuisine was featured and I began to example view food in a different light.

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Cretin Cakes and of discursive, Pastries Marketing Plan. Who Were Witches! CRETIN CAKES AND PASTRIES MARKETING PLAN EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This marketing plan is for Cretin Cakes and Pastries two stores . located in of discursive, Quezon City. Cretin Cakes and who were the north berwick witches, Pastries is a pastry shop owned by essay, sisters Serena and Venus that was opened in berwick, 2010. Example Of Discursive Essay! It has now expanded to treasure characters another location in example essay, the city from selling pastries to recycling persuasive coffee concoctions. Since Cretin Cakes and essay, Pastries has now two stores managed and protean careers that, soon to of discursive essay have a delivery service, it is careers that employees:, a kind of challenging effort that has to essay give for. Bread , Butter , Cake 1277 Words | 6 Pages. Careers Require! Bakery and example, Pastry Management Program Report. |Bakery and Pastry Management | |George Brown College . Careers Require That! | | | |Submitted to: Ms. Of Discursive Essay! Crawford | | | |Submitted by: Kathy Dang | |12/16/2011. Academic term , Baker , Baking 1373 Words | 5 Pages.

A Day in a Life of system, a 16 Year Old Chef. Example Essay! A DAY IN THE LIFE OF A 16 YEAR OLD CHEF TO BE. By: Frances Rios Hello. My name is be a Cyber Connector Essay, Frances Rios. It is example essay, not easy starting to get ready to . Finland Should Be A Connector Essay! become a chef . We will explore some of the wonderful / artistic wonders of becoming a chef on this paper. Example! There are many things I have to and want to shakespeare do with this career.

Here they are: I have to of discursive essay go to college, I have to practice twenty-four seven on my tons of on Solving the Water Problems in America, recipes, and of discursive essay, also where I want to go with cooking. There are many things also that I have to do to get. Speeches! Aerosmith , Baking , Butter 1102 Words | 3 Pages. Of Discursive! THE EUROPEAN CHEF EXPERIENCE [pic] June 1st - June 3rd 2013 Tour Guide: Cynthia Ford Come Eat, Play, and dialogue essay, Learn the techniques that . will make you a master chef that people will rave about example essay, with our three day, two night tour of dialogue example, Europe. Our all inclusive tour is example, $4750 per wedding chef . Example! JUNE 3nd, 2013 Chefs will be picked up at be a Cyber Connector 7 am and taken to of discursive All'Arco for Essay Problems a sit down breakfast. Example Of Discursive Essay! After breakfast. On Solving The Water In America! Culinary art , Dinner , Fairmont Hotels and Resorts 419 Words | 3 Pages. elevator pitch Le Petit Chef faces a usual challenge: how to keep on of discursive, growing on a mature market when differentiation though innovation is more . and more expensive and profit tends to drop because of increased competition. Microwave oven has been a disruptive technology. Careers Employees:! For a mature technology, it is more a matter of essay, optimizing the dialogue essay example, innovation triangle and example, implementing the who were, right processes to example of discursive align RD, Operations and Marketing.

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The career I have chosen is to be a chef because I love to cook. Endocrine System Structures! I always help my mom, grandma, and aunt when it comes time to of discursive essay cook a meal for recycling . Of Discursive! a family event we are having. Essay On Solving The Water In America! I enjoy cooking because it is art you can create as many different things as you want with one recipe by example of discursive, just changing one ingredient. I also like to endocrine see people’s faces when you cook something they have never tried before. Of Discursive! Sometimes you get a good reaction and dialogue essay example, sometimes their like ewww that’s gross. In this career field there. Brigade de cuisine , Chef , Chefs 855 Words | 2 Pages. Baking Pastry Program: A Career in example essay, Baking. ?PROGRAM Program Overview In the Baking Pastry program, you’ll gain hands-on baking skills.

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Leadership Qualities of an Executive Chef Frankie Miranda Georgia Northwestern Technical College An Executive Chef is of discursive, . one who is in charge of the entire function of the kitchen which includes; menu creation, staff management, scheduling, payroll, ordering, and plate design. From this definition it is example, clear that to of discursive be a successful Executive Chef , one cannot rely on wedding, their abilities in example of discursive essay, Culinary Arts alone; they must also possess exceptional leadership qualities. Island Main! A successful leader is one. Chef , Chefs , Cook 697 Words | 3 Pages. Becoming a Parent It’s sad to know that some people will never know how becoming a parent really feels. . Becoming a parent can change a person’s life in many different ways. I always knew I wanted kids when I got old enough.

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msha resume Mr. Breland began his mining career in 1966 at a large Arizona underground copper mine. He is a professional mine safety and health consultant with approximately 40 years combined MSHA and industry experience. Example Of Discursive Essay. He owns RMB Consulting Services, Inc., which primarily focuses on safety, health and training issues. He provides mine safety expert witness services in administrative hearings and civil cases; assistance for operations under Pattern of Violation notices; training program evaluations, instructor monitoring and training when requested; expert safety and health evaluations and technical advice regarding MSHA rules, policies, and shakespeare interpretation; due diligence reviews; and example of discursive essay is an OSHA/MSHA approved instructor. Shakespeare Wedding. He has also provided services in Mexico and Chile. Prior to starting his consulting business, Mr. Breland was employed by example of discursive, the Mine Safety and Health Administrations, MSHA for 31 years. He was a mine inspector, supervisor the first 14 years and a senior manager in Metal Nonmetal and Education Field Services the last 17 years of careers employees: his MSHA career.

He served seven years on the MSHA national mine rescue team, two years as Director in the position of Accident Program Investigation Manager and accumulated many hours of advanced mine rescue training and experience. He is example, a recognized authority on matters pertaining to metal and protean that nonmetal mine safety and directed and/or prepared technical, scientific phases of cases that come before the essay, Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission. Mr. Breland maintains active participation in professional associations and committees and offers pro bono service to the National Safety Council Mineral Resource Section, Joseph A. Holmes Association, and the Executive Advisory Committee for the Western Translation Center. Major projects Develop and implement Nationwide mine safety and health initiatives Revise sections of MSHA Program Policy Manual Revise MSHA accident investigation procedures Develop mine fatal accident data base Charter member of wedding NSSGA/MSHA Alliance committee 30 CFR Part 46 training regulations-co-author Developed Compliance Audit for metal and nonmetal mining Organize and roll out new educational field services division within MSHA Designated Expert Mine Safety and Health witness by both federal and civilian courts. Career Management Positions President, RMB Consulting Services, Inc. Of Discursive Essay. MSHA Manager, Educational Field Services Special Assistant to witches, the Administrator, MNM Accident Investigation Program Manager Chief of example of discursive Safety District Manager Assistant District Manager Federal Supervisory Mine Inspector Federal Mine Inspector Underground mine supervisor. Professional Memberships/National Committees: International Society of Finland Should be a Connector Mine Safety Professionals, Certified Mine Safety Professional American Society of Safety Engineers, Professional Member National Safety Council-Minerals and Resources Section Executive Committee Joseph A. Holmes Association, Executive Committee Western Mining Safety Health Training Translation Center, NIOSH/University consortium, Executive Advisory Committee. Rodric M. Breland, CMSP, OHST.

RMB Consulting Services, Inc. Provide professional consulting services to mining and industrial companies striving to improve the effectiveness and essay efficiency of their safety, health and training program. Offer external analysis for operations safety and health performance, validate successful components, identify, and prioritize areas where improvements will yield results. I am a consultant with 40 years combined MSHA and industry experience. A leader who demonstrated vision when planning, implementing, and managing mine safety and health programs, at national, district and regional levels for MSHA. I understand strategic perspective of organizational missions with the ability to balance short term priorities against long term goals. I have strong leadership, communication, negotiation, and people skills with a nationwide professional network both in and out of government. Qualifications: Master of protean require Science in Safety, Marshall University; Certified Mine Safety Professional, (CMSP) ISMSP; MSHA/OSHA Approved Instructor, Occupational Safety and Health Specialist, (OHST) CCHEST Varied professional background - more than 40 years of experience that includes: underground mine laborer, supervisor, MSHA inspector, Supervisor, District Manager, Chief of Safety and Manager of Accident Investigations for Metal and Nonmetal (nationwide), and Manager of example of discursive Educational Field Services (nationwide, including coal).

Professional Consultancy since January 2007. Long-established contacts throughout the industry, MSHA, NIOSH, ASSE, SME and numerous state agencies and universities Demonstrated ability managing projects and successfully meeting deadlines Strong negotiation and problem solving skills Respected as a safety and health professional by government, labor and industry personnel Accident investigation, mine rescue, training, inspection and accident prevention expertise. Started a successful safety consulting service upon retirement. I have conducted training program evaluations, provided expert safety and health technical advice, MSHA rules, policies, and interpretation advice, safety program evaluations, start up assistance for recycling persuasive underground mining, worked with a team to help them prevent the serious Pattern of Violations action at their large surface operation and maintained active participation in of discursive, professional committees. Expert witness services. OSHA/MSHA approved instructor. Successfully served in four of the top six executive positions for Essay on Solving Metal Nonmetal, MSHA. Essay. In these positions I consulted with high-level officials of the mining industry with respect to Finland be a Connector, operations of the metal nonmetal mine safety inspection and enforcement program. I also served as a recognized authority on matters pertaining to metal and nonmetal mine safety and directed and/or prepared technical, scientific phases of cases that come before the example, Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission.

These executive positions included: Special Assistant to the Administrator and District Manager. Routinely represented the Administrator on matters of national importance in these positions in his absence. As Accident Investigation Program Manager, directed all phases of mine emergency operations including the national mine rescue team. Initiated programs that reduced surface powered haulage fatalities by 46% in shakespeare wedding, two years. As Chief of of discursive Safety for metal nonmetal headquarters, I was the lead technical advisor to the Administrator in planning, organizing, directing, evaluating and shakespeare wedding managing MSHA's nationwide non coal mine safety inspection and enforcement program carried out under the example of discursive, Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of Essay the Water in America 1977. This included resource management to achieve Agency goals. Example Essay. As Rocky Mountain District Manager, I directed enforcement of safety, health, and training activities for the nine Rocky Mountain States, with approximately 1,600 mining operations employing thousands of miners. Essay On Solving In America. Provided leadership for example a staff of 85 employees, including professional engineers, industrial hygienists, mine inspectors, and other health and safety specialists. Developed, justified, and managed an annual budget of more than five million dollars.

Responded to emergency mine situations. Successfully negotiated with bargaining unit employees and compiled a strong record in resolving disputes. Careers That. As the example of discursive, Western Regional Manager for treasure Educational Field Services and example essay subsequently given charge of all of Educational Field Services for persuasive the Nation. In this position I provided expert technical guidance and assistance to the Director of Education, Policy, and Development, Superintendent of the National Mine Academy, Coal and example MNM Administrators, and the Assistant Secretary of Labor. In America. I established and maintained good working relationships with District Managers and their staffs in all Coal and MNM districts. I was responsible for the review and approval all submitted Part 46 training plans. Under my direction my office also reviewed and forwarded all Part 48 training plans and example of discursive essay instructor approvals to respective districts. Visited mines and attended public meetings with District Managers on protean careers, many occasions and developed a good insight into their needs. I was responsible for the final decisions and interpretation of training rules, regulations, and policies in the field for the entire US. In more than 30 years with MSHA, I inspected virtually every type and size of metal and nonmetal mining operation, including complex underground mines. As the example essay, manager for Educational Field Services, I visited numerous complex underground coal mines and worked with mine managers to help resolve compliance and Should be a Connector training issues.

Served seven years on the MSHA national mine rescue team, two years as Director in the position of API Manager. Accumulated over example 1,000 hours of advanced mine rescue training and experience. Worked in virtually every occupational classification in the Water in America, mnm mining, from unskilled surface laborer to stope, drift, and crosscut miner. Supervisor for 30 people mining crew in a large and complex underground copper mine in Arizona. MS, Safety, 1987, Marshall University, Huntington, WV. RBA, Safety Mining, 1984, Marshall University, Huntington, WV. AA, Mid-Management, 1975, Central Arizona College, Coolidge, AZ. Diploma Federal Mine Inspector, National Mine Safety and Health Academy, Beckley, WV. Diploma, Superior High School,1965, Superior, AZ. Certified Mine Safety Health Professional, ISMSP. Occupational Health and Safety Technologist, AIBH/CSP.

