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biography famous The Greek word for philosophy (philosophia) translates to the #8220;love for on LGBT Movements wisdom#8221; in on Health Act, English. Social Movements. The discipline dates back to ancient times with some of the greatest philosophers being Socrates, Plato, and atom bomb how it, Aristotle. But there are some modern-day philosophical thinkers who have had their contributions recognized as well. Below is Movements, a chronological list of some of the most famous philosophers of all time and why they were important to future generations. Atom Bomb. Philosophers of Antiquity. Known for: Developed the system known as Confucianism. The philosophy of Confucius focused on self improvement, the morality of governing a people, justice and personal relationships with others.

His collection of sayings, called analects,are well-known and mimicked in Essay Social Movements, fortune cookies, although these are typically not sayings attributed to Confucius himself. Atom How It. Known for: Founder of the Essay Eleatic school of and juliet scene philosophy. Wrote a philosophical poem entitled On Nature in Essay on LGBT Movements, which he discusses two ideals: The way of truth and the way of opinion. Parmenides believed the latter was inferior because it was not reliable. He theorized that the world is non-changing and Essay on Health for America Act, when a person sees something change, it is merely an on LGBT Social Movements illusion. Mohism was one of the club four major schools of on LGBT Social Movements thought during China#8217;s ancient Spring and Autumn Period. Some of the concepts in SWOT Essay, Mohism include impartial care, a rejection of Essay on LGBT Social Movements fatalism, and a denial of Literary Perks Like extravagant funerals and the arts because these things take away from tending to the crops and other productive chores. Known for: One of the founders of Western Philosophy. Socrates created the Socratic Method which is on LGBT Social, commonly used for determining the ethics of an issue.

With this method, a problem is broken up into parts with various questions which help a person determine their underlying beliefs. He also believed that people should ideally live to better themselves rather than seek material wealth. Literary Analysis: Of Being Like Elephants". Known for: Theory of the Essay Social Movements Tripartite Soul. As one of the and juliet ending scene founders of Western thought, Plato helped shape ideas about government and societies throughout the centuries. Essay Social Movements. His The Republic talked about justice and Essay on Health Care, the state#8217;s role in society and in Essay on LGBT Movements, the lives of and juliet ending scene people. On LGBT Movements. He also believed in the immortality of the soul. Known for: Wrote the kolb’s experiential learning Nicomachean Ethics about practical ethics. One of Aristotle#8217;s recurring themes in his philosophical ideas is Essay on LGBT Movements, teleology, or the belief that the best way to Literary Analysis: "The a Wallflower" Like Elephants" understand something is to understand the Social Movements purpose that it serves. He is also credited with creating the scene field of formal logic and the scientific method. Known for: Founder of the Epicureanism school of Movements philosophy. Epicurus believed that happiness revolved around three main things in boysandgirls, life: positive relationships with others, individual freedom, and an analytical reflection on our lives.

None of Movements Epicurus#8217; written works survived, but his ideas were passed down through his students. Known for: Argued for the existence of a Trinity in Doughnut Essay, Christian belief. Origen was a theology philosopher who strictly believed what the Bible had to say. Essay On LGBT. His writings, such as On First Principles and Literary Analysis: and "Hill White Elephants", his various commentaries on books of the Essay on LGBT Movements Bible show him to be a defender of the Scriptures as he discusses ideas like free will, the romeo ending scene restoration of the soul and on LGBT Social Movements, more. Known for: First Christian theologian to romeo scene connect Plato#8217;s ideas to church doctrine.

In his writings, Saint Augustine of Essay on LGBT Movements Hippo discussed many issues of the Christian faith. Bomb. In his discourse on the issue of free will, he argued that humans have personal responsibility and God#8217;s infinite wisdom has no bearing on on LGBT Social our actions. For the original sin argument, he believed there was no evil force, but evil merely exists in bowl, the absence of on LGBT good. Known for: Helped bring the atom how it works and Essay Social Movements, ideas of Aristotle to Europe. Avicenna was an early Islamic philosopher who wrote extensively on the topics of ethics, metaphysics, and logic. Around the experiential learning cycle 12th century, he became the Essay Social Movements leader in philosophical thought in the Middle East. His ideas came to Analysis: Perks of Being and "Hill White Elephants" be known as Avicennism. Known for: Fathered the Essay Movements school of Dealing with a large thought entitled Thomism.

Aquinas theorized that it was possible to prove the existence of Essay God through five proofs. Club. Some of these proofs include motion, regression of causes to Essay on LGBT Social Movements the original cause, a descending order of perfection and othres. He is SWOT Essay, credited with helping bridge the gap between faith and reason. Philosophers of the 1500s. Known for: Wrote The Prince , a book on how a ruler can retain control. The term #8220;machiavellianism#8221; is named after Machiavelli and his philosophy, which can be summed up by the phrase #8220;the end justifies the on LGBT means.#8221; He advocated for rulers to have the characteristics of ruthlessness and with a large Essay, control rather than justice and compassion.

Known for: Developed Calvinism, a major branch of Christian theology. One of the major tenets of Calvin#8217;s philosophy concerning Christianity is the concept of Essay on LGBT predestination. This term refers to Essay on Calvin#8217;s belief that God has already chosen those who will go to Heaven or Hell regardless of what they do during their lives on earth. Bacon#8217;s philosophy was that it was nearly impossible for Essay most people to kolb’s cycle see the on LGBT Social Movements world as it really is with a large population Essay, because they cannot set aside their prejudices and their preconceptions. He said any obstacles that distract from on LGBT Social seeing the Literary "The a Wallflower" and "Hill Elephants" world objectively were idols. Essay. His idea can be summarized by the phrase #8220;everything is Krispy Kreme SWOT, not as it appears.#8221; Hobbes#8217; book Leviathan was one of the more influential writings concerning the Social social contract theory and and juliet scene, Western philosophy. On LGBT Social Movements. He was a strong advocate of the rights of the individual and the idea that everybody was equal.

Known for: The Father of bomb works Modern Philosophy. Known for on LGBT Movements his statement, #8220;I think, therefore I am,#8221; Descartes questioned everything from the existence of God to his own existence. He argued for God#8217;s existence and a large Essay, he created the Social theory of the duality of the mind and body. He also defended the idea of boysandgirls free will. Philosophers of the 1600s. One of the most well-known contributions to on LGBT Social Movements philosophy by boysandgirls, Blaise Pascal was Pascal#8217;s Wager. Essay On LGBT Social. In arguing for or against the existence of God, this idea stated that it was in boysandgirls club, one#8217;s best self-interest to believe in God because it was #8220;safe.#8221; If He did not exist, Pascal said, then it would not matter anyways. Known for: Known as the Father of Liberalism.

Locke was an Essay Social influential philosopher whose writings helped spark the American Revolution. Some of his ideas were even implemented in the Declaration of Independence. Club. He also theorized the #8220;blank slate#8221; idea, which states that everybody#8217;s mind is on LGBT Social Movements, clear when they are born and club, their experiences through life shape their belief systems and attitudes. Social. Known for: Believed life was made up of ending scene a series of on LGBT monads. Atom Bomb How It Works. Leibnix had a philosophy that God created the universe and on LGBT Movements, therefore, He has all the ending scene answers. He believed that humans could not figure out the puzzle to on LGBT Social the universe and we are only allowed to see a small part of the big picture. Philosophers of the scene 1700s. Essay On LGBT. Known for: Writings on social reform that led to the French and American Revolutions. This author of the Dictionnaire Philosophique was critical of the Roman Catholic Church and how it oppressed people#8217;s freedoms.

He used his writings, such as the novella Candide and others, to advocate for freedom and criticize the Essay on Affordable Health for America institutions with which he disagreed. Known for: Dialogue Concerning Natural Religion and Natural History of Religion . Hume was of the Essay on LGBT Social Movements empiricist school of thought, meaning that his ideals focused mainly on things in the world that could be directly observed and experienced. Following from this belief, many consider him to be the Dealing with Essay one of the first atheists. Known for: Wrote A Discourse on the Arts and Essay on LGBT Social, Sciences. Created The Social Contract which was an outline for a form of government. In this work, he discussed how men are born free, but they are bound by various chains that society places on them.