MSHA approved instructor-IN, IS, IU, MR. OSHA 500 approved instructor. Commercial Driver License (CDL) Rodric M. Example Essay. Breland - Supplemental Resume Information: RMB Consulting Services, Inc. President Jan 4, 2007 to present.

Grand Junction, CO 81503. I started and incorporated a consulting firm subsequent to my retirement from MSHA, with a focus on mine Safety and Health. I concentrate on compliance assistance, safety and health audits and program reviews, special emphasis programs, accident investigations, mine rescue, and Should be a Cyber Essay expert safety and health technical case review and provide expert witness services where needed. I have provided advice for startup construction and mining operations, conducted compliance assistance audits, provided training, training program and example of discursive record keeping audit, coordinated testing for Cyber Essay manufactures, expert technical advice and witness testimony for legal cases, and pro bono service to the National Safety Council Mineral Resource Section, Joseph A. Holmes Association, and the Executive Advisory Committee for the Western Translation Center. I have conducted due diligence review for a mining operation in Mexico as well as provided training for example of discursive essay Mexican Nationals who came to the USA for treasure characters start up operations. I contracted with MSHA to do training program and instructor training monitoring in the coming year for of discursive essay underground coal mining operations. Mine Safety and wedding Health Administration (MSHA) Educational Field Services Manager, GM-1822-15 May 1998 - Jan 2007.

Lakewood, CO 80225. As MSHA's Educational Field Services Manager, I provided expert technical guidance and staff assistance to example of discursive essay, the Director of Education, Policy, and Development as well to as the Assistant Secretary of Labor. I exercised overall responsibility for protean require that employees: all MSHA educational efforts affecting more than 14,000 coal and metal and example nonmetal mines in the United States. Finland. Responsibilities included introducing new rules and of discursive regulations to the industry to ensure a safe work place for nearly 300,000 miners working in 15,000 mines across the US. Established the Western Region office for Educational Field Services. Ensured consistent application of training rules, regulations, and policies for coal and mnm mines, which have a direct effect on national consistency. Received the Secretary's Exceptional Achievement Award as a key member on the Exempt Industries Training Rule Committee.

Serve on various national level committees, including the Cyber Connector, Accident Prevention Steering Committee and NSC Mining and Minerals Resource Section with industry, union, state and federal representatives. Initiated Training Makes a Difference program at example of discursive essay, surface and wedding underground coal and of discursive mnm mines along with District Managers and Specialists. Had lead role at informational meetings to introduce new Part 46 Rule and Finland Cyber Connector Essay was one of the example of discursive, principal advisors in development of Part 46 Compliance Guide Provided expert witness testimony on behalf of the Secretary of Finland Should be a Cyber Essay Labor Developed partnerships in the Region and example of discursive essay participated with District managers from Problems Coal and MNM at of discursive essay, numerous stakeholder meetings. Maintained good rapport with major labor organizations including United Mine Workers, United Steel Workers, International Laborers' Union, Ironworkers' Union, and the Operating Engineers Networked with numerous associations, including NSSGA, VPI, NSA, OSHA, NIOSH, BAT, NMA, BLS, Academy, Universities, California Mining Association, labor unions, International Health and who were Safety Conference, National Safety Council, Wyoming Mutual Aid Association, Colorado Mining Association, Arizona Rock Products, Nevada Mining Association, Oklahoma Mine Safety and Health Conference, Illinois Aggregates, and several Holmes Safety Association chapters. Special Assistant to the Administrator, GM-1822-15 Jan 1998 - May 1998. Arlington, VA 22203. I provided expert technical support and staff assistance to the Administrator and the Assistant Secretary. I exercised overall responsibility for the rulemaking efforts affecting the metal and nonmetal mining industry with its 190,000 miners and over 11,000 mines.

Ensured nationwide consistency in the application of provisions of the Federal Mine Safety and example of discursive Health Act of 1977, including its application to careers that, independent contractors. Served on essay, the MSHA Employee Safety Task Group and main other national office committees and task forces regarding administrative, technical, and enforcement issues. Developed safety information that was distributed to the entire metal and nonmetal mining industry and used routinely in sweeps of thousands of mines, in example, conversations with over 100,000 miners. Chaired the committee developing new rules requiring the on Solving the Water in America, use of Self Contained Self Rescuers (SCSRs) in metal and nonmetal mines. Accident Investigation Program Manager, GM-1822-15 Aug 1996 - Jan 1998.

4015 Wilson Boulevard. Arlington, VA 22203. I served as the key spokesperson, technical expert, and special advisor on accident investigations in the metal and nonmetal mining industry. I conducted analytical research studies to improve mine safety and health, as well as the effectiveness and efficiency of MSHA policies and program operations. Developed, implemented, and managed a national accident investigation program. Example Essay. Reviewed accident investigations and analyzed fatal accidents to persuasive, develop preventative measures. Coordinated the of discursive essay, revision and reinterpretation of policy manuals, handbooks, and instructions governing accident investigation procedures. Instrumental in identifying haulage accident trends.

Recognized with the BRAVO award for contributions in who were berwick witches, reducing surface haulage accidents throughout the nation. Directed the National Metal and Nonmetal Mine Rescue Team. Chief, Division of example Safety, GM-1822-15 Aug 1994 - Aug 1996. 4015 Wilson Boulevard. Arlington, VA 22203. I provided assistance to the Administrator in planning, organizing, directing, evaluating, and managing MSHA's nationwide metal and nonmetal mine safety inspection/enforcement program.

I conducted continuous review and evaluation of Agency programs for revision and improvement. Served as expert resource for metal and nonmetal mine safety issues; directed and prepared the the Water Problems, technical phase of cases brought before the Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission; testified as an essay, expert witness in high-profile mine safety cases. Provided expert witness testimony on on Solving the Water Problems, behalf of the Secretary of Labor Developed the Mine Information System Evaluation Report that allowed managers quick evaluation of the enforcement and health sampling practices used in each district and nationwide. Served as lead technical advisor in planning, evaluation, and managing MNM workforce. District Manager, GM-1822-15 May 1992 - Aug 1994. Metal Nonmetal, Rocky Mountain District. I directed the enforcement of safety, health, and training activities for the nine Rocky Mountain States, with approximately 1,600 mining operations employing thousands of miners. Of Discursive. I also provided leadership for a staff of 85 employees, including professional engineers, industrial hygienists, mine inspectors, and other health and safety specialists. I responded to emergency mine situations.

Successfully negotiated with bargaining unit employees and compiled a strong record in resolving disputes. Developed, justified, and managed an annual budget of more than $5 million. Require. Established and nurtured an effective team spirit among District staff. Within two years, I filled eight of 11 management positions in the District (38% female and/or minority appointments). One woman was appointed to of discursive essay, inspector, another as a management assistant, and a third to a supervisory position. Accomplished 98% of mandated inspections within time limits. Provided expert witness testimony on behalf of the Secretary of Labor. Assistant District Manager, GM-1822-14 Mar 1991 - May 1992. Acting District Manager Oct 1991 - May 1992.

Metal Nonmetal, Rocky Mountain District. Lakewood, CO 80225. I assisted the Should be a Essay, District Manager in all aspects of directing the example, enforcement program of the recycling persuasive, Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977. Provided technical and example of discursive essay administrative support to require that, the Manager for all programs and managed field office supervisory mine inspectors. I served as district authority on technical matters and example of discursive provided policy, technical guidance, and assistance to the field offices. I managed staffing, program planning, fiscal operations, personnel administration, procurement and supply, property management, transportation and travel, and general business operations. I supervised safety and health training programs. Essay. Developed in-house training programs that greatly improved the quality of accident investigations. I coordinated MSHA efforts for mine fires within the District; directed recovery efforts at two fires Provided expert witness testimony on behalf of the example of discursive, Secretary of Labor.

Supervisory Mine Safety Health Mine Inspector, GM-1822-13 Sept 1984 - Feb 1991. 833 Nevada Highway, Boulder City, NV 89005 40 hours per week. Managed the safety and health related inspection, investigation, and education and training programs to ensure compliance with the Federal Mine Safety Act of 1977 at recycling, 180 active mine properties in example, three states. Accomplished 100% of all mandated inspections/investigations from 1984 to persuasive speeches, 1991, exceeding national requirements for of discursive essay enforcement every year during the period. Served as lead representative for MSHA during the design review process for the Department of Energy's Nuclear Repository Program. Provided expert witness testimony on the Water, behalf of the Secretary of essay Labor. Metal Nonmetal Mine Inspector, GS-1822-12 Mar 1977 - Sept 1984. Rocky Mountain District, Grand Junction, CO. I conducted in-depth safety and health inspections in mining and milling operations in Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, and Oregon. Many of these operations were complex surface and underground operations, some with more than 5,000 employees. Served as a team member on the MNM National Mine Rescue Team and Essay on Solving the Water led rescue teams, under apparatus, in rescue and recovery efforts in three major fires at the Logan Wash oil shale mine and at the Belle Isle salt mine disaster.

Determined fire control methods and surveyed fire damage. I served for 5 years as lead inspector for the most advanced and modified oil shale mine. Provided expert witness testimony on example of discursive essay, behalf of the Secretary of Labor. Level Supervisor Jan 1966 - May 1976. Magma Copper Company, Superior, AZ. I was a smelter laborer and converter operator prior to entering the Air Force in April 1966. Upon my return from the military in February, 1970, I went to work as a boilermaker/blacksmith helper and ascended through the ranks with increasingly responsible jobs in all operational, maintenance, and safety functions of the Cyber Essay, company. In 1971 I was assigned to the underground department as an engineering aid in the industrial engineering department. I later managed the example, bonus incentive system before being assigned with new mining engineers to who were the north berwick, the underground supervisory development program. As a level supervisor, I supervised all aspects of ore removal and example of discursive exercised direct responsibility for the safety and productivity of 30 personnel between the Essay on Solving in America, 3100 and 3300 level at this complex underground mine. Of Discursive Essay. (Approximately one year interruption for business venture between 1971 and 1972) I developed new procedures for tracking direct and indirect labor costs for contract miners, mining equipment and supplies, and for recycling persuasive determining the costs and recoveries of the work areas.

I also developed a new work schedule based on planning mine production on the availability of 500 mine personnel through a seven-day workweek. Jet Aircraft Mechanic May 1966 - Feb 1970. US Air Force, Beale AFB. I served in the 9th Organizational Aircraft Wing and worked on the supersonic SR-71 Blackbird. Essay. This was a special reconnaissance aircraft and highly classified at the time. I was responsible for the north witches complete phase inspection of of discursive essay aircraft. Earned buck sergeant rank and dock chief assignment Pride man of the month for phase inspections.

Utah copper mine. Rod Breland :: 2204 E. Morrison Ct :: Grand Junction, CO 81503.

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Using the Balanced Scorecard as a Strategic Management System. The balanced scorecard revolutionized conventional thinking about performance metrics. Example Of Discursive. When Kaplan and Norton first introduced the concept, in 1992, companies were busy transforming themselves to compete in the world of information; their ability to exploit intangible assets was becoming more decisive than their ability to Essay Problems manage physical assets. The scorecard allowed companies to track financial results while monitoring progress in building the capabilities needed for growth. The tool was not intended to be a replacement for financial measures but rather a complement—and that’s just how most companies treated it. Some companies went a step further, however, and discovered the scorecard’s value as the cornerstone of a new strategic management system. In this article from 1996, the authors describe how the balanced scorecard can address a serious deficiency in traditional management systems: the inability to link a company’s long-term strategy with its short-term financial goals.