He also felt that human nature was innately good and Krispy Kreme Doughnut Essay, only gets corrupted by Essay Movements, society. And Juliet Ending. Smith wrote The Wealth of the Essay on LGBT Social Movements Nations , which advocated minimal government interference in a nation#8217;s economy. Because of this book and and juliet ending scene, others, Smith is Essay Social Movements, known as the cause founder of Essay on LGBT free-market economics. Known for: Published Critique of Pure Reason. Of The Dust Bowl. Kant believed that all of our experiences are filtered through our rational mind. As a result, there is a difference between what we believe and how things really are. He also formed the theory of the on LGBT Moral Law, which stated that there is Essay Affordable Health for America, a moral duty that people must carry out in all cases and Essay Social Movements, without exception. Paine was an Affordable Health Care for America Act American patriot who wrote pamphlets that helped inspire the American Revolution. One of his well-known works The Age of Reason was a pamphlet that challenged the Movements legitimacy of the Bible and criticized the Krispy Analysis Christian Church for its attempts to Essay on LGBT obtain power. Club. Known for: Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women.

As one of the predecessors to the feminist movement, Wollstonecraft argue for the equality between men and Social, women. She believed the Literary "The Perks of Being a Wallflower" Like only thing that held women back from being on Essay Social Movements the same level as men was their lack of education, which was difficult to receive during her time. Philosophers of the Essay Care Act 1800s. Known for: The Father of Modern Sociology. Essay. Developed the Essay Affordable Health for America theory of positive philosophy to Essay on LGBT help relieve some of the Literary Analysis: "The Like negative feelings following the Essay Social Movements French Revolution. He also wanted to use the same techniques used by Analysis: "The of Being and "Hill, scientists to explore and on LGBT Movements, study human experiences and affairs. Mills believed in a free market economic society. A Large Population Essay. He advocated a utilitarian society in which everyone was equal.

As such, he believed in on LGBT Social Movements, such things as an inheritance tax and other types of taxes so some people would not get an unfair advantage over others. Experiential Learning. Known for: The Father of Movements Existentialism. Club. Much of Essay on LGBT Social Movements Kierkegaard#8217;s philosophical works centered around religion and the Bible. He felt that organized religion made it more difficult for an individual to club have a personal relationship with God. He also theorized that humans had three main problems to Essay Social overcome boredom, despair, and anxiety. Known for: Wrote Walden and On Civil Disobedience. Boysandgirls Club. Walden , which is Essay on LGBT Social, Thoreau#8217;s most well-known work, is an expression of transcendentalism, or the belief that both nature and people are inherently good.

He also wrote an essay entitled Civil Disobedience , which advocated for individual freedom from the oppression of government forces. Known for: Wrote The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital. Kreme Doughnut Analysis Essay. His ideas and Movements, publications helped lay the groundwork for Essay on Affordable Health Act modern-day socialism and communism. His ideas, which came to Essay on LGBT Social be known as Marxism, addressed the Analysis: of Being a Wallflower" Elephants" issue of Essay on LGBT Movements class systems throughout society and how the wealthy class rules over the lower classes. Known for: Wrote the novel War and learning cycle, Peace. At age 50, Tolstoy went through a spiritual transformation.

Following this period, he theorized that a society should base itself on the principles of Christianity. Essay On LGBT. According to his new philosophy, social Christianity should be the norm. He believed war or any type of Perks Like Elephants" killing was immoral and people should resist evil. Known for: Father of Modern Pragmatism. On LGBT Movements. As a trained physician and psychologist, James focused his philosphical works on the mind and Analysis: "The Perks of Being a Wallflower", human emotion.

Much of on LGBT Movements his work concerns the club philosophy of religion and how it affects a person#8217;s way of thinking. Essay Social Movements. Some of his writings include The Will to atom Believe and The Meaning of Essay Truth . Publications like Thus Spoke Zarathustra and Beyond Good and Evil have made Nietzsche one of the more controversial philosophers. Romeo Ending. His Eternal Return theory stated that the universe recurs and will continue to recur in a similar form an infinite number of times. Known for: Helped develop the Essay Movements pragmatist philosophy of the Literary Analysis: "The of Being and "Hill White Elephants" early 20th century. On LGBT Social Movements. As one of the most famous teachers in modern history, Dewey believed that schooling was both restrictive and of the dust bowl, too long to be effective. Essay Social. His philosophy of pragmatism led him to believe that it would be more useful for boysandgirls club children to get real-world experience rather than sitting in a schoolroom. Known for: Most prominent anarchist preceding WWI. On LGBT Movements. Often referred to as #8220;Red Emma,#8221; Goldman moved to the United States in the mid-1880s and gave numerous lectures on the benefits of anarchsim.

She began a publication entitled Mother Earth in which her and other anarchist supporters discussed the philosophies of anarchism. Known for: Co-founder of analytic philosophy . Essay On Care. Russell wrote an nearly every aspect of philosophy, including language, mathematics and on LGBT Movements, religion. His work Why I am Not a Christian is one of his best known publications. Kolb’s Experiential Learning. Others include Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy , The Problems of Philosophy and on LGBT Social, more. Health Care For America. Known for: Won Nobel Peace Prize in 1952 for #8220;Reverence of Social Life#8221; Theological philosopher who published The Quest of the Historical Jesus and Krispy SWOT, challenged the popular notion that people had of Essay Social Movements Jesus. In his work The Philosophy of Civilization , he also called for boysandgirls a return to having a reverence for life, an idea that some philosophers of Essay Social Movements his day were abandoning. Philosophers of the 1900s. Known for: Wrote Philosophical Investigations. Wittgenstein#8217;s Philosophical Investigations is considered by many to be one of the kolb’s experiential most important works of the 20th century philosophy. It focused on linguistics and Movements, the way it is used to form thoughts.

Known for: Wrote several books regarding Christian apologetics . Analysis. Lewis is known for Essay on LGBT several books and atom, essays, but his works regarding Christian apologetics are among some of his best known writings. Essay Movements. Publications like Mere Christianity , The Problem of Health Pain , and The Screwtape Letters have helped provide a rational discussion for the Christian faith. Known for: Wrote Escape from Essay Social Movements Freedom and Man for Himself. Fromm was a trained psychologist who theorized that humans have eight basic needs to survive, including a sense of identity, relationships with other people, and a feeling of belongingness, among others. He is also known for romeo his criticism of the philosophies of Sigmund Freud. Known for: Advocate for on LGBT Social Movements Marxism and Affordable, the idea of existentialism.

Sartre theorized that man is doomed to be free. Essay On LGBT. He argued that there was no ultimate creator because if there was, every human would have a purpose from birth. Rather, he said, they exist and then seek out a purpose. Essay Care For America. His most famous work Nausea serves as an Essay on LGBT Social Movements existentialist manifesto. Known for: Political philosopher who coined the phrase, #8220;the banality of evil#8221; As a writer of Kreme Doughnut SWOT Analysis Essay philosophical works and Essay Social Movements, lecturer on the topic, Arendt is bomb how it works, one of the better known female philosophers of her time. Some of her works include The Life of the Essay on LGBT Social Mind , Some Questions on Moral Philosophy , and The Human Condition , which is Essay on Affordable, considered her most influential work. Known for: Existentialist philosopher who helped develop the on LGBT modern feminist movement. De Beauvoir wrote several books and Essay Affordable for America, essays that laid the on LGBT Movements groundwork for the feminist movement.

The Second Sex advocated the notion of existential feminism, which stated that is not born as a female, but rather they become female throughout their life. Known for: Furthered the idea of an absurdist philosophy. Author of kolb’s experiential cycle The Stranger and The Plague , Camus was a philosophical writer as well. His work The Myth of Sisyphus helped further the argument of an absurdist philosophy, which refers to the human#8217;s desire to find meaning to Movements life although finding it is impossible for humans. Experiential Cycle. Known for: Wrote Discipline and Social, Punish. Much of Literary "The Perks of Being a Wallflower" and "Hill Foucault#8217;s work centered around the on LGBT Social Movements various institutions in romeo and juliet ending scene, society. For one thing, his work Discipline and Punish criticized the penal systems throughout the centuries. On LGBT Movements. His philosophy was that prisons and torture do nothing to rehabilitate criminals.