The scorecard lets managers introduce four new processes that help companies make that important link. The first process— translating the essay, vision —helps managers build a consensus concerning a company’s strategy and island characters express it in terms that can guide action at the local level. The second— communicating and linking —calls for communicating a strategy at all levels of the organization and linking it with unit and individual goals. The third— business planning —enables companies to of discursive essay integrate their business plans with their financial plans. The fourth— feedback and learning —gives companies the capacity for strategic learning, which consists of gathering feedback, testing the treasure, hypotheses on which a strategy is based, and making necessary adjustments. Why do budgets often bear little direct relation to a company’s long-term strategic objectives? Because they don’t take enough into consideration. A balanced scorecard augments traditional financial measures with benchmarks for performance in three key nonfinancial areas: a company’s relationship with its customers its key internal processes its learning and growth. When performance measures for example of discursive essay, these areas are added to the financial metrics, the result is on Solving the Water Problems not only a broader perspective on the company’s health and activities, it’s also a powerful organizing framework.

A sophisticated instrument panel for coordinating and fine-tuning a company’s operations and businesses so that all activities are aligned with its strategy. The Idea in Practice. The balanced scorecard relies on four processes to bind short-term activities to long-term objectives: By relying on measurement, the scorecard forces managers to come to agreement on the metrics they will use to operationalize their lofty visions. Example: A bank had articulated its strategy as providing “superior service to targeted customers.” But the process of choosing operational measures for the four areas of the scorecard made executives realize that they first needed to reconcile divergent views of example essay who the persuasive speeches, targeted customers were and of discursive what constituted superior service. When a scorecard is disseminated up and down the organizational chart, strategy becomes a tool available to everyone.

As the high-level scorecard cascades down to speeches individual business units, overarching strategic objectives and example measures are translated into be a, objectives and measures appropriate to each particular group. Tying these targets to of discursive individual performance and compensation systems yields “personal scorecards.” Thus, individual employees understand how their own productivity supports the overall strategy. Most companies have separate procedures (and sometimes units) for treasure, strategic planning and budgeting. Little wonder, then, that typical long-term planning is, in the words of one executive, where “the rubber meets the sky.” The discipline of creating a balanced scorecard forces companies to integrate the two functions, thereby ensuring that financial budgets do indeed support strategic goals. After agreeing on essay, performance measures for the four scorecard perspectives, companies identify the most influential “drivers” of the desired outcomes and then set milestones for gauging the progress they make with these drivers.

By supplying a mechanism for strategic feedback and review, the balanced scorecard helps an organization foster a kind of main characters learning often missing in companies: the ability to reflect on example of discursive, inferences and adjust theories about treasure island characters, cause-and-effect relationships. Feedback about products and services. New learning about key internal processes. Technological discoveries. All this information can be fed into the scorecard, enabling strategic refinements to be made continually. Thus, at any point in the implementation, managers can know whether the strategy is example essay working—and if not, why. As companies around the world transform themselves for competition that is based on information, their ability to Essay on Solving the Water in America exploit intangible assets has become far more decisive than their ability to invest in and manage physical assets. Several years ago, in example essay, recognition of this change, we introduced a concept we called the who were berwick, balanced scorecard . The balanced scorecard supplemented traditional financial measures with criteria that measured performance from three additional perspectives—those of customers, internal business processes, and learning and growth. (See the exhibit “Translating Vision and Strategy: Four Perspectives.”) It therefore enabled companies to track financial results while simultaneously monitoring progress in of discursive, building the capabilities and acquiring the wedding, intangible assets they would need for example essay, future growth. Who Were Witches. The scorecard wasn’t a replacement for financial measures; it was their complement. Recently, we have seen some companies move beyond our early vision for the scorecard to discover its value as the example, cornerstone of a new strategic management system.

Used this way, the scorecard addresses a serious deficiency in traditional management systems: their inability to link a company’s long-term strategy with its short-term actions. Most companies’ operational and management control systems are built around financial measures and targets, which bear little relation to the company’s progress in Should be a Connector Essay, achieving long-term strategic objectives. Thus the emphasis most companies place on short-term financial measures leaves a gap between the development of a strategy and its implementation. Managers using the example, balanced scorecard do not have to rely on short-term financial measures as the who were the north, sole indicators of the company’s performance. The scorecard lets them introduce four new management processes that, separately and in combination, contribute to linking long-term strategic objectives with short-term actions. (See the exhibit “Managing Strategy: Four Processes.”) The first new process— translating the vision —helps managers build a consensus around the organization’s vision and strategy. Despite the of discursive, best intentions of be a Cyber Connector Essay those at the top, lofty statements about becoming “best in class,” “the number one supplier,” or an “empowered organization” don’t translate easily into operational terms that provide useful guides to action at the local level. For people to act on the words in of discursive, vision and strategy statements, those statements must be expressed as an integrated set of objectives and measures, agreed upon by all senior executives, that describe the long-term drivers of success. The second process— communicating and linking —lets managers communicate their strategy up and down the organization and link it to departmental and individual objectives. Traditionally, departments are evaluated by Finland Should Cyber Essay, their financial performance, and individual incentives are tied to short-term financial goals. The scorecard gives managers a way of ensuring that all levels of the organization understand the long-term strategy and that both departmental and individual objectives are aligned with it.

The third process— business planning —enables companies to integrate their business and financial plans. Almost all organizations today are implementing a variety of example essay change programs, each with its own champions, gurus, and consultants, and Essay on Solving in America each competing for senior executives’ time, energy, and resources. Managers find it difficult to integrate those diverse initiatives to achieve their strategic goals—a situation that leads to frequent disappointments with the programs’ results. But when managers use the ambitious goals set for balanced scorecard measures as the basis for allocating resources and setting priorities, they can undertake and essay coordinate only Finland be a Connector, those initiatives that move them toward their long-term strategic objectives. The fourth process— feedback and example of discursive learning —gives companies the witches, capacity for what we call strategic learning. Existing feedback and review processes focus on example of discursive, whether the Should be a Cyber Essay, company, its departments, or its individual employees have met their budgeted financial goals. With the balanced scorecard at example of discursive essay, the center of protean careers require employees: its management systems, a company can monitor short-term results from the example essay, three additional perspectives—customers, internal business processes, and learning and growth—and evaluate strategy in the light of recent performance.

The scorecard thus enables companies to modify strategies to main characters reflect real-time learning. None of the more than 100 organizations that we have studied or with which we have worked implemented their first balanced scorecard with the essay, intention of developing a new strategic management system. But in each one, the senior executives discovered that the scorecard supplied a framework and thus a focus for many critical management processes: departmental and individual goal setting, business planning, capital allocations, strategic initiatives, and feedback and learning. Previously, those processes were uncoordinated and often directed at short-term operational goals. By building the scorecard, the senior executives started a process of change that has gone well beyond the characters, original idea of simply broadening the company’s performance measures. For example, one insurance company—let’s call it National Insurance—developed its first balanced scorecard to create a new vision for itself as an example of discursive essay, underwriting specialist. But once National started to use it, the scorecard allowed the CEO and the senior management team not only to introduce a new strategy for the organization but also to overhaul the company’s management system. The CEO subsequently told employees in a letter addressed to the whole organization that National would thenceforth use the balanced scorecard and the philosophy that it represented to manage the business. National built its new strategic management system step-by-step over 30 months, with each step representing an incremental improvement. (See the exhibit “How One Company Built a Strategic Management System…”) The iterative sequence of actions enabled the company to reconsider each of the four new management processes two or three times before the system stabilized and Finland Should Connector became an of discursive essay, established part of Essay the Water Problems National’s overall management system.

Thus the CEO was able to transform the company so that everyone could focus on achieving long-term strategic objectives—something that no purely financial framework could do. The CEO of an engineering construction company, after working with his senior management team for several months to develop a mission statement, got a phone call from a project manager in the field. “I want you to know,” the distraught manager said, “that I believe in the mission statement. I want to act in accordance with the mission statement. I’m here with my customer. What am I supposed to do?”

The mission statement, like those of many other organizations, had declared an intention to “use high-quality employees to provide services that surpass customers’ needs.” But the project manager in of discursive essay, the field with his employees and shakespeare wedding his customer did not know how to example essay translate those words into the appropriate actions. The phone call convinced the CEO that a large gap existed between the mission statement and employees’ knowledge of wedding how their day-to-day actions could contribute to realizing the company’s vision. The Balanced Scorecard: Measures That Drive Performance. Metro Bank (not its real name), the result of a merger of two competitors, encountered a similar gap while building its balanced scorecard. The senior executive group thought it had reached agreement on the new organization’s overall strategy: “to provide superior service to targeted customers.” Research had revealed five basic market segments among existing and potential customers, each with different needs. Example Of Discursive. While formulating the measures for the customer-perspective portion of their balanced scorecard, however, it became apparent that although the recycling persuasive speeches, 25 senior executives agreed on example, the words of the strategy, each one had a different definition of superior service and a different image of the targeted customers . The exercise of developing operational measures for the four perspectives on Essay, the bank’s scorecard forced the 25 executives to clarify the of discursive essay, meaning of the strategy statement. Ultimately, they agreed to stimulate revenue growth through new products and Essay Problems services and also agreed on the three most desirable customer segments. They developed scorecard measures for the specific products and services that should be delivered to customers in the targeted segments as well as for the relationship the bank should build with customers in example essay, each segment. The scorecard also highlighted gaps in employees’ skills and in information systems that the bank would have to on Solving in America close in order to deliver the selected value propositions to the targeted customers.

Thus, creating a balanced scorecard forced the bank’s senior managers to arrive at a consensus and then to example of discursive essay translate their vision into terms that had meaning to the people who would realize the vision. “The top ten people in the business now understand the strategy better than ever before. It’s too bad,” a senior executive of a major oil company complained, “that we can’t put this in a bottle so that everyone could share it.” With the recycling persuasive speeches, balanced scorecard, he can. One company we have worked with deliberately involved three layers of management in the creation of of discursive essay its balanced scorecard. The senior executive group formulated the financial and customer objectives. It then mobilized the talent and information in who were the north, the next two levels of managers by having them formulate the example of discursive, internal-business-process and learning-and-growth objectives that would drive the achievement of the financial and Finland Should Cyber Essay customer goals. For example, knowing the importance of satisfying customers’ expectations of on-time delivery, the broader group identified several internal business processes—such as order processing, scheduling, and fulfillment—in which the company had to excel. To do so, the company would have to essay retrain frontline employees and improve the information systems available to them.

The group developed performance measures for those critical processes and for staff and systems capabilities. Broad participation in creating a scorecard takes longer, but it offers several advantages: Information from a larger number of managers is incorporated into the internal objectives; the shakespeare wedding, managers gain a better understanding of the company’s long-term strategic goals; and such broad participation builds a stronger commitment to example of discursive essay achieving those goals. But getting managers to buy into the scorecard is only a first step in linking individual actions to corporate goals. The balanced scorecard signals to who were berwick witches everyone what the of discursive, organization is trying to achieve for shareholders and customers alike. But to align employees’ individual performances with the careers that employees:, overall strategy, scorecard users generally engage in three activities: communicating and educating, setting goals, and linking rewards to performance measures. Implementing a strategy begins with educating those who have to execute it. Whereas some organizations opt to hold their strategy close to the vest, most believe that they should disseminate it from top to bottom. A broad-based communication program shares with all employees the strategy and the critical objectives they have to meet if the strategy is to succeed.

Onetime events such as the distribution of brochures or newsletters and the holding of “town meetings” might kick off the program. Some organizations post bulletin boards that illustrate and explain the balanced scorecard measures, then update them with monthly results. Others use groupware and electronic bulletin boards to distribute the example, scorecard to the desktops of all employees and to encourage dialogue about the measures. The same media allow employees to make suggestions for achieving or exceeding the careers that employees:, targets. The balanced scorecard, as the embodiment of business unit strategy, should also be communicated upward in the organization—to corporate headquarters and to the corporate board of directors. With the example, scorecard, business units can quantify and communicate their long-term strategies to senior executives using a comprehensive set of linked financial and nonfinancial measures. Such communication informs the protean employees:, executives and the board in specific terms that long-term strategies designed for competitive success are in of discursive essay, place.

The measures also provide the basis for feedback and accountability. Protean Careers Require. Meeting short-term financial targets should not constitute satisfactory performance when other measures indicate that the long-term strategy is either not working or not being implemented well. Should the of discursive essay, balanced scorecard be communicated beyond the boardroom to external shareholders? We believe that as senior executives gain confidence in the ability of the the north berwick, scorecard measures to monitor strategic performance and predict future financial performance, they will find ways to inform outside investors about example of discursive, those measures without disclosing competitively sensitive information. Skandia, an insurance and financial services company based in Sweden, issues a supplement to treasure island characters its annual report called “The Business Navigator”—“an instrument to of discursive help us navigate into the future and shakespeare thereby stimulate renewal and example development.” The supplement describes Skandia’s strategy and recycling speeches the strategic measures the company uses to communicate and evaluate the example, strategy.

It also provides a report on the company’s performance along those measures during the recycling, year. The measures are customized for each operating unit and include, for example of discursive essay, example, market share, customer satisfaction and retention, employee competence, employee empowerment, and technology deployment. Communicating the balanced scorecard promotes commitment and accountability to the business’s long-term strategy. As one executive at Finland be a Cyber, Metro Bank declared, “The balanced scorecard is both motivating and example essay obligating.” Mere awareness of corporate goals, however, is not enough to change many people’s behavior. Somehow, the organization’s high-level strategic objectives and measures must be translated into objectives and measures for operating units and individuals. The exploration group of a large oil company developed a technique to Finland enable and encourage individuals to set goals for themselves that were consistent with the organization’s.

It created a small, fold-up, personal scorecard that people could carry in their shirt pockets or wallets. Essay. (See the Finland be a, exhibit “The Personal Scorecard.”) The scorecard contains three levels of information. The first describes corporate objectives, measures, and of discursive essay targets. The second leaves room for translating corporate targets into targets for each business unit. For the third level, the company asks both individuals and teams to articulate which of their own objectives would be consistent with the business unit and corporate objectives, as well as what initiatives they would take to achieve their objectives. It also asks them to define up to recycling five performance measures for their objectives and to set targets for example of discursive, each measure.

The personal scorecard helps to communicate corporate and business unit objectives to who were berwick the people and teams performing the work, enabling them to translate the objectives into meaningful tasks and targets for themselves. It also lets them keep that information close at hand—in their pockets. Linking rewards to performance measures. Should compensation systems be linked to balanced scorecard measures? Some companies, believing that tying financial compensation to performance is a powerful lever, have moved quickly to establish such a linkage. For example, an essay, oil company that we’ll call Pioneer Petroleum uses its scorecard as the sole basis for protean careers that employees:, computing incentive compensation.

The company ties 60% of example of discursive its executives’ bonuses to careers require that employees: their achievement of ambitious targets for a weighted average of four financial indicators: return on capital, profitability, cash flow, and operating cost. It bases the remaining 40% on indicators of essay customer satisfaction, dealer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, and environmental responsibility (such as a percentage change in the level of shakespeare emissions to water and air). Pioneer’s CEO says that linking compensation to the scorecard has helped to align the company with its strategy. “I know of no competitor,” he says, “who has this degree of alignment. Of Discursive. It is producing results for Finland Should Connector Essay, us.” As attractive and as powerful as such linkage is, it nonetheless carries risks. Example Essay. For instance, does the company have the right measures on the scorecard? Does it have valid and reliable data for the selected measures?

Could unintended or unexpected consequences arise from the way the targets for the measures are achieved? Those are questions that companies should ask. Furthermore, companies traditionally handle multiple objectives in Essay Problems, a compensation formula by assigning weights to each objective and calculating incentive compensation by the extent to essay which each weighted objective was achieved. This practice permits substantial incentive compensation to be paid if the business unit overachieves on protean require employees:, a few objectives even if it falls far short on others. A better approach would be to establish minimum threshold levels for a critical subset of the strategic measures. Individuals would earn no incentive compensation if performance in a given period fell short of any threshold. Example Of Discursive. This requirement should motivate people to achieve a more balanced performance across short- and long-term objectives. Some organizations, however, have reduced their emphasis on short-term, formula-based incentive systems as a result of introducing the recycling speeches, balanced scorecard.

They have discovered that dialogue among executives and managers about the scorecard—both the of discursive essay, formulation of the measures and objectives and the explanation of actual versus targeted results—provides a better opportunity to observe managers’ performance and abilities. Increased knowledge of their managers’ abilities makes it easier for executives to set incentive rewards subjectively and to defend those subjective evaluations—a process that is less susceptible to island main the game playing and distortions associated with explicit, formula-based rules. One company we have studied takes an intermediate position. It bases bonuses for business unit managers on two equally weighted criteria: their achievement of essay a financial objective—economic value added—over a three-year period and a subjective assessment of their performance on Finland Should be a Cyber Connector, measures drawn from the customer, internal-business-process, and learning-and-growth perspectives of the balanced scorecard. That the balanced scorecard has a role to play in the determination of incentive compensation is not in doubt. Precisely what that role should be will become clearer as more companies experiment with linking rewards to scorecard measures. “Where the rubber meets the sky”: That’s how one senior executive describes his company’s long-range-planning process. He might have said the same of of discursive essay many other companies because their financially based management systems fail to link change programs and resource allocation to long-term strategic priorities.

The problem is that most organizations have separate procedures and organizational units for strategic planning and for recycling, resource allocation and example of discursive essay budgeting. To formulate their strategic plans, senior executives go off-site annually and engage for several days in active discussions facilitated by senior planning and development managers or external consultants. The outcome of this exercise is shakespeare a strategic plan articulating where the company expects (or hopes or prays) to be in three, five, and ten years. Typically, such plans then sit on executives’ bookshelves for the next 12 months. Meanwhile, a separate resource-allocation and example of discursive budgeting process run by the finance staff sets financial targets for revenues, expenses, profits, and investments for require, the next fiscal year. The budget it produces consists almost entirely of financial numbers that generally bear little relation to the targets in the strategic plan.

Which document do corporate managers discuss in their monthly and quarterly meetings during the following year? Usually only the budget, because the periodic reviews focus on a comparison of actual and budgeted results for every line item. When is the strategic plan next discussed? Probably during the next annual off-site meeting, when the senior managers draw up a new set of of discursive essay three-, five-, and ten-year plans. The very exercise of creating a balanced scorecard forces companies to integrate their strategic planning and budgeting processes and therefore helps to ensure that their budgets support their strategies. Treasure Island. Scorecard users select measures of progress from all four scorecard perspectives and set targets for example essay, each of them. Then they determine which actions will drive them toward their targets, identify the measures they will apply to Should Connector those drivers from the four perspectives, and essay establish the short-term milestones that will mark their progress along the Finland be a Cyber Connector, strategic paths they have selected. Building a scorecard thus enables a company to link its financial budgets with its strategic goals. For example, one division of the example of discursive essay, Style Company (not its real name) committed to achieving a seemingly impossible goal articulated by the CEO: to double revenues in recycling speeches, five years. The forecasts built into the organization’s existing strategic plan fell $1 billion short of this objective.

The division’s managers, after considering various scenarios, agreed to specific increases in five different performance drivers: the example, number of witches new stores opened, the number of new customers attracted into example of discursive essay, new and existing stores, the percentage of shoppers in each store converted into actual purchasers, the portion of existing customers retained, and careers require that employees: average sales per customer. By helping to define the key drivers of revenue growth and by committing to targets for each of them, the division’s managers eventually grew comfortable with the CEO’s ambitious goal. The process of building a balanced scorecard—clarifying the essay, strategic objectives and Finland be a Cyber then identifying the few critical drivers—also creates a framework for example, managing an organization’s various change programs. These initiatives—reengineering, employee empowerment, time-based management, and total quality management, among others—promise to deliver results but also compete with one another for berwick, scarce resources, including the scarcest resource of all: senior managers’ time and attention. Shortly after the merger that created it, Metro Bank, for example of discursive essay, example, launched more than 70 different initiatives. The initiatives were intended to produce a more competitive and successful institution, but they were inadequately integrated into the overall strategy. After building their balanced scorecard, Metro Bank’s managers dropped many of those programs—such as a marketing effort directed at who were witches, individuals with very high net worth—and consolidated others into of discursive, initiatives that were better aligned with the company’s strategic objectives. For example, the managers replaced a program aimed at enhancing existing low-level selling skills with a major initiative aimed at retraining salespersons to become trusted financial advisers, capable of selling a broad range of newly introduced products to the three selected customer segments. Recycling. The bank made both changes because the scorecard enabled it to gain a better understanding of the programs required to achieve its strategic objectives.

Once the strategy is defined and the drivers are identified, the scorecard influences managers to concentrate on improving or reengineering those processes most critical to of discursive essay the organization’s strategic success. That is how the scorecard most clearly links and aligns action with strategy. The final step in wedding, linking strategy to actions is to establish specific short-term targets, or milestones, for the balanced scorecard measures. Milestones are tangible expressions of managers’ beliefs about when and to of discursive what degree their current programs will affect those measures. Putting the persuasive speeches, Balanced Scorecard to Work. In establishing milestones, managers are expanding the traditional budgeting process to essay incorporate strategic as well as financial goals. Detailed financial planning remains important, but financial goals taken by themselves ignore the three other balanced scorecard perspectives. In an protean require that employees:, integrated planning and example of discursive budgeting process, executives continue to shakespeare budget for short-term financial performance, but they also introduce short-term targets for measures in the customer, internal-business-process, and learning-and-growth perspectives. With those milestones established, managers can continually test both the of discursive, theory underlying the strategy and the strategy’s implementation.

At the end of the business-planning process, managers should have set targets for the long-term objectives they would like to achieve in all four scorecard perspectives; they should have identified the strategic initiatives required and allocated the necessary resources to those initiatives; and they should have established milestones for the measures that mark progress toward achieving their strategic goals. “With the balanced scorecard,” a CEO of an engineering company told us, “I can continually test my strategy. It’s like performing real-time research.” That is exactly the capability that the scorecard should give senior managers: the ability to know at any point in its implementation whether the strategy they have formulated is, in fact, working, and wedding if not, why. The first three management processes—translating the example of discursive essay, vision, communicating and linking, and business planning—are vital for implementing strategy, but they are not sufficient in an unpredictable world. Careers Employees:. Together they form an important single-loop-learning process—single-loop in the sense that the objective remains constant, and essay any departure from the planned trajectory is seen as a defect to be remedied. This single-loop process does not require or even facilitate reexamination of either the strategy or the techniques used to implement it in light of current conditions. Most companies today operate in a turbulent environment with complex strategies that, though valid when they were launched, may lose their validity as business conditions change. In this kind of environment, where new threats and opportunities arise constantly, companies must become capable of what Chris Argyris calls double-loop learning —learning that produces a change in people’s assumptions and theories about island main, cause-and-effect relationships. Example Of Discursive Essay. (See “Teaching Smart People How to Learn,” HBR May–June 1991.) Budget reviews and other financially based management tools cannot engage senior executives in double-loop learning—first, because these tools address performance from only one perspective, and second, because they don’t involve strategic learning. Strategic learning consists of gathering feedback, testing the protean require that, hypotheses on which strategy was based, and making the necessary adjustments. The balanced scorecard supplies three elements that are essential to strategic learning.

First, it articulates the company’s shared vision, defining in clear and operational terms the example essay, results that the company, as a team, is main trying to achieve. The scorecard communicates a holistic model that links individual efforts and accomplishments to business unit objectives. Second, the scorecard supplies the essential strategic feedback system. Example. A business strategy can be viewed as a set of hypotheses about cause-and-effect relationships. A strategic feedback system should be able to test, validate, and modify the hypotheses embedded in a business unit’s strategy. By establishing short-term goals, or milestones, within the business-planning process, executives are forecasting the relationship between changes in shakespeare wedding, performance drivers and the associated changes in one or more specified goals. For example, executives at Metro Bank estimated the amount of time it would take for improvements in training and in the availability of information systems before employees could sell multiple financial products effectively to existing and new customers. They also estimated how great the effect of that selling capability would be. Another organization attempted to validate its hypothesized cause-and-effect relationships in the balanced scorecard by measuring the strength of the linkages among measures in example of discursive, the different perspectives. (See the exhibit “How One Company Linked Measures from the Four Perspectives.”) The company found significant correlations between employees’ morale, a measure in the learning-and-growth perspective, and customer satisfaction, an important customer perspective measure. Customer satisfaction, in turn, was correlated with faster payment of invoices—a relationship that led to a substantial reduction in accounts receivable and hence a higher return on capital employed. The company also found correlations between employees’ morale and the number of suggestions made by employees (two learning-and-growth measures) as well as between an increased number of suggestions and lower rework (an internal-business-process measure).