He had similar criticisms of mental institutions.

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Essay on LGBT Social Movements

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Nov 17, 2017 Essay on LGBT Social Movements,

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maryknoll essay 2010 We are a US Catholic society of Social Movements, priests and Krispy Kreme Doughnut Analysis Essay, brothers dedicated to missionary work overseas in 22 countries. Additionally, we animate Catholics in the US to follow their own baptismal call to share Gods compassion with the poor, the sick, those most in need. an overseas missionary? (Fr. Movements. Tom OBrien, Fr.

Ray Finch, Fr. Joe Everson, Fr. Russ Feldmeier) The Maryknoll Fathers and Brothers is overseen by dust our General Council , led by Superior General Fr. On LGBT Social Movements. Ray Finch. (Co-founders Fr. Price and Fr. Health Care Act. Walsh) Father Gerard Hammond has received the Essay on LGBT, highest honor bestowed by the Knights of Columbus for boysandgirls his service to the sick in North Korea. Read more. The 2017 contest is Essay open to students in romeo scene grades 68 (Division I) and grades 912 (Division II).

Recognizing Violence and Promoting Peace. In a world where violence is all around usin the news, schools, communities, entertainment, etc.Pope Francis calls us to take a clear stand for creative and active nonviolence and against all forms of violence. We are asking students to cite examples of violence and tell what actions they are taking or could take to Essay Movements promote peace . Entries should be 500750 words Mailed essays must be accompanied by a completed Contest Cover Sheet (PDF) First-place essays will appear in cause the May/June 2018 issue of MARYKNOLL magazine Winning essays in on LGBT Movements each Division will be chosen by Feb. 15, 2018. Entries received for our 2016 Caring for Our Common Home Essay Contest were judged by a panel of boysandgirls, more than 50 Maryknoll missioners, all of whom were elated to read the essays that conveyed thousands of Essay Social Movements, examples of people caring for Kreme Doughnut SWOT Analysis Essay the earth. The 2016 contest received 7,261 entries from on LGBT Movements, students who competed in two divisions (grades 6 to 8 and grades 9 to 12) for nearly $3,000 in Analysis: "The Perks of Being Like cash prizes: $1,000 for each of the on LGBT Social, two first-place finalists $300 for each of the two second-place finalists $150 for third place.

The earth cries out to us because of the Affordable Health for America, harm we have inflicted on her by on LGBT Movements our irresponsible use and abuse of the and juliet, goods with which God has endowed her. Pope Francis calls on ALL human beings to respect nature and stop exploiting our common home! We asked students to explain the importance of heeding the popes call and to provide at least two examples of Essay, students, or others, engaged in activities that respect the earth . Every year, it is a delight to read the essays submitted to the Maryknoll Student Essay Contest, said Father Emile Dumas, M.M. This year was no exception. Romeo And Juliet Ending. The essays are a good way to connect with the young folks. Essay On LGBT. They renew my hope in the future of the boysandgirls, Catholic Church in the U.S. and throughout the world. I pray for all the students and teachers who participated in the essay contest. May God continue to generously bless them! May they bring to our global village the Social, peace, hope, joy and justice our global village needs. Grace Smith, an eighth-grader at club Ursuline Academy in Wilmington, Delaware , wins the $1,000 Bishop Francis X. Ford Award, named for the Maryknoll missioner who was in the first group of Maryknoll missioners to Essay Social China and died in a prison there in 1952. Below is her winning essay

Respecting Earth, Through Myself and My Government. Taking care of our common home is an idea that, for our world today, is no longer an issue of tomorrow but an issue of today. It is and juliet scene such an important idea because humans are the reason the environment is in a decline in the first place, so it is our responsibility to fix what we started. On LGBT Movements. Pope Francis thinks that taking care of our common home should be a corporal work of mercy; Mother Teresa wanted us to cause dust bowl stop wasting precious environmental goods. So how, exactly, are we supposed to help the environment? If one wants to stop contributing to the bad activities that will lead to earth becoming a gray wasteland, simple steps can be done to do so. I personally try to use less power at school and at home, and Essay Social, I write letters to my state politicians to Literary Perks of Being a Wallflower" and "Hill Like White Elephants" ask them to vote yes on bills in congress that cut environmental strain. Using less energy and urging politicians to make Delaware more eco-friendly are simple ways that I treat the environment better and on LGBT, respect Earth, our common home. Decreasing the amount of boysandgirls, energy that I use and encouraging my friends and family to do the same is a way that I can directly affect the amount of on LGBT, fossil fuels burned for energy. Wherever we go, my friends and I turn off unused lights and Analysis, only use the Movements, amount of Doughnut SWOT Analysis, water that is necessary.

These are particularly easy ways to help the environment because they take no time out of the day, require little to no effort, and are easy habits to Essay on LGBT Social get into and spread to Essay on Health Act other people. Whenever citizens feel that an issue their local politicians are voting on pertains to them personally, they can mail a letter to the politicians to ask them to consider their circumstances and why they want the politicians to vote a certain way. An issue that pertains to me personally is conservation of the earth. While singular people who use less energy are contributing to a greener world, if companies continue to pump out dangerous chemicals into Essay, the air and water, nothing can be done to stop the environments decline. So whenever an environmental vote comes up, I mail a letter to my local representatives to remind them that voting to put checks on big manufacturing businesses is one of the most important things for cause of the preserving the earth and on LGBT, its resources. Even though I cant vote yet, I can still make a difference in government through my politicians. Everyone who is able must put in an effort to save our earth, before it is atom how it works too late. With every voice and outlet available, citizens of every country need to work against the earths deterioration.

If we all work together, as a whole world, we can make the earth beautiful, green and safe for all the generations after us. We have to be aware of the life or death situation of Essay Social Movements, pollution and other ecological burdens; we have to be aware that our lives are dependent on the earths life, and romeo ending, if we destroy the earth, we destroy ourselves. Pope Francis understands this better than any other pope before him. He knows that God wants us to protect the beautiful world he gave us. God wants us to protect our common home, with every way we can. Ellie Kooney, an eighth-grader at St. Gerard School in Lansing, Michigan, wins the second-place prize of Movements, $300 in Division I of the Maryknoll Student Essay Contest. Below is her winning essay The earth cries out to us because of the harm we have inflicted on her by Literary Perks and "Hill our irresponsible use and abuse of the goods with which God has endowed her, Pope Francis says. The world 65 million years ago was very different than our earth today. There were no roads.

No giant buildings that tower over our cemented land. On LGBT Social Movements. No polluted waters that we now have to drink from. Literary "The Perks And "Hill Like Elephants". No humans, no problem it seemed. There used to be many amazing creatures on this earth. Out of the many African elephants that once lived, only 415,000 still live in the wild.

Numerous bees now are on the endangered species list. Because of our selfish needs, many poor animals are now gone or are close to extinction. What will you do to stop this? What will you do to make the earth whole again? Well, there are some people out Essay on LGBT Movements, there trying to make the Literary Perks a Wallflower" Like, world good again. My family and I are one of those dedicated to Essay on LGBT making the world a better place.

In our lives, we work to Krispy Kreme Doughnut Analysis preserve the earth. Ever since we installed a solar panel in our backyard, we have saved approximately $1,000 a year in utility costs. Installing solar panels is a great way to use the Essay on LGBT Social, sun as a renewable energy source instead of using fossil fuels, such as coal and oil. My mom teaches an Krispy Kreme Doughnut SWOT Essay elective at my school about the environment and how to be careful with our natural resources. She is teaching young students to help take better care of the Social Movements, earth so that it is a cleaner, healthier place to live. My family and I recycle and compost our waste.

This helps the earth by making it so there are fewer landfills, and Affordable Health Act, composting our waste is like feeding the earth in a good way. We buy and grow organic fruits and on LGBT Social Movements, vegetables locally. This way we reduce using fossil fuels and pesticides. My mom and dad also drive hybrid-energy cars, which reduces the use of romeo and juliet, fossil fuels and oil. At our house, we own 15 acres where we grow native plants to encourage butterflies and Essay on LGBT Social, wildlife to flourish. Our lighting is LED, which is long lasting and doesnt produce a lot of heat. These bulbs last 10 to boysandgirls 15 times longer than traditional filament light bulbs. We heat our house with a renewable resource of wood in our wood-burning stove. All of these examples show that my family and I are trying to tend to the earth and Movements, the popes call. When we tend to the popes call, we are saving the earth. God created this beautiful home and it would be disrespectful to treat it in such a harmful way.

He calls you all to step up and be good stewards for generations to come. Recycling, composting, and using LED lights are simple ways to help protect the earth. I implore you all to try, try and make the world a better place and listen to the popes call. We all want to enjoy our life on atom, earth and should preserve our world for many years to come. Be kind to our earth, because it is an amazing gift and we need to save it before it is all gone.

Tobin Doherty, an eighth-grader at Our Lady of Good Counsel Catholic School in Vienna, Virginia, wins the third-place award of $150 in Division I of the Maryknoll Student Essay Contest. Below is his winning essay The pope is calling us to action, not just Catholics like you and Essay Social, me, but rather all the people who have come to know and love this planet. He is suggesting that instead of draining the romeo and juliet ending scene, earth of all its fruits for our own selfish needs, we join together to Essay on LGBT Social combat this ecological crisis. The pope is Gods messenger and he is Literary Analysis: "The Perks Elephants" imploring us to be respectful to the earth, our common home. On LGBT Movements. While this is a religious message, it is equally scientific. Cause Dust Bowl. We need to change what we value in society and Movements, how we consume. Global warming and water pollution are just two of the many ecological dilemmas caused by us. As we have learned in science, for every action there is a reaction. Our greedy consumption has caused ecological damage beyond belief. Scientists agree that there is climatic warming that has adversely affected everyone, but has been particularly harsh on romeo and juliet, those who live in poverty.

Here, in the United States, we have the highest standard of on LGBT Social Movements, living in the world. We enjoy the fruits of technology; however, in Africa, technology has only Health Care Act brought harm. The fossil fuels we are burning to on LGBT Social Movements create energy are creating harmful gases that we are releasing into the atmosphere. These gases are depleting the ozone and letting more direct sunlight in. We need to be happy with what we have, and stop wanting more. We need to stop excessively consuming. Pollution comes in many different forms, but one that is of the dust bowl destroying so many lives today is Essay on LGBT only getting worse. Water pollution is harming the lives of so many. About 358 million people lack clean water in Africa alone. Mining, industrial processes, deforestation and agriculture are all leading contributors to Krispy Kreme SWOT water pollution all over the world, but especially in Essay on LGBT Social Movements Africa, where again the less fortunate are affected more greatly than we can imagine.

We have exploited all the resources of other countries to use to our advantage, and left them with pollution. We need to stop thinking about ourselves and start thinking of others. I know it can be easy to just sit at home and Essay Care for America, pretend that everything is OK, but its not. The more I read the popes encyclical, the on LGBT, more I feel overwhelmed, but as Gods people, we need to boysandgirls club believe and have faith that together we can make a difference. Change starts with one small step. It did not take the Essay on LGBT Movements, popes encyclical to inform me that the world had global environmental issues, but what the scene, popes encyclical did show me was that I could do something about those issues. The pope is calling you and me to Essay Social action. Mother Teresa once said, We cannot do great things on earth, only small things with great love. I have worked hard to Essay raise money for those less fortunate. But the pope gave clear direction to my charitable mission. My confirmation group decided that clean water in Africa was one of the greatest needs in on LGBT Movements the world.

We decided to raise money for a charity called Wine to romeo and juliet ending Water. They help build wells and secure clean water sources for those who are living in poverty in Africa. Movements. Continuing to bowl raise money for Essay charities such as Wine to Water is a small but meaningful way to answer the and juliet ending scene, popes call to help those living in poverty and now, pollution. Every time I drink a glass of water, I am reminded of the Essay on LGBT Social, great need to help others who do not enjoy this amazing privilege. The popes writings gave new meaning to the word consumption. To me, this word now means greed and cause, self-indulgence at another persons great expense. As one of on LGBT, a family of seven children, I have learned to recycle everything from dust bowl, clothes to furniture to cars. My family drives a hybrid, we consume organic products, we heat with wood, and Essay on LGBT Social Movements, we have learned to get by with less. I believe that this frugal way of life is one small way that I am in step with the popes call to for America action. We cant sit in darkness anymore pretending that someone else is Movements going to Literary Analysis: Perks Like make the world a better place.

We need to do something now, no matter how small. We need to change the way we live, the things we want, and the things we deem important. We must be cognizant that our gain is likely someone elses great loss. I want to leave this world a better place than when I arrived. Meenu Johnkutty, a 12th-grader at Kennedy Catholic High School in on LGBT Social Movements Somers, New York, wins the $1,000 Bishop Patrick J. Byrne Award, named for the missioner who died on Literary Analysis: Perks of Being a Wallflower" Like Elephants", a forced march in Korea in 1950. Below is Essay on LGBT Social her winning essay I am running on the back trails of the small city of Somers, New York, crushing decaying vibrant orange, red and yellow leaves underneath my feet. The streams alongside the trail gurgle as small fish scurry away at the sound of boysandgirls club, my feet pounding on on LGBT, the dirt. The air is crisp and fresh, and I am in awe of this remarkable splendor, the work of an intelligent Creator. But, the scene changes rapidly as I board the train that will bring me back home. The train cuts through paths made in boysandgirls the woods, where soda cans and cigarette boxes are carelessly strewn on the tracks and the streams are tinted brown with waste and Movements, carry plastic bottles instead of live fish.

My eyes, which were once overwhelmed by the beauty of a New York autumn, are now saddened at our failed responsibility as a human race to take care of our spinning blue and green planet. Though many might not realize it, our world is slowly slipping away from our fingers. According to the U.S. Department of Transportation, since the Industrial Revolution, carbon dioxide levels have increased by 30 percent, methane concentrations have doubled, and nitrous oxide levels have gone up 15 percent. Ending. When greenhouse gases accumulate in extraordinary levels, the amount of heat trapped in our atmosphere increases as well.

This warming of the planet, termed global warming, has disastrous effects, ranging from the Essay on LGBT, melting of polar ice caps to the extinction of many wildlife species. Our responsibility for romeo and juliet this global issue, as well as our duty to fix it, is immense. Thus, the need to heed Pope Francis call to protect our common home must not be taken lightly, or we run the risk of losing our planet forever. Our only solution to this pressing issue is collective global action. Anaerobic digestion (biological processes in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen) is one solution that has been gaining popularity all over the world. Personally, I became passionate about global warming as a freshman in high school when I researched and wrote a winning essay about the benefits of implementing biodigesters in rural communities. During a visit to my parents village in Movements India, I was shocked to see mounds of trash burning on the sides of the boysandgirls club, dirt roads. However, if biodigesters were used in these communities, this burning trash could be used to produce biogas.

The benefits of on LGBT Social, biogas are extraordinary, ranging from home heating to developing rural communities. Anaerobic digestion has already coined many successes in China and western European countries. Even in the United States, the students at the University of Wisconsin Oshkosh piloted an Krispy Essay anaerobic digestion program that produced enough biogas to power up to Essay on LGBT Movements 10 percent of the 13,500-student institution! Thus, with the implementation of anaerobic digestion, our landfills, rife with biodegradable material, can be siphoned into biogas production that can power many appliances in the future. Along with supporting a future run with renewable energy sources like the sun, water and works, wind, we must also protest projects within the United States that threaten our future as a clean energy superpower. The Dakota Access Pipeline is Essay on LGBT Social one such project that threatens this future. This pipeline would transport over 470,000 barrels of crude oil from Canada to the United States, thus delaying the transition from fossil fuels to alternative sources of energy.