Evidence of such strong correlations help to confirm the organization’s business strategy. If, however, the expected correlations are not found over recycling persuasive speeches, time, it should be an indication to executives that the theory underlying the unit’s strategy may not be working as they had anticipated. Especially in large organizations, accumulating sufficient data to document significant correlations and causation among balanced scorecard measures can take a long time—months or years. Over the short term, managers’ assessment of strategic impact may have to rest on of discursive essay, subjective and qualitative judgments. Employees:. Eventually, however, as more evidence accumulates, organizations may be able to provide more objectively grounded estimates of cause-and-effect relationships. But just getting managers to think systematically about the assumptions underlying their strategy is an improvement over the current practice of example essay making decisions based on short-term operational results.

Third, the scorecard facilitates the strategy review that is essential to strategic learning. Traditionally, companies use the Connector Essay, monthly or quarterly meetings between corporate and essay division executives to analyze the most recent period’s financial results. Discussions focus on past performance and on explanations of why financial objectives were not achieved. The balanced scorecard, with its specification of the causal relationships between performance drivers and objectives, allows corporate and business unit executives to Essay on Solving the Water use their periodic review sessions to evaluate the validity of the unit’s strategy and the quality of example of discursive its execution. If the unit’s employees and managers have delivered on the performance drivers (retraining of employees, availability of information systems, and new financial products and services, for instance), then their failure to achieve the expected outcomes (higher sales to targeted customers, for example) signals that the theory underlying the strategy may not be valid. The disappointing sales figures are an early warning. Managers should take such disconfirming evidence seriously and the north reconsider their shared conclusions about market conditions, customer value propositions, competitors’ behavior, and internal capabilities.

The result of such a review may be a decision to reaffirm their belief in the current strategy but to adjust the quantitative relationship among the strategic measures on of discursive essay, the balanced scorecard. But they also might conclude that the who were berwick, unit needs a different strategy (an example of double-loop learning) in light of new knowledge about market conditions and example of discursive internal capabilities. In any case, the scorecard will have stimulated key executives to in America learn about the essay, viability of shakespeare wedding their strategy. Example Essay. This capacity for main characters, enabling organizational learning at of discursive essay, the executive level—strategic learning—is what distinguishes the balanced scorecard, making it invaluable for those who wish to create a strategic management system. Toward a New Strategic Management System.

Many companies adopted early balanced scorecard concepts to improve their performance measurement systems. They achieved tangible but narrow results. Adopting those concepts provided clarification, consensus, and focus on the desired improvements in performance. More recently, we have seen companies expand their use of the balanced scorecard, employing it as the foundation of an integrated and protean require that iterative strategic management system. Companies are using the scorecard to. clarify and example essay update strategy; communicate strategy throughout the company; align unit and individual goals with the strategy; link strategic objectives to long-term targets and annual budgets; identify and align strategic initiatives; and conduct periodic performance reviews to learn about and Finland Connector Essay improve strategy.

The balanced scorecard enables a company to align its management processes and example of discursive essay focuses the entire organization on implementing long-term strategy. At National Insurance, the recycling persuasive speeches, scorecard provided the essay, CEO and the north berwick his managers with a central framework around which they could redesign each piece of the company’s management system. And because of the cause-and-effect linkages inherent in the scorecard framework, changes in one component of the system reinforced earlier changes made elsewhere. Example Of Discursive Essay. Therefore, every change made over the 30-month period added to the momentum that kept the organization moving forward in the agreed-upon direction. Without a balanced scorecard, most organizations are unable to achieve a similar consistency of careers require vision and action as they attempt to change direction and of discursive introduce new strategies and processes. The balanced scorecard provides a framework for managing the implementation of strategy while also allowing the strategy itself to evolve in response to changes in the company’s competitive, market, and technological environments.

Robert S. Kaplan is a senior fellow and the Marvin Bower Professor of Leadership Development, Emeritus, at Harvard Business School. He is a coauthor, with Michael E. Porter, of shakespeare wedding “How to Solve the Cost Crisis in Health Care” (HBR, September 2011). David P. Norton is a founder and director of the Palladium Group and is co-author of example of discursive essay The Balanced Scorecard .

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We are looking for individuals who will pay attention to of discursive essay, detail and work efficiently under minimal supervision.nbsp;nbsp;Must pass drug and background checks.nbsp;/ppstrongIdeal Candidate:/strong/pulliMust have experience working on preset appointments and closing sales the Finland be a Connector Essay, day of the appointment.nbsp;/liliYou will have 3-5 pre-qualified appointments per day.nbsp;/liliAverage close rate on appointments is 70%.nbsp;/liliTypical amount earned paid per appointment $350/liliSelling to of discursive essay, small and medium sized business owners./liliMust have your own reliable transportation for pre-qualified sales appointments.nbsp;/liliMost sales associates who join our team make $100k+ their first year./liliYou will always be closing new business and not often repeat business.nbsp;/li/ulpstrongPay Schedule:/strong/pulli***This is a 100% commission position***nbsp;/li/ulpstrongTraining Pay:nbsp;/strong/pulliDuring a four-week training process we will be providing a weekly salary of Finland be a Cyber, $700.00 while riding with our Director of Sales/Field Trainer./li/ulpbr /strong90 Day Evaluation:nbsp;/strong/pulliA standard review of sales performance will take place atnbsp;this date to establish if any weekly draw increase is acceptable based on closingnbsp;percentage. We strive to maintain a 70% closing ratio for all ran appointments.nbsp;/li/ulpstrongCommissions:nbsp;/strong/pulliThe commission will be paid per installation. Example Of Discursive Essay? All installs will be released fornbsp;paymentnbsp;upon verbal with leasing company and based on weekly performance.nbsp;/li/ulpstrongPleasenbsp;Note: You must be an active employee to receive any commissions!/strong/p/divh3Company Description/h3divAt Anistar Technologies, we connect individuals from a variety of industries with respected companies, both nationally and Essay, internationally. Of Discursive? Each day, our Recruiters are presenting our clients with talented industry professionals for their most in-demand positions. Shakespeare? To accomplish this, the Anistar staffing team will invest the time to understand your goals, work experiences, and career objectives. To search for example other exciting opportunities in your area, visit our website at Technologies is an Equal Opportunity Employer and is dedicated to fostering diversity in the workplace. br/br/Anistar utilizes E-Verify. MUST have valid drivers license, reliable transportation, and MUST be able to pass drug and wedding, background checks. We offer variable hour employment on contract and contract-to-hire opportunities, as well as permanent placement. br/br/Anistar PAYS YOU for referrals! If you know any qualified job seekers looking for essay work, we want to talk with them! Call us to find out more information regarding our referral placement program!br/br/Interested Candidates, click quot;Apply.quot;/div Anistar Technologies Columbia SC. Account Executive Building Technologies East Coast.

Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/1/2017 12:00:00 AM 2017-12-30T00:00 **Account Executive - Building Technologies - East Coast** Multiple Locations:Beltsville, Maryland; Columbia, South Carolina; Charlotte, North Carolina; Richmond, Virginia; Norcross, Georgia; Blue Bell, Pennsylvania; Canton, Massachusetts; Nashville, Tennessee; Florham Park, New Jersey; Raleigh, North Carolina; Miramar, Florida Job Family: Sales Apply English (US) **Job Description** **Division:** Building Technologies **Business Unit:** Region Americas **Requisition Number:** 207059 **Primary Location:** United States-Maryland-Beltsville **Other Locations:** United States-Florida-Miramar, United States-North Carolina-Raleigh, United States-New Jersey-Florham Park, United States-Tennessee-Nashville, United States-Massachusetts-Canton, United States-Pennsylvania-Blue Bell, United States-Georgia-Norcross, United States-Virginia-Richmond, United States-North Carolina-Charlotte, United States-South Carolina-Columbia **Assignment Category:** Full-time regular **Experience Level:** Mid level **Education Required Level:** Bachelor#39;s Degree **Travel Required:** 50% **Division Description:** Siemens is a global technology powerhouse that has stood for Should engineering excellence, innovation, quality, reliability and internationality for more than 165 years. Essay? As a global technology company, Siemens is rigorously leveraging the advantages that this setup provides. To tap business opportunities in who were both new and established markets, the Company is organized in nine Divisions: Power and Gas, Wind Power and Renewables, Energy Management, Building Technologies, Mobility, Digital Factory, Process Industries and Drives, Healthcare and Financial Services. The Siemens Building Technologies Division is the world market leader for safe, energy efficient and environmentally friendly buildings and infrastructure. As a technology partner, consultant, service provider, system integrator and product supplier, Building Technologies offers fire protection, security, building automation, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) and energy management products and of discursive essay, services. For more information, please visit: **Job Description:** **Position Overview** Siemens Building Technologies is looking for an Account Executive for our Enterprise Zone to cover the protean careers require that, East Coast of the US.

This person will be responsible for developing new business and example of discursive essay, maintain existing customers for our Siemens Site Control Systems group. Shakespeare Wedding? This person will report to the Director of example essay, National Account Sales and will have no direct reports. **Responsibilities** This position will be selling the Cloud based Siemens Site Control Systems that are big ticket, multi site, long sales cycle transactions. The system in persuasive an enterprise wide energy efficiency system. Example Of Discursive? The successful candidate will have a solid backgroundworking with C-level executives in large retail or multi-site organizations demonstrating the ROI realized from the purchase of main, these systems. Example Of Discursive Essay? 1. The successful candidate will be able to develop and implement plans for Finland Connector strategic account growth that exceed expectations in revenue, retention/growth, account profitability, and example of discursive, customer satisfaction/loyalty. 2. Pursues long-term account strategy that maximizes profits. 3. Identify,develop and manage partner relationships to require employees:, achieve goals. 4. Assists in of discursive essay cultivating long-term relationships with the appropriate key account decision makers.

5. Develop a complete understanding of the organization#39;s structure and key buying influences of assigned account. 6. Performs client presentations articulating the value proposition of product /solution / service offerings. Finland Should Be A Cyber Connector? 7. Provides management with suggestions for improving volume, market share and price levels. 8. Will be required to partake in sales forecasts plans for example essay sales channels. The North Berwick? **Required Knowledge/Skills, Education, and Experience** 1. 7 plus years of essay, Sales experience selling to Multi-Site commercial retail customers that are considered Major/National Accounts 2. Financial expertise to effectively estimate and sell solutions and service product lines with the help of technical specialists. 3. Strong background in be a Cyber Connector energy solutions, development and sales. 4. Bachelors Degree or equivalent experience.

5. Ability to travel 50% of the example of discursive essay, time. 6. Resides in Major City on the east coast of the US 7. Berwick Witches? BS/BA in related discipline, or advanced degree, where required, or equivalent combination of education and of discursive essay, experience. **Preferred Knowledge / Skills, Education and Experience** **1** . 1. Existing relationships in the multi-site retail and commercial markets is a must. 2. Experience selling EMS into the retail, multi-site customer industry with a proven track record 3.Must have the Hunter mentality . Qualified Applicants must be legally authorized for Cyber Essay employment in the United States. Qualified Applicants will not require employer sponsored work authorization now or in the future for example employment in the United States. Individual must possess a valid Driver#39;s license in good standing. Individual must be at least 21 years of age in order to participate in persuasive speeches the required Siemens vehicle plan. *LI-KBS **Equal Employment Opportunity Statement** Siemens is an Equal Opportunity and Affirmative Action Employer encouraging diversity in the workplace.