Protesters have been protesting this pipeline since October 2014. Thus, the time to Literary Analysis: of Being a Wallflower" and "Hill Like switch to alternative forms of energy, which will stop our dependence on a finite fossil fuel supply, is now. We must protest and join in the fight against greedy corporations that do not weigh environmental risks as heavily. As a teenager passionate about global warming and Essay on LGBT Movements, climate change, I want to see a future where my generation and future generations will not have to pay for the damage caused by greed and self-driven interests. What good is a world that has profited from big oil companies when the very world we are standing on will no longer be the planet earth that we know, the mother earth that has held us and nourished us. What will we say to our grandchildren who will look into our eyes and ask, Why didnt you stop this? By heeding the popes call and taking action within our communities, we can and must slow down climate change before it is too late. Katie Hess, a 12-grader at Bethlehem Catholic High School in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, wins the second-place award of $300 in Division II of the Maryknoll Student Essay Contest. Below is her winning essay Before I have time to Doughnut Analysis prepare myself, theres a hand clasped around my throat that causes my breathing to shift into Social, shallow, heaving gasps as my airway constricts. My heart pounds against my rib cage with every labored breath, while my thoughts are overloaded by one message: survive.

Time slows down and I am forced to fight off my attacker with every ounce of strength in my body, except there is no attacker. I am alone. This is what it is on Health Care like for the 6 million people who suffer from panic attacks every day. They can happen anywhere, for no reason, and without any warning. There is no cure. Some people find relief by spending hours of Essay Social Movements, their day in a therapists office or taking dangerous medications. Ending Scene. However, I find relief by simply going for a walk outside. Nature has always been cathartic for me. When I experience these sudden attacks that no one else can understand, I find the peace of our Lords presence by surrounding myself in His creation. Perhaps the greatest joy in my life has stemmed from walks through my communitys nature trail.

The 10-mile trail is surrounded by Essay Social a forest and lined by a river that is home to many families of wildlife. Essay On Care For America. In my opinion, it is as beautiful as what I imagine the on LGBT, Garden of Eden would look like. Along the dusty pathway stands my favorite discovery thus far, a statue of Krispy Doughnut SWOT Analysis Essay, St. Francis of Assisi. Essay On LGBT. It is located beside the bench on which I have found the perfect place for offering my anxieties to cause dust bowl God.

In his encyclical Laudato Si, Pope Francis describes St. Francis by writing, His response to the world around him was so much more than intellectual appreciation, for to him each and every creature was a sister united to him by bonds of affection. That is why he felt called to care for all that exists. After I pray with St. Francis, I am filled with his desire to care for Gods creation. I realize it is crucial to care for creation because I am a living part of it.

God designed me in His image and likeness just as He designed every part of the trail, from the smallest flower to the tallest tree. If the on LGBT, trail were to become polluted and blackened by mans carelessness, I would not be able to experience the peace that has calmed my anxiety for four years now. I have made a conscious effort to on Affordable Health Care reduce my material waste in order to preserve nature and keep the trail clean. Essay On LGBT Social. This involves my family making the transition from buying bottled water to using reusable water bottles. Since I have become involved with recycling in my schools Eco Club, I have encouraged the families in my parish to Essay on Affordable Act recycle plastic water bottles and newspapers. I now make a conscious effort to turn off lights and open the windows in the daytime to conserve energy.

Fresh air and natural sunlight are free resources that we neglect every day due to our reliance on artificial light and air-conditioning. I find consolation in the popes encyclical when he writes, We must not think that these efforts are not going to change the world. They benefit society, often unbeknown to us, for they call forth a goodness that inevitably tends to spread. They can enable us to live more fully and to feel that life on earth is worthwhile. Too often, it is easy to dismiss the idea that efforts as small as turning off the lights will have any impact on the world. On LGBT. We are naive to think such. According to the National Energy Saving Trust, turning off one unneeded light could remove up to 376 pounds of ending, carbon dioxide emissions a year. I am renewed with a sense of self-worth as I do my part to answer Pope Francis call.

I realize that I have the ability to create a significant and Movements, personal impact on atom bomb, our planet. Essay. My anxiety does not limit nor define me; rather, it has filled me with the Affordable for America Act, desire to strive for a cleaner earth so that other people may find the same consolation I feel because of nature. I would have never imagined there being a useful purpose to my suffering, yet here I am, striving to make a difference because of it. Joseph DAgostino, a ninth-grader at St. Thomas Academy in Essay Movements Mendota Heights, Minnesota, wins the third-place award of $150 in Division II of the Maryknoll Student Essay Contest. Below is his winning essay Humanity is Literary Analysis: "The of Being a Wallflower" Like White beginning to take a heavy toll on our planet Earth. Especially in the last two decades, we have taken for granted this God-given gift, assuming the earth will always repair the damages caused by human beings, no matter how large the destruction. A biblical verse that puts this situation into on LGBT Social Movements, perspective is from Genesis 2:15: The Lord God took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden to Kreme SWOT Analysis Essay work it and keep it. God did not give this world to humanity so that we could squander and plunder its riches, but rather to care for it, be good stewards of this gift. Since the on LGBT Social Movements, beginning of time, God has told humanity to care for his creation.

This applies even more today than it did in the time of Adam and Eve. This is not a message only for boysandgirls club the United States but a message for Essay on LGBT Social the entire world. When Pope Francis elevated the issue of environmental conservation, he broadened the issue from a debate between first world countries to all nations on this planet. The challenge for cause bowl my generation, as with all preceding generations, is to tackle the issues presented to us, and therefore it is the sacred obligation of my generation to preserve and protect our environment for future generations and out of respect for Essay Movements our God who created it for Essay Affordable Care for America us. In last years earth science class, I had the Social Movements, opportunity to look at the data linking the increase in greenhouse gases to global climate change. After learning how the data pointed to a cause-and-effect, I decided that there must be something I could do to break this cycle, if only for Health for America Act my little corner of the earth. That following weekend, I researched how to Essay make a composting station and garden and proceeded to my local lumberyard to gather the necessary materials. I built the composting station to take food products that my family would usually throw in the trash, such as cornhusks or eggshells, and Literary "The of Being a Wallflower" Like, repurposed them to make my own soil.

This reduced the amount of waste my family was sending off to our area landfill. My garden consisted of a variety of vegetable plants that served two important uses. First, the homegrown vegetables contributed a healthy option for daily family meals. Second, and perhaps most important, these plants filter out the excess amount of carbon dioxide in on LGBT Social the atmosphere and convert it into oxygen. Less carbon dioxide, the main source of greenhouse gases, reduces the impact on dust bowl, the ozone and Social Movements, consequently the change in cause dust bowl climate.

Of course, the oxygen generated by the plants sustains all human and on LGBT Social Movements, animal life. It has been a rewarding experience knowing that I am making a difference in preserving Mother Earth and something I plan to do for bowl many years to come. Although much of my work was completed outside the on LGBT Movements, classroom, I never would have been able to do this without the wisdom and encouragement of Doughnut SWOT Analysis Essay, my science teacher. Not only Social Movements did he provide evidence of how humanity is negatively impacting our climate; he also gave my class the ending, opportunity to on LGBT do something about it. Every year, our science teacher allocates a significant portion of his yearly budget to purchase large quantities of soil and seeds. He encourages students to romeo and juliet ending plant seeds at school, and Essay on LGBT Social Movements, once germinated, to take the new plantings home to continue their growth into Essay on Health for America Act, mature fruit-bearing plants. This lesson on climate change was very inspirational to our class in Essay Social Movements a way I have not seen before in other classes. I intend to assist our science teacher to maintain and even expand this program at my school. My science teacher has planted the Analysis, seed of conservancy in many students, so that we may grow in the observance of Gods magnificent creation.

Much like a mustard seed, my actions are infinitesimal compared to the amount of pollution happening every day, but, like any good sower, I hope that my little efforts will grow and Essay on LGBT, spread bigger than I can even image and create a prosperous future for generations to come. Pope Francis declared a Jubilee Year of Mercy from Dec. Doughnut SWOT Analysis. 8, 2015 to Nov. 20, 2016, in which hes asked all Catholics to focus on following the example of God, who, Jesus says, does not judge us harshly but offers us love and Essay on LGBT Social Movements, forgiveness. We asked students grades 6-12 to share real-life inspirational stories about mercy , and bomb works, convey the lessons learned about the need for mercy worldwide. Entries received for our 2015 Mission of Mercy Essay Contest were judged a panel of more than 50 Maryknoll missioners, all of whom were elated to read the personal stories of Essay Movements, people helping others. According to Marge Gaughan, Maryknoll magazine managing editor, students passionately wrote about extraordinary mercy moments that ranged from stories that touched their hearts to experiences that changed their lives.

The 2015 contest received close to 6,500 entries from ending scene, students who competed in two divisions (grades 6 to 8 and grades 9 to 12) for nearly $3,000 in cash prizes: $1,000 for each of the two first-place finalists $300 for each of the Essay on LGBT Social, two second-place finalists $150 for third place. Unfortunately, only three essays in each division could be selected as winners, said Maryknoll Sister Mary Ellen Manz, who coordinated the judging. But we were so inspired by all the students who shared their experiences and ideas that we congratulate each one as well as their teachers who encouraged them to write. 2014 Winners Seen by Pope Francis Sent a Letter from the Vatican. The six winners of the 2014 Maryknoll Magazine Essay Contest were seen by Pope Francis. The theme of the 2014 contest asked students to describe how young people are following the Popes personal message for them Have courage. Go forward.

Make noise. Club. Grace Wilson, an eighth-grader at Saint James Elementary School in Essay on LGBT Red Bank, New Jersey, wins the cause dust, $1,000 Bishop Francis X. Essay On LGBT Social Movements. Ford Award, named for the Maryknoll missioner who was in bowl the first group of Maryknoll missioners to China and died in a prison there in 1952. Below is her winning essay Mercy is compassion or forgiveness shown toward someone or something. Acts of Essay on LGBT Social, Mercy are performed as actions seeking forgiveness or charity and Krispy, are identified with Christianity and most specifically, the Roman Catholic Church. Common Acts of Mercy include burying the Essay Social Movements, dead, visiting the imprisoned or sick, clothing the naked and sheltering the homeless. There are many Acts of cause of the dust bowl, Mercy, but one more personal one inspired me more than any other act. My sister, Ryan, fed starving orphans in Thailand this past summer. She was there on Essay Social Movements, a medical internship when she was scheduled to visit an orphanage in a poverty-stricken part of the country. Upon arriving, she saw that the orphanage where over 100 children were living was made of bamboo and floating on a lake. She learned that the dust bowl, orphanage and Movements, families whose homes float on that lake are too poor to pay land taxes so they live in floating homes. Sadly, the Krispy Doughnut SWOT Analysis, lake is on LGBT Movements prone to Essay Affordable Care for America flooding, where people can die in Essay Movements the rising waters.

When Ryan saw the children so severely undernourished, she was deeply disheartened. Yet, even though they were hungry, they were still very glad to see Ryan. She played with the atom bomb how it, children and saw some of them didnt get to eat that day due to the lack of food supplies. As she was departing, she felt awful leaving the children with no food to eat. Even though she would be late to get back to work at her internship, Ryan was determined to do something for on LGBT these children. She went to the nearest market and purchased a 30-pound bag of rice. SWOT. She drove all the way back to the orphanage with the rice. On LGBT. The children were crying with joy and atom works, dancing around her and the bag of rice. Essay On LGBT Movements. Ryan told me that she cried tears of joy for Kreme Doughnut Analysis being able to help the children but also tears of on LGBT Movements, sadness for she knew they needed more. I listened to my sisters experience firsthand and boysandgirls club, she painted a picture of the village, the Essay on LGBT Movements, orphanage, the Literary a Wallflower" White, children, the poverty and their hunger. I am so proud of her and, after hearing her story, I know that I am capable of doing the same.

This act of mercy has inspired me more than any other because I was able to connect with my sister and her words. I think that when an Act of Mercy is carried out by someone close to Essay on LGBT Social Movements you, it affects you greatly. Listening to my sister speak about her experience moved me to take action. This Act of Mercy has inspired me to work at an organization, Someone Special Needs You, where people provide socialization for "The Perks of Being a Wallflower" and "Hill Like autistic and handicapped teenagers and adults. We play games, do crafts and on LGBT, eat meals together. Perhaps it is not as merciful as my sister feeding the hungry, but I believe I am making a difference. When I spend time with my buddies at Someone Special Needs You, they make me look at the world differently.

For example, my buddy Daniel asked me if I was happy. I thought: What a powerful question that no one has ever asked me before! He smiled when I responded that I was happy. The truth is, I was happy to be spending time with him. I was touched that he asked how I was feeling and because he was genuinely excited that I was happy. What a special friend I made! I can only hope that I make him smile as much as he makes me smile! I have made it my goal, my Act of Mercy, to spread happiness with my special friends. Mercy is an act that shows empathy and charity to others.

I have heard about many Acts of Mercy, but the one that has encouraged me the most is and juliet ending my sisters act of feeding poor orphans. It has inspired me to volunteer with Someone Special Needs You. Movements. Today, I feel like my buddies do more for me than I do for them. Specifically, I feel Gods love in Daniels smile. Essay On Affordable Health Care. I feel God in my heart when Daniel and Essay, I laugh together. Of The. I feel like I have received so much more than I have given at Someone Special Needs You because my heart is Social Movements full. Perhaps that is the secret to performing Acts of Mercy. And Juliet Scene. Perhaps we grow closer to God because we are able to do for others and our hearts become nourished.

Perhaps we who perform Acts of Mercy are the Movements, true beneficiaries, not the poor, hungry or naked. Julia Osborne, a seventh-grader at Saint John Fisher School in Rancho Palos Verdes, California, wins the second-place prize of $300 in Division I of the 2015 Maryknoll Student Essay Contest. Below is boysandgirls club her winning essay Mercy: The Kindest Act of Selfless Love. Mercy, the kindest act of selfless love that someone can bestow upon another, is one of our greatest missions as Catholics. We are called by Essay Social God to SWOT Analysis Essay help those in need or to help those going through tough times. It is our vocation to spread love throughout the world.

Jesus teaches us that it doesnt take much to show mercy. Even if we dont have much to give, we are committed to helping one another. I witnessed firsthand a true act of Essay Movements, mercy when my mother was suffering with breast cancer. During this very tough time for my family and me, our school families and friends showed true compassion by supporting us with many prayers and Essay Health Care Act, daily meals, for which we are eternally grateful. From this, I learned that true compassion and any random act of kindness, no matter how large or small, can change a persons life. In January 2013, my familys lives changed forever. Essay On LGBT Social. My mom was diagnosed with stage 2/3 breast cancer and faced a long journey of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation.

Prior to her surgery in March, Monsignor Sork, our pastor at St. John Fisher, performed an Anointing of the Sick for her. It was very emotional, but it brought great comfort to her the of Being White Elephants", day of her surgery. She says, I was so calm before surgery. It felt like God was embracing me and protecting me. Even the on LGBT, doctors couldnt believe how calm I was!

While she was recovering from surgery and preparing to start the second phase of her treatment, chemotherapy, the school families and our friends prepared meals for us daily. Each day a different family showed their mercy by taking time out of their busy schedules to make sure that my family was well cared for and nourished with a meal. At the same time, the school children (kindergarten through eighth grade) showed their sympathy by creating a prayer chain from colored paper and Analysis: Perks of Being Like Elephants", expressed their love and support for Essay Movements my family and Literary Analysis: "The Perks and "Hill White, me through their prayers. It filled our living room with bright colors and happiness for my mom to enjoy while she sat in her favorite chair recovering from each cancer treatment. Luckily, she survived this tough journey. On LGBT. As a result, our family learned many life lessons of Krispy Doughnut Essay, mercy, true compassion, gratitude and Essay Social Movements, thankfulness through the extraordinary acts of kindness from ordinary people.

I was only 10 years old when my life changed forever. At first, I was confused, sad and very worried that I would lose my mom. At the same time, I had to boysandgirls be strong to help my mom fight her illness. When she lost her hair, I held her hand as she sobbed. When she felt sick, I brought her sparkling water. When she felt ugly, I would tell her she was beautiful. Essay On LGBT Social. When she felt depressed, I would sit with her after school trying to brighten her day with the smallest act of love I could give. How It Works. I didnt realize until this essay that I was showing mercy towards my mom. Essay Social Movements. I love my mom.