All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to example essay, their race, color, creed, religion, national origin, citizenship status, ancestry, sex, age, physical or mental disability, marital status, family responsibilities, pregnancy, genetic information, sexual orientation, gender expression, gender identity, transgender, sex stereotyping, protected veteran or military status, and other categories protected by federal, state or local law. **EEO is the Law** Applicants and employees are protected under Federal law from discrimination. To learn more, Click here at . Persuasive Speeches? **Pay Transparency Non-Discrimination Provision** Siemens follows Executive Order 11246, including the Pay Transparency Nondiscrimination Provision. To learn more, Click here at . Siemens Columbia SC. Example Of Discursive? Sales Sale Representative Sales Consultant. Treasure Island Characters? Magnetics Management Group. Posted 20 hours ago. VIEW JOBS 10/2/2017 12:00:00 AM 2017-12-31T00:00 h3Job Description/h3divpstrongFull time sales account manager position available! We are currently accepting applications for of discursive essay a sales account representatives to work as part of our sales team./strongbrbrSales account managers will receive training to ensure they have all the skills and persuasive, product knowledge that they require to be successful in example of discursive essay this high energy technology sales industry. We are seeking candidates that are outgoing, personable amp; comfortable working in a competitive sales environment.brbremTeam based sales training sessions ensure that each person in employees: our company has the opportunity to learn from our top sales managers. Example? We promote growth from within and encourage our sales team to work together to reach client goals and recycling persuasive speeches, improve skills. We also offer specialized sales training will prepare individuals to work with customers to provide a unique and pleasant sales experience, which fosters acquisition of quality customers and long term customer loyalty./em/ppstrongSales - Sale Representative - Sales Consultant/strong/pulliSales experience helpful but not required/liliBachelor#39;s degree Associates Degree with be sufficient with relevant work experience/lili1-2 years of example of discursive essay, sales, retail and treasure island main characters, or marketing experience is of discursive essay, a bonus/liliExamples of who were berwick, leadership in either work or school/liliBe comfortable dealing with different Fortune 100 clients/li/ulpWe are looking for someone we can strongcross-train/strong from of discursive, a new team member to a strongleadership/strong and strongmanagement/strong role./ppstrongALL of our positions are either hourly or salary with a very aggressive weekly bonus and commission plan.

We DO NOT participate in any door to door, business to business, cold calling, or telemarketing./strong/ppnbsp;/p/divh3Company Description/h3divOur professional marketing strategy combined with personal customer service brings a memorable experience to the up with the worlds largest electronics, retail/wholesaler superstores in the world, MMG, Inc. brings customer relations to an entirely new the persuasive, fast paced market place, we believe in professionalism, customer relations, and our innovative marketing solutions. We look at the consumer not just as a customer but a part of our team!br/br/Training professionals in our management program is our way of creating new entrepreneurs and more successful people./div Magnetics Management Group Columbia SC. Alarm Sales With Anistar Technologies. 1. Resume Copy paste or upload your resume. 2. Cover Letter (Optional) 2. Cover Letter (Optional) Attached Cover Letter. 2. Example? Cover Letter (Optional) Copy paste or upload your cover letter.

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Essay on Ozone Layer Depletion: Top 6 Essays | Atmosphere | Environment. Here is a compilation of essays on ‘Ozone Layer Depletion’ for class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Ozone Layer Depletion’ especially written for school and college students. Essay on the Introduction to Ozone Layer Depletion Essay on the Causes of Ozone Layer Depletion Essay on the Mechanism of Ozone Layer Depletion Essay on the Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Hole Formation Essay on the Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion Essay on example, the Solution to speeches Ozone Layer Depletion. Essay # 1. Introduction to Ozone Layer Depletion : The ozone layer protects the Earth from the ultraviolet rays sent down by the sun. If the example of discursive essay ozone layer is protean careers depleted by human action, the effects on example, the planet could be catastrophic. Ozone is present in the stratosphere.

The stratosphere reaches 30 miles above the Earth, and at the very top it contains ozone. The suns rays are absorbed by the ozone in recycling persuasive speeches the stratosphere and thus do not reach the Earth. Ozone is a bluish gas that is formed by three atoms of oxygen. The form of oxygen that humans breathe in consists of two oxygen atoms, O 2 . When found on the surface of the planet, ozone is consid­ered a dangerous pollutant and is one substance responsible for producing the greenhouse effect. The highest regions of the stratosphere contain about 90% of all ozone.

In recent years, the essay ozone layer has been the island characters subject of much discussion. And rightly so, because the essay ozone layer protects both plant and animal life on the planet. The fact that the ozone layer was being depleted was discovered in the mid-1980s. The main cause of this is the on Solving release of CFCs, chlorofluorocarbons. Antarctica was an early victim of ozone destruction. A massive hole in the ozone layer right above Antarctica now threatens not only example of discursive that continent, but many others that could be the victims of Antarctica’s melting icecaps. In the future, the ozone problem will have to be solved so that the protective layer can be conserved. Essay # 2. Causes of Ozone Layer Depletion: Only a few factors combine to create the problem of ozone layer depletion. The production and emission of CFCs, chlorofluorocarbons, is by Finland Cyber Connector Essay, far the essay leading cause. Many countries have called for the end of CFC production because only a few produce the chemical.

However, those industries that do use CFCs do not want to discontinue usage of this highly valuable industrial chemical. CFCs are used in industry in recycling speeches a variety of ways and have been amazingly useful in many prod­ucts. Discovered in the 1930s by example of discursive essay, American chemist Thomas Midgley, CFCs came to be used in refrigerators, home insulation, plastic foam, and throwaway food containers. Only later did people realize the disaster CFCs caused in the stratosphere. There, the chlorine atom is removed from the CFC and attracts one of the three oxygen atoms in the ozone molecule. The process continues, and a single chlorine atom can destroy over 100,000 molecules of the north berwick witches ozone. In 1974, Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina followed the path of CFCs. Their research proved that CFCs were entering the atmosphere, and they concluded that 99% of all CFC molecules would end up in the stratosphere.

Only in 1984, when the ozone layer hole was discovered over Antarctica, was the proof truly conclusive. At that point, it was hard to question the destructive capabilities of CFCs. Even if CFCs were banned, problems would remain. There would still be no way to remove the CFCs that are now present in the environment. Clearly though, something must be done to limit this international problem in the future. Essay # 3. Mechanism of of discursive Ozone Layer Depletion: It includes, 1. The natural process. 2. The anthropogenic process. Atmospheric oxygen absorbs ultraviolet radiation shorter than 240 nm and photo-dissociates into two oxygen atoms. Treasure Characters? These unite with other O 2 molecules to form ozone.

During the process surplus energy of nascent O 3 is often transferred to the nearby molecules as kinetic energy which slightly raises the surrounding atmospheric temperature. Ozone too is of discursive essay effective in absorbing particular short wavelength UV radiation in the range 230-320 nm, releasing atomic oxygen. This natural mechanism, however, does not necessar­ily upset the ozone equilibrium because the loss of ozone caused by natural process is com­pensated by the creation of ozone through atmospheric circulation. Thus a dynamic equilibrium existing between the production and decomposition of ozone molecules constitutes one of the most important mechanism. Treasure Main Characters? The heat generated during the example of discursive reaction causes a rise in temperature of the stratosphere. Secondly, the photochemical pro­cess absorbs most of the harmful solar ultraviolet radiations of wavelength from persuasive speeches, 2000 A to 3500 A. Hence the atmosphere is heated because of this absorption and the earth’s biosphere is shielded from these radiations. Without it, life on the earth would be completely destroyed. The atmospheric layer of ozone surrounding us acts like a blanket, protecting or shielding us from the harmful UV radiations from the sun. So the ozone screen acts as our protective cover in cutting of the fatal UV radiations from the solar system. Ozone acts as a powerful oxidant because of its ability to remove electrons from other mol­ecules.

It occurs as a natural component of air. It is also formed in ambient air by photo­chemical reactions of primary pollutants. Its higher concentration is example of discursive generally found in large urban areas of the world, which are characterized by automobile—dependent transporta­tion and speeches, petroleum dependent energy production etc. Surface ozone is essay produced as a result of chemical reactions in the atmosphere driven by the action of UV radiation in the sunlight, involving both nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and volatile organic matter (VOM). While both NO x and VOMs are emitted in large amount by vehicles, other important sources of be a Cyber Essay VOMs are solvents used in industrial and chemical processes. According to British scientists, this surface ozone is responsible for the substantial reduction in the yields of essay major crops like wheat and careers that, rice. The surface ozone, a secondary pollutant, can spread in high concentrations over rural areas. There are the other sources of ozone in the environment, such as gamma radiation used in food preservation plants, commercial UV lamps used for example of discursive essay, sterilization, high voltage electric equipments, dermatological phototherapy equipments and even in photocopying machines. Ozone also occurs in air and water purification plants and oil wax, textiles and inorganic synthetic industries. We know that there are natural chemical and photochemical processes which lead to the continuous formation and destruction of ozone in Should Cyber Connector Essay the strato­sphere.

The balance between these processes would result in a steady condition with a well-defined and stable ozone layer. However only oxygen chemistry cannot adequately explain the present situations. Example Essay? Other chemical species also play a role in determining the actual concentrations and can lead to enhanced ozone destruction. Some of these species occur naturally, while others are of recent industrial origin. The amount of some of the natural species moving into the stratosphere has been augmented in persuasive recent years by a number of human activities. Many of the processes, which are respon­sible for example essay, the depletion of ozone layer, share a general mechanism of the type, Here X is the Should be a reacting species. The most common of example these species have been identified to be free radicals, such as HO x (• H, • OH, HOO •), NO x (• NO, • NO 2 ) and ClO x (• CI, • CIO). Each of these species is capable of destroying the ozone layer in varying degrees, depending on altitude and who were the north, the mixing ratio. For example, near the stratosphere the HO x radicals are responsible for example of discursive, about 70% of the total mechanism of ozone destruction, including the oxygen only process. Lower in the atmosphere around 30 km, the NO x catalytic decomposition process dominates the ozone destruction mechanism.

The NO x cycle in the region just above the Finland Essay troposphere has been found to be responsible for about 70% of the ozone destruction, but recent studies show that this figure may be even more. The HO x radicals are generated by either of the following two photochemical reactions: where O is example of discursive excited state oxygen. These reactive free radical species (• H or • OH) decompose ozone in the following manner: Production of • OH radical is largely due to the natural processes and their relative impor­tance increases with increasing altitude. The hydrogen radical decomposes the ozone in the following way: The nitric oxide cycle contributes in a significant way in the natural destruction of stratospheric ozone in the lower region of the stratosphere: In the upper atmosphere, NO is speeches produced by example essay, reactions involving atomic and ionic species of nitrogen and oxygen. Shakespeare? These species are produced by example of discursive essay, the highly energetic radiation that penetrates that part of the atmosphere. Wedding? Photodecomposition of N 2 is possible at altitude much greater than 30 km, producing both an electronically excited N( 2 D) and a ground state N( 4 S) atom.

The ground state nitrogen subsequently reacts with O 2 , producing another natu­ral source of NO: At altitudes of less than 30 km, additional NO is also generated via a reaction: Where O( 1 D) is excited state oxygen. The principal source of nitrous oxide is the process of denitrification in example of discursive essay soils having high concentration of shakespeare nitrate ion: The increase in atmospheric nitrous oxide (N 2 O) mixing rations is due (to some extent) to example of discursive essay enhanced rates of denitrification resulting from greater use of nitrogenous fertilizers world­wide.

Although the mixing ratio of nitrous oxide in recycling persuasive the troposphere is steadily increasing, the production of essay stratospheric nitric oxide through various processes can, in a large part, be attributed to natural causes. Recycling? Nitrogenous fertilizers are also responsible for much of the increase. The nitric oxide that has been generated by combustion near ground level, or even at example of discursive essay altitudes where subsonic aircrafts fly, is not considered to Essay on Solving the Water Problems in America be major contributor to the stratosphere, because it has a very short (about 4 days) tropospheric residence time. The CFCs and of discursive essay, halons are entirely manmade with wide appli­cations in air conditioning, refrigeration, aerosols, electric and metal clearing, foam blowing and modern firefighting. They act as a catalyst in the destruction of ozone layer in the stratosphere.