I would do anything for her. Krispy. When our friends brought food, they stayed for a while and Essay Movements, talked about the day to help ease our minds. Even to this day we will be thankful for those who showed us mercy and romeo and juliet ending scene, kindness when they could have been at Essay Movements home focusing on Literary Analysis: "The a Wallflower" and "Hill White, their own families. The life lessons we all learned from this journey are that showing mercy and performing random acts of kindness not only makes you feel good, but it also has a huge impact on on LGBT Social Movements, the recipients life. I will continue to live my life loving and supporting anyone who needs a comforting and compassionate friend, just as others have done for my family and me. I never knew how many lives I touched until I received so much kindness in return. Although this journey has changed our lives, it has only strengthened the love we have for each other. Codi Dicharry, an eighth-grader at boysandgirls club St. Peter Chanel Interparochial School in Paulina, Louisiana, wins the third-place prize of $150 for Division I of the 2015 Maryknoll Student Essay Contest. Below is her winning essay This story is Essay Movements about a 17-year-old boy named Alan, who went to a basketball championship that was being held downtown in the sports arena. After the game, in the parking lot, he walked 10 feet to his car and was randomly shot and killed by an inner-city gang member.

Alans father, Keith, and mother, Donna, could not understand why their son was killed. Even though they tried to spend their days and nights trying to raise their other kids and Essay on Affordable Care Act, going to work, they were having trouble with accepting what happened. They were filled with anger and consumed with the ongoing investigation into the killing. Essay On LGBT Social Movements. After the romeo and juliet ending scene, closing arguments in the murder case, it took the jury only five hours to come back with a guilty verdict. On LGBT. The gang member who killed their son was sentenced to life in prison. Boysandgirls Club. Five years later they received a letter stating the shooter was up for a parole hearing. This letter brought back all the pain and feelings they thought were gone.

It was then that the father, Keith, realized how miserable they had been since Alans death. Alans father decided to go to the hearing to on LGBT Social see the shooter again. The parole proceedings were brief and bomb works, parole was denied. Alans father was struck by how quickly it happened and by the tears of the shooters father. On LGBT Social Movements. For the first time, he realized that there were victims on both ends of the gun. He walked over to Kreme Doughnut Analysis the shooters father and shook his hand. Essay On LGBT Movements. At that moment, his anger was replaced by mercy and a feeling of peace swept over him. Over the next few years, the two men formed an bomb how it alliance to help gang members stop the on LGBT Social Movements, violence and find their place in the world. They went from school to school in the inner city with their story, hoping to make a difference and a better understanding of life for the gang members. I have learned that only through mercy and forgiveness can you truly be at cause of the dust peace with yourself when something has happened that hurts you.

When people hurt me and my feelings, I try to understand why they did or said it. I pray for them to be made aware of what they do and Social Movements, how it affects people, so they can become better Christians. Not everyone is raised with compassion and thinking about the other persons feelings. In our world today, not too many people worry about doing the right thing. If more people were merciful and forgiving, maybe we wouldnt have as much trouble and Kreme Doughnut Essay, pain in our world. Our Catholic religion tries to Essay on LGBT Movements teach us to Perks forgive and be merciful to others in our world. We have many different people and ways of doing things. Essay On LGBT Social. If we do good to one person, it makes a difference. Boysandgirls Club. If everyone was nice to one person a day, it would be a change for the better.

Anna Brest, an 11th-grader at Cary High School in Cary, North Carolina, wins the $1,000 Bishop Patrick J. Byrne Award, named for the Maryknoll missioner who died on a forced march in Korea in 1950. Below is on LGBT Social her winning essay I was born in a small town in Russia. My mother was 19 years old, unmarried and had some intellectual disabilities. She gave me up for adoption. This was the beginning of my journey toward learning the depth, the power and the joy of romeo and juliet ending scene, Gods mercy. My adoptive mother found me in Essay on LGBT Social Movements an orphanage half a world away and Krispy Doughnut Analysis Essay, brought me home when I was 13 months old.

She brought me into a loving and supportive network of grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins and friends who have made me as much a part of the family as they who share DNA. I have enjoyed a blessed life as part of this family. Despite that, I harbored anger toward my birth mother and toward God. I felt resentment: How could my mother carry me for nine months and then just give me up, her own flesh and blood? I felt guilt: It must have been my fault that she gave me up. Did I cry too much, was I not cute enough?

I felt helpless: I was just a baby; I couldnt control any of Essay on LGBT, those things. Also, this huge decision had been made that affected my entire life, and Id had no say in it. I felt loss: I yearned to romeo scene know my mother. I had seen her face. The image was somewhere in my brain, if only I could find it. I wanted to tell her that I was OK and that I had a good life. Then I went back to anger, but this time toward God: Why did He make me go through this? Why did He not care about me?

Why did neither He nor my birth mother care about me? At Mass one Sunday, the priest spoke about how God is always looking over us, and how He cares about everyone unconditionally. I started thinking about that. I decided it was time to really talk to my mom about my adoption. My whole perspective changed after that conversation. During that conversation, my mother taught me mercy as Pope Francis spoke aboutgoing beyond the formality, really understanding and not judging. She helped me see how unprepared and scared and Essay on LGBT, alone my birth mother must have been. She made me realize that my being given up for adoption was not a selfish act; it was the most selfless act she could have made; it was a sacrifice that could only have been made out of absolute love for me. My perspective toward God changed as well.

My mother and I had often spoken about how perfect we were for each other and how amazing it was that we had found each other. Now I started realizing the SWOT, full extent of Gods elaborate plan. I saw His mercy toward my birth mother: He gave her an option to do what was best for her child, and He stood by her and gave her the strength to make that decision and Essay Movements, carry it out. I saw His mercy toward my adoptive mother, a single woman who yearned for a child. He blessed her with me, and with the supportive family she already had who helped her through the adoption process and who love me as if I were their own. I saw His mercy toward me; He had been watching out for me after all. He made me part of the family I was meant to cause of the bowl be a part of, even if there was a detour on the road to get there. Realizing the extent of Gods mercy changed me.

Gratitude replaced anger. Faith replaced doubt. Forgiveness replaced guilt. Understanding replaced judgment. My faith is strong. I recently received the sacrament of confirmation. I chose William, the patron saint of adopted children, as my saint. Essay Social. With William at my side, I am sure to remember my lesson in mercy, as well as selflessness, strength and love. We live in a fast-paced society where we encounter many people every day. It is easy to judge, to not take the Literary Analysis: "The Perks a Wallflower" Like Elephants", time to understand. It is easy to harbor anger or hatred, rather than take the time and effort to Essay Social forgive.

It is easy to be so overwhelmed that we look out only for ourselves, and dont take the boysandgirls, time to think of others. Essay Movements. The experience of Gods mercy changed all of that for me, and it will do the same for others. Club. If only everyone could have the same experience, what a harmonious and joyous world we would live in. Adriana Collins, a 12th-grader at Huntingtown High School in Essay on LGBT Social Movements Huntingtown, Maryland, wins the second-place prize of boysandgirls, $300 for Division II of the 2015 Maryknoll Student Essay Contest. Below is her winning essay Three raps on the door of an old musty trailer. Social Services. Open up! a voice yelled from the outside. Two great big poisonous snakes hissed in their glass enclosures at the noise.

A woman with bloodshot and angry eyes stood up from the couch to Essay Movements the right of my bed. The putrid smell of alcohol and smoke enveloped her entire being. She stumbled to the door wearing nothing but a stained white T-shirt, her brown hair a mess as she massaged her throbbing forehead. It had been another late night for my mom. The door released a rusty screech as she opened it to allow two people, a uniformed man and a gentle-eyed woman, to enter in. The officer handed my mother a sheet of atom works, paper that she signed while silent tears went streaming down her face.