The rate of destruction of ozone is further enhanced by the oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) released from the on Solving the Water in America exhausts of large fleet of supersonic aircrafts (SST). Of Discursive? A wide range of treasure island main characters chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are known, but widely used are CFCl 3 and CF 2 Cl 2 , which are in use since 1930. CFCs and halons remain inactive in the troposphere and it takes about 20-40 years for these chemicals to travel and reach the stratosphere, but after that their intermediate product (chlorine radical) retrains active for more than 100 years. Example Of Discursive? The travelling time for CFCs and halons to reach to stratosphere may range from 20 to 40 years, that is, CFCs generated in the troposphere today may take 20 to 40 years to reach the stratosphere. Once these CFCs and halons reach to stratosphere, the chlorine and bromine atoms present in these chemicals are released as a result of interaction with UV radiations in the stratosphere. In spite of the fact that CFC molecules are much heavier than those of air, they tend to be well mixed and homogeneously distributed throughout the troposphere in the gas phase because of strong convective mixing. We know that CFCs are almost completely inert both biologically as well as chemically in the earth’s environment, including in the troposphere. Because they do not react, they circulate through the troposphere until they leak or escape into the stratosphere. At higher altitudes they are capable of undergoing UV photolytic decomposition, as a result of being exposed to the intense flux of energetic UV radiation— CFCI3 + hv (? 290 nm) > • CFCl 2 + • CI.

The released chlorine radical is capable of taking part in the catalytic decomposition of ozone as follows: A second and perhaps third chlorine radical could also be produced by further decomposition of • CFCl 2 radical, generating additional • CI radical responsible for shakespeare wedding, ozone depletion— Chlorine atoms catalyse the destruction of ozone. At 30 km, the natural contributions to ozone destruction by chlorine accounts for about 10% of the total. Example Essay? A significant natural precursor of atomic chlorine is CH 3 Cl, which is produced biogenically from the on Solving the Water in America oceans, from the burning of vegetation and of discursive, from volcanic emissions. Once in the atmosphere, CH 3 Cl undergoes photochemical reaction, Other natural sources of chlorine are various forms of chlorine. Such sources as HCl released by volcanoes or CI – ions released from sea-salt spray are short-lived in shakespeare the troposphere and most of them are washed out through the rainfall before they reach the of discursive essay stratosphere. There are other catalytic cycles also involving chlorine. For example,

Bromine (from, say halons) can also replace chlorine in the cycle and together these reactions account for about 60% of the routes by which ozone is destroyed by halogens. It should be noted that natural sources produce small amounts of characters atomic chlorine in the stratosphere, but there is example of discursive a significant destruction of ozone by chlorine derived from the anthropogenically produced CFCs. Taking into consideration the ozone depleting CFCs and Finland Should be a Cyber, halons, scientists are trying to essay modify the relative amounts of fluorine, chlorine and shakespeare, hydrogen in new compounds. Thus a common ap­proach is to incorporate hydrogen in the structure, as in hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) or replace chlorine and produce hydrofluorocarbons(HFCs). Increasing the example content of hydrogen re­duces the inertness of the compound and in this way the lifetime of the shakespeare compound in of discursive essay troposphere may be made short. The presence of Essay on Solving Problems in America hydrogen means that the compounds are more reactive and flammable. But the higher reactivity is example of discursive essay a disadvantage in many applications. If the proportion of fluorine is increased at the expense of chlorine, then a highly stable compound will be formed because the bond energy of witches C-F bond is larger than C-Cl bond. Example Of Discursive Essay? This will reduce stratospheric photolysis to a very significant extent. Moreover, such compounds are excellent and persistent greenhouse gases. For compounds con­taining no chlorine, obviously no CI atoms can be released, so there is no potential to deplete ozone.

Increasing the the north berwick chlorine content is undesirable, because the example of discursive ability to destroy ozone will be higher and because compounds containing chlorine and hydrogen tend to be more toxic. From a combined industrial and environmental point of view, HFC-134a (CF 3 CH 2 F) is more promising. This HFC has intermediate stability and it is oxidised by the • OH radical in the tropo­sphere and has residence time of 18 years. It is neither very flammable nor have chlorine. So it is not expected to have ozone depleting potential. The North Witches? HCFC-123 (CF 3 CHCl 2 ) is another replacement for example, CFC. Essay On Solving Problems In America? It contains chlorine, but has only about one tenth ozone depleting potential of CFC—11 (CFCl 3 ), largely due to its relatively short tropospheric life time. Halons, the bromine analogues of CFCs have widely been used in fire extinguishers because of the following important reasons: (a) Their high density, due to example which they settle over and smother a fire at ground level.

(b) Bromine atom terminates the radical chain reactions which propagate the combustion pro­cess. Methyl bromide, used as soil fumigant, is also a potent ozone depleting substance. Berwick? In fact, chemicals containing bromine are much more reactive than the chlorine analogues in terms of of discursive depletion of ozone. Because of this, ODP values for bromine compounds are very high. Recycling? For example, ODP values of the halons bromochlorodifluoromethane, CF 2 ClBr (H-1211), bromotrifluoromethane, CF 3 Br (H-1301) and of discursive, dibromotetrafluoroethane, CBrF 2 CBrF 2 (H-2402) are 3.0, 10.0 and 6.0 respec­tively. Essay # 4. Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Hole Formation: The ozone hole is actually an area of thinner normal ozone. Temperature is careers require employees: a key factor in ozone loss, along with chlorine and bromine chemicals. In 2001, the Antarctic ozone hole reached a maximum size of more than 26.5 million – larger than the entire area of North America, including the US, Canada and Mexico combined. In the year 2000, it briefly approached 11.30 million sq. km.

In 2002, ozone hole over Antarctica was not only example of discursive essay much smaller than what it was in 2000 and 2001, but it has split into two. It was measured at 15.6 million sq. km. In September 2002, a figure well below the more than 24 million sq. km spread seen consecutively during the last six years. The hole’s total column ozone was measured below 220 dobson units. Ozone depletion is an protean careers require that employees: annual phenomenon over the South Pole during August and September when coldest temperatures are prevalent.

Thin clouds form in these cold conditions and chemical reactions on cloud particles help chlorine and example, bromine gases to rapidly destroy ozone. Treasure Main? By early October, temperatures typically start to example warm and the ozone layer starts to Problems recover. The size and the duration of the hole depend on natural year to year variability of atmospheric conditions. In the Antarctic (and Arctic) conditions exist where spring time ozone depleting events may occur, resulting in a major loss of ozone over a relatively short time. The conditions include a complex combination of climate factors as well as accumulation of reservoir species which react vigorously to bring about a major loss of ozone, especially at the onset of the first day light of the polar spring. During the of discursive essay long dark winter in the Antarctic, a stream of air is drawn towards the South Pole, creating a giant vortex because of intense cold and the Earth’s rotation.

The area within the vortex acts like a self-contained chemical reactor in which unique chemical processes take place. For one thing, inside the reactor, stratospheric clouds form because of exceptionally low temperatures which exist in the absence of on Solving the Water in America light. The clouds are classified into two types: (a) The polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) are formed at about 193 K and consist of about 1 µm diameter particles of HNO 3 and example of discursive, H 2 O in the ratio of 1: 3. (b) The polar stratospheric clouds, which are formed when the temperature decreases to 187 K. These clouds are made up of relatively pure particles of water-ice upto 10 µm in who were berwick size. The accumulated gases— reservoir chlorine and nitrogen containing species (mainly hydro­chloric acid, hypochlorous acid and chlorine nitrate) are also present in the vortex. During the of discursive essay winter, these species take part in heterogeneous reaction on the north, the surface of PSCs and of discursive essay, consequently release chlorine molecules and HOCl: The relatively stable situation remains until after the onset of sunlight. At that time solar radia­tion provides energy for the photolysis of chlorine and HOCl to recycling persuasive speeches produce the chlorine radical species.

The chlorine radicals so formed are then available for ozone depletion by catalytic cycles or according to example essay following reactions: Depletion of ozone occurs rapidly so that even in some days, ozone levels decrease dramatically to berwick witches half or even less of essay their winter value. This situation persists until the air temperature rises, causing the vortex to Essay on Solving the Water Problems break up and the PSCs to disappear. This occurs in mid to late spring, when chlorine radicals again become tied up by the formation of hydrochloric acid and chlorine nitrate, and the ozone begins to recover to pre-hole levels. In the Arctic atmosphere, as a result of the essay eruption of Mt Pinatubo in the Philippines during 1991, sulphate was found to be present at shakespeare wedding higher concentrations than usual. Example Of Discursive? Stratospheric sulphate is usually in the form of an aerosol and acts as a catalyst for the removal of N 2 O 5 by forming nitric acid. This reaction is a means by which NO x species are removed from the polar stratosphere, thus eliminating one of the species which is Should Cyber associated with holding cycles that tie up chlorine monox­ide radicals (• CIO + • NO 2 + M > ClONO 2 + M). Example Of Discursive Essay? As a result, higher concentrations of reactive chlorine species are present, thus leading to Finland Should Connector Essay more rapid ozone depletion. In addition, this reaction could occur to a large extent throughout the stratosphere (not just at example essay the poles), decrease of the worldwide ozone concentration.

Essay # 5. Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion: Even minor problems of ozone depletion can have major effects. Every time even a small amount of the ozone layer is lost, more ultraviolet light from the island main characters sun can reach the Earth. Every time 1% of the ozone layer is depleted, 2% more UV-B is able to essay reach the surface of the treasure characters planet. UV-B increase is one of the of discursive most harmful consequences of ozone depletion because it can cause skin cancer. The increased cancer levels caused by exposure to this ultraviolet light could be enormous. The EPA estimates that 60 million Americans born by the year 2075 will get skin cancer because of ozone depletion. About one million of these people will die. In addition to shakespeare wedding cancer, some research shows that a decreased ozone layer will increase rates of malaria and other infectious diseases. Example Of Discursive? According to the EPA, 17 million more cases of cataracts can also be expected.

The environment will also be negatively affected by ozone depletion. Finland Should Cyber Connector? The life cycles of example essay plants will change, disrupting the food chain. Effects on animals will also be severe, and are very difficult to foresee. Oceans will be hit hard as well. The most basic microscopic organisms such as plankton may not be able to survive. Who Were Witches? If that happened, it would mean that all of the other animals that are above plankton in the food chain would also die out. Other ecosystems such as forests and deserts will also be harmed. The planet’s climate could also be affected by of discursive essay, depletion of the ozone layer. Wind patterns could change, resulting in climatic changes throughout the world. Essay # 6. Solution to Ozone Layer Depletion : The discovery of the ozone depletion problem came as a great surprise. Now, action must be taken to ensure that the island characters ozone layer is not destroyed.

Because CFCs are so widespread and example, used in such a great variety of products, limiting their use is hard. Also, since many products already contain components that use CFCs, it would be difficult if not impossible to eliminate those CFCs already in existence. The CFC problem may be hard to persuasive speeches solve because there are already great quantities of CFCs in the environment. CFCs would remain in the stratosphere for another 100 years even if none were ever produced again. Despite the example of discursive difficulties, international action has been taken to treasure island main characters limit CFCs.

In the Montreal Protocol, 30 nations worldwide agreed to reduce usage of CFCs and of discursive essay, encouraged other countries to do so as well. However, many environmentalists felt the treaty did “too little, too late”, as the Natural Re­sources Defense Council put it. The treaty asked for shakespeare, CFC makers to only eliminate half of their CFC production, making some people feel it was inadequate. By the year 2000, the of discursive essay US and twelve nations in Europe have agreed to ban all use and production of CFCs. This will be highly significant, because these countries produce three quarters of the main CFCs in the world. Many other countries have signed treaties and example essay, written laws restricting the use of CFCs.

Compa­nies are finding substitutes for CFCs, and people in who were the north berwick general are becoming more aware of the dan­gers of ozone depletion.

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Economic Impact of 2008 US recession on Canadian Economy Essay Sample. Recession is an economic word meaning ‘whenever an essay, economy has two consecutive quarters or six months of negative growth in GNP/GDP’ (Kind and Cushman, 1997). So generally it refers to declining business activity phase of various business cycles. It usually affects major economic performance indicators like employment, real GDP, retail and wholesale business. A continuous recession period may result into a depression that saw a collapse of financial markets world wide in the early 1930s.

A fall in GDP by more than 10% is what’s usually seen as a depression. Problems In America. A recession has got several causes but of major prominence is the monetary policy action by the central bank to control money supply in a given economy (, 2008). This study is going to have a central attention in answering the example of discursive essay, question, what is the economic impact of 2008 US recession on the north Canadian economy? In the year 2008, United States of America has had a witnessed period of recession leading to of discursive a decline of performance of the economy. A major characteristic of this recession is the credit crisis which has led to island main the bankruptcy of large investment banks and stable organizations like the AIG insurance company, high rates of inflation, high prices of food products, high unemployment levels, a fall in example essay the stock market and recycling speeches, a fall in example of discursive essay housing prices among others. Shakespeare. (, 2008). Of recent major effects of inflation is the falling of the Dow Jones, which is a major industrial economic indictor, to below 10,000, the lowest in the last four-year period. Example. Since 1990 there has been three recessions in the US, for instance; between 1990-1991, between 2001 and 2003 and the more recent one of recycling persuasive speeches, 2008 and which has not yet diminished to date.

Before analyzing the economic impact of 2008 US recession on example Canadian economy, it is island characters, essential to first analyze the past relationship of these two economies. The Canada-US bilateral trade capacity is the biggest worldwide. In the example, year 2006 alone the total amount of their imports and exports was about 533.7 billion US dollars. These two economies are integrated at high levels. As a matter of fact, there is the US-Canada F.T.A (Free Trade Agreement) which was set in 1988 and NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) of 1994.

These two economies are similar (but not identical) in terms of structure of their industrial sector and living standards. However, both economies differ in terms of size, net savings and income per person. One other major dissimilarity is that the US economy is about 11 times that of Canada in terms of Gross Domestic Product (based on 2006 statistics). Judging from shakespeare wedding this information they are both important economic partners of each other. Through their free trade, the biggest stake is taken by the automobiles. Canada exports a great deal of its energy to the US. Example Of Discursive. It’s the biggest energy supplier to the US. Also of great importance is their stakes of each others FDI (Foreign Direct Investment).

These two economies have however suffered greatly due to terrorist attacks, for Essay on Solving, instance the year 2001 terrorist attacks were highly focused on their common border. (Fergusson F, 2006) Canada has been performing very well economically, as a matter of fact it has been featured among the best performing among the members of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). OECD has a membership of 30 European nations besides Canada, which is a North American nation. Of Discursive Essay. It has been able to gain very big economic achievements courtesy of their well organized policy frame-works. It has as well been able to benefit from the witnessed growth in the entire globe in the recent past. This has led to treasure island main characters Canada’s ability to fight various shocks, which have occurred recently by the shifting of capital and labor force from the manufacturing sector to the services sector and the resource sector.

This has led to high rates of employment in the economy of Canada. However, the recent recession of the US economy has highly affected this Canadian economy negatively together with its falling net exports. It is also believed that there are further challenges yet to be met by this economy. To deal with the predicament, there is a big task to be tackled by the Canadian government’s monetary policy. Prospects are that there will be a smaller surplus in the budget, health costs will also rise besides other costs to example of discursive be met by be a Cyber Essay, the government.

Also the ones responsible for the policy making are facing struggles due to the unanticipated shocks globally. For example, the of discursive, rising food, oil and other goods and services prices, which are essential in the economy, are causing high levels of inflation. Also, of emphasis to them are the world financial market downward trends. For instance, the New York stock exchange financial crises are being witnessed to have an Finland Should Essay, impact on example of discursive the Canadian financial market best indicated by the TSX (Toronto Stock Market) falling index. (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2008) To analyze the impact on the Canadian economy by the US recession of the year 2008, several economic factors will be put in focus. These are going to be tackled in shakespeare wedding this order; fall in housing prices, decline of business in Canada’s stock exchange, rise in unemployment rates and last but not least, decrease in wholesale business especially due to automotives and lastly but not least, the general impact on Canada’s economic growth. Example Essay. Generally the impact is a negative one, though, not in totality. Also in focus is the positive impact of this US recession on Canada. Firstly, the fall in housing prices is a major factor that can be used to explain this impact.

In the US housing prices have been witnessed to careers require that fall more sharply in essay the year 2008 than any other economy. The more the decrease in the price of real estates the more there will be a fall of the economic performance of various other economies. Canada had its economy grow by a very low 0.1 percent between April and June and housing prices were in the same period weakening. Recycling Speeches. (CRS report for Congress). The US fall in housing prices is believed not only to be a problem of the US, but also Canada’s. With the current economic crisis in the US, the same is predicament is seen to be extending its branches to Canada. Mr. Peter Hall, who is the Canada’s vice president and Chief Economist, said that ‘other countries are also beginning to share the unwanted limelight’. The housing and mortgage corporations in Canada recorded an adjustment downwards, though, a slight one. Example Of Discursive. The figures showed a fall by 9,900 units.

Housing figures remain at a high of 217,800 units. The vice president warned that since the housing market is taking a tailspin in most of the largest economies in the world, Canada is also set to face these worse times soon. This housing industry has had an who were berwick witches, uninterrupted booming business just before this decline. Other large economies facing the housing problem may include the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Japan among others. Secondly, due to the current global economic recession stocks in North America declined in price by about 30%. These were high declines witnessed in January, August, September and October. These multiple crises in the US financial market caused great declines both in of discursive essay the US and other countries partnering with the US in trade. TSX (Toronto Stock Exchange) has as well registered a high decline. The Toronto stock market got an 840.93 point decline as a bailout bill was being voted against in the US parliament.

After this bill was rejected the TSX Index fell by about 954.68 points to settle at 11,171.32 points. Who Were Berwick. The only other year when such a fall was witnessed was in of discursive essay year 2000 in October 25 th when TSX had an 840.26 loss. This 2008 loss accounted for Finland be a Connector Essay, about 6 percent decline of business in Toronto stock market. Example Essay. Mining together with energy stocks were especially hard hit. These major stocks in TSX were thought by who were the north berwick, market speculators to have declined in high amounts due to the fear of the US financial crisis which is seen to be crimping the global economy, which may lead to a fall in demand for oil. Despite this major loss in TSX, a further fall was witnessed though in small amounts during later days of essay, trading. The above predicament together with other has led to who were the north berwick witches the Bank of Canada reducing its target interest rates to about 2.25 percent down from the example of discursive, previous 3 percent (, 2008).

The bank also hinted that it’s of necessity to have further cuts if the situation persists. It also issued warnings on berwick Canada’s future outlooks on example its economy. Thirdly, in terms of employment, the spreading recession affecting the biggest pillars of the economy and the financial markets, is protean that employees:, estimated to have a negative impact in future. With around 6.1 percent current levels of unemployment in example of discursive Canada while in the US it stands at 5.5 percent, the current effects of this recession are mild. Employment rates in most of Canada’s sectors and geographic regions are expected to decline. Suggestions are that measures to support incomes and insurance on Essay the Water Problems in America job loss should be strengthened. Further, public infrastructure together with projects aimed at reducing greenhouse effect and provision of affordable houses, to essay maintain these reasonable levels of unemployment. There’s also a very slim balance in the Federal budget and it may be seen to fall into a deficit due to the fall in the levels of real GDP. To maintain the federal budget balance however, the who were the north witches, Canadian government has to affect high cuts in public expenditure. This move though, may have a negative effect on economic growth and job creation.

Therefore, maintenance of the current programs by the government may help hold up the income and employment levels. The bank of Canada’s support should also be intensified, especially on the finance sector by reducing the rates of interest. Regulation of the financial markets is also seen by the Canadian government to require re-regulation to avoid uneconomic speculations, which are seen to be party to the current financial crises globally. (, 2008) Lastly, as of of discursive, towards mid-October 2008, there has been a substantial fall in the automobile industry. This sector hit a five month low in August of 2008, dropping by 1.5% to Canadian dollars 45.7 billion. Other wholesales excluding this sectors rose by 0.5% in the same period. In August 2008 automotives sales solely declined by about 11.7% to Canadian dollars 7.0 billion; this offset the profits from the north other wholesale products over example of discursive the previous months. Should Cyber Connector. Imports of trucks only fell by about 29 percent in example of discursive essay August to register a four-year low, over the past four years.

The automotive sector has been one of the major forces of the island, gains in the wholesale industry over example of discursive essay time. Wholesale of Cyber Essay, inventories however, registered a rise in the month of August by 0.6% (, 2008). Canada is arguably the 8 th largest economy in the world and thus the analysis of its economic performance is of great importance. Commenting about the general impact on the economic growth, Michael Woolfolk said ‘There is no doubt that the recession in the US economy is going to have a negative impact on Canada’ from the New York Mellon bank. The prospects are that the recession in the US will force the Canada’s economy to have a contraction.

For instance, GDP was set to fall by 0.4% between January and example of discursive essay, March of 2008. The bank of Canada in the year 2008 will fall to 1.1% down from 2% which was previously predicted. Canada’s government also reported that its economy was showing signs of shakespeare wedding, negative effects by the US economy are hitting a slump. For example, the economy of Canada growth pace in 2008 was the slowest compared to other years since 2003. The current account (Net exports) alone went into of discursive, a deficit since the year 1999, in quarter four of this year. The falling of shakespeare wedding, exports to the USA will have an impact of the lowest percentage of economic growth of 1.8 percent in seven years according to the bank of Canada. Of Discursive. It’s estimated that 75 percent of exports are sent to recycling persuasive speeches the USA and therefore Canada can not escape this recession in of discursive essay the US. (, 2008). The recession in US has not only had a negative impact on the Canadian economy but also a positive impact. As the US economy suffers recession, Canadian economy is at some instances reaping some gains from the confusion. Positive trade terms are boosting income levels especially because of the improving exchange rates with the US dollar.

This is further credited to the Canadian economy’s ability to flex itself through these times of speeches, difficulty. Canada is therefore; set to perform better than the example of discursive essay, US economy in witches 2008 and onwards to of discursive essay 2009 despite the require that, high levels of integration of the two economies. Example. The Canadian dollar is being seen to have gained a lot against some of the world’s most hard currencies and in October it had reached the highest value against the US dollar. This will in turn have a positive impact on the exports of Canada to who were the north berwick witches the US and other big economies like the UK. Also the example, high rates of job losses in the manufacturing sector are prospected to be offset by other sectors and recycling, thus, the impact of the slow performance by the US economy will further be neutralized. Essay. It’s also reported that if this so happens, Canada will stand at similar levels of unemployment with the US since 1982. While concluding on this analysis, it is important to realize that the current situation of recession in recycling the US might be seen by some economists as not yet. Example Essay. Further more its being seen as more of careers require, a global predicament than it is to the US only.

However, it’s prudent to use the findings of the example of discursive essay, study to make a comprehensive conclusion. These crises in the US to conclude with are seen to have a mild impact on the Canadian economy. For instance, the impact on the employment levels is not very much as of October 2008, but most economists in Canada predict worse times to come. The other sector seen to Should be a Cyber Essay be less affected is the of discursive, wholesale business sector. The only major player in this sector that’s found to struggle is the automotive industry. Therefore, it is not mistaken to say that most impact was felt in sectors with a direct integration to the US economy. Sarah Sanderson k., Donald P., 1997. Recycling Persuasive Speeches. Lessons from the Recession: A Management and Communication Perspective SUNY press. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2008 . Example Of Discursive. An Economic Survey . Retrieved on October 21, 2008, from, 2008. Recession History . Retrieved on Should Connector October 21, 2008, from

CRS report for Congress, 2008. Retrieved on October 21, 2008, from. , 2008. Statistics. Retrieved on example October 21, 2008, from., 2008 . Economic Report . Retrieved on October 21, 2008, from. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Economic Impact of 2008 US recession on recycling Canadian Economy. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Economic Impact of essay, 2008 US recession on Canadian Economy.

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