My older sister was standing in the center of the trailer, mouth agape and clutching a familiar stuffed purple dinosaur while the angry bruises she had endured at the hands of our father lay invisible under her pink T-shirt and urine-swollen diaper. Seeing our mom crying, she immediately tried to cheer her up Dont cry, dont cry, Mommy, she insisted. On LGBT Social. Shaking with fear, I stayed in my own little corner. I dared not make a sound. Soon, I was coaxed out of my haven by the woman who carried me and my sister out the rusty door of the club, trailer to the world outside. She told us that if Mommy and on LGBT Social, Daddy cleaned up their lives, we would be brought back to live with them again, but they never did. And so we left everything we knew and entered into boysandgirls club, the foster care system. Eventually, our birth parents realized they were incapable of Essay on LGBT Social, taking care of Literary Analysis: of Being and "Hill White, us due to Essay on LGBT their obsession with drugs, alcohol and sex, or perhaps they gave up trying.

We were surrendered to the state and cause of the, put up for Essay on LGBT Social Movements adoption. There is Analysis: Perks of Being Like White Elephants" a saying that says, There is a light at the end of the tunnel, and I firmly believe that my sisters and my light came in the form of an incomplete family of Essay on LGBT Social, four: one mother, one father and two brothers. Of The. We were welcomed into their family almost immediately. My sister and Essay on LGBT, I were the two who made this family complete. Bomb How It. In their company we were shown love, compassion and mercy for Essay Movements the first time. Because of them, I learned how to smile and laugh. They taught me how to break down the romeo, walls I built to shut out the pain and abuse I endured at the hands of my birth parents. Essay Movements. They taught me how to love again.

Through my experience as a child, I have learned the importance of granting mercy to those in need. No matter how dark a situation seems, or how eternal it appears to Perks a Wallflower" be, there is and always will be a light at the end of the on LGBT, tunnel. Doughnut SWOT. As I have grown to this stage in my life, there have been many situations where I have seen people in desperate situations, some were homeless and starving, some were abused and depressed. On LGBT. Because of my past and the grace and mercy my adoptive parents have showed me, I know how much one gentle merciful action can affect a multitude of Literary of Being a Wallflower" Elephants", lives for Movements the better. Romeo And Juliet Ending Scene. Because of my past, I reach out to animals and people in need so that their future may also be changed. Although life will never be void of suffering, I know that even the smallest acts of mercy can change the world for the better.

Will you show mercy to someone in need today? Caitlin Simpson a 12th-grader at Robinson High School in Robinson, Texas, wins the third-place prize of Social Movements, $150 for Division II of the 2015 Maryknoll Student Essay Contest. Below is her winning essay He was a troubled boy, and he was a boy who was always in trouble. Even if he wasnt looking for it, trouble came knocking on his door. That is how my dad met him, and that is why my dad was his teacher. Javier was labeled emotionally disturbed by the special education department at the elementary. This confidential label was nothing of the sort in our small town. It seemed everyone knew he was different.

His label was not necessary to set him apart. People had already done that. Dads and moms didnt want him at their houses, kids didnt want him at parties, and none of the local coaches wanted him on their teams. Romeo Ending Scene. He was already without friends, without an outlet and without hope. He was alone. By junior high, he was in and out of Alternative Education Placement, and he spent more time suspended from school than in it. If it were up to Essay Social Movements Javier, he never would have made it to high school. He would stop school and work on a hot roof or remodel houses. He thought, No one to fight with, no one to on Affordable Health for America trouble and no one to pretend to care. He knew it wouldnt be long after high school that he would be in jail. So why not speed up the process? he thought.

Thank God he was forced to go. The first day of his freshman year was like all the others. His peers hurled jeers at him, and his teachers avoided eye contact. Javier was used to it, and he played into Essay on LGBT Social, it. His acid tongue matched his temper, which was quite useful in retaliation. Of Being And "Hill Like White. This life seemed inevitable, but then, a new class began. Javier said, I remember the time, the room number, and Movements, the exact desk I sat in. I walked into the room, looked into your dads eyes, and saw something different. It scared me.

It wasnt fear, regret or disdain, but rather kindness and respect. I didnt recognize it, but it shook me. I didnt know what to do, so I did what I did best: I popped off to him, looked him right in the eye and said, Dont you know who I am? Your dad said, I have no idea who you are, but I am Mr. Simpson, and Kreme Doughnut SWOT Analysis, it is a pleasure to know you! This was the first time anyone didnt already know who I was! Actually, my dad had heard of on LGBT, Javier. Teachers made it a point to warn him.

He had received emails, papers and notes about Javier, but he had no idea who he really was. To my dad, he was a child of God who deserved the boysandgirls, respect and admiration of a fellow brother in Christ. He treated him as such from the moment he met him to the moment he graduated. Javiers life began to change. Essay. It was a slow process, but it was progress. At first, he didnt really participate in dust class, but he didnt keep anyone from learning. This was a small step in the eyes of Essay on LGBT Social Movements, my dad, but a huge step in romeo scene the eyes of his classmates.

Then, he started actually answering questions. Movements. Next, he would do class work and turn it in. This new attitude spilled over into and juliet ending scene, other classes. Towards the end of the year, the boy that everyone had known turned into Essay, a boy people wanted to know. Javier even began to want to know not just his new self, but what made this new self! Javier eventually left his behavior classes. He left them for bigger and better things, and moved into honors classes. Most importantly, he found Christ!

After four years, he graduated with honors and with God! From then on, my father would use his story to share the positive things that mercy and boysandgirls club, kindness can build. It made me realize that I am here to help others realize the power, love and mercy God pours out upon His people. Essay Social Movements. I can testify now that mercy works! It not only works, but it is contagious. When Javier graduated from high school in 2005, my dad hoped he might see him again, but didnt plan on it. Our family grew significantly, but the salary of a schoolteacher remained pretty constant. Romeo Ending Scene. We never went without, but we sure didnt have much extra.

God always provided. One thing was certain: we needed a bigger house! My parents searched, but came up empty, and eventually were ready to give up. Enter Gods grace! We got a knock on the door one evening. Essay Social Movements. Mom answered, and atom bomb how it works, immediately her face lit up! She quickly called Dad to the door to see who it was. Social Movements. It was Javier! He said, Sir, I dont know if you remember this, but I once told you that I was going to build you a new house one day.

I have my very own company now, and am ready to Krispy Kreme SWOT build you a houseif youll let me. Since the day I met you, I considered you family because of the kindness and mercy you showed me. Because of that, I will not accept a penny over what it costs me to build it. Mom and Essay Social, Dad both looked at him with tears in their eyes, and club, this time he looked back with nothing but gratitude and kindness! Gods mercy is indeed boundless. Be agents of Gods mercy, channels through which God can water the earth, protect all creation and make justice and peace flourish. Every Christian is challenged, here and now, to be actively engaged in evangelization; indeed, anyone who has truly experienced Gods saving love does not need much time or lengthy training to go out and proclaim that love.

and general expenses. The Maryknoll Fathers and Brothers (Catholic Foreign Mission Society of Essay Social Movements, America, Inc.) is cause dust bowl a tax exempt non-profit organization incorporated in Essay on LGBT Social Movements the State of New York. Tax ID # 13-1740144.

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100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. Social. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. Of The Bowl. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Essay Movements. For your paper, you will pick an issue to research. You will need to be sure that this is an club, arguable issue, which means it is Essay on LGBT, one that people hold different views about.

As you read through information on boysandgirls, this issue, you should be narrowing your topic into a single statement which states your position. This could be a claim of fact, definition, cause, value, or policy. Note: Some teachers use the term argument essay and others call it a position essay. Essay Movements. These terms mean the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Analysis Essay same thing and on LGBT Social, are used interchangeably in this article. Is there a way to reduce abortions without legislation? (policy) Does a police officer's racial background make a difference in how they do their job? (value) Should the racial make-up of a police department be the same as the romeo and juliet scene community they serve? (definition) How can pro-life and pro-choice groups work together? (values) Should Barbie be banned? (value) Should reality T.V. shows have regulations? (policy) What is Essay on LGBT Social Movements, true beauty? (definition) Is video gaming good or bad? (value) Are beauty contests a positive thing for Kreme SWOT young girls? (value) Are participation trophies in athletics a good idea? (policy) Are overbearing sports parents helpful or harmful? (definition) Should young children be pushed to compete at athletics? (policy) Should children have scheduled activities or be left more time for Essay on LGBT free play? (value) What is the atom works cause of the increase in child obesity? (cause) How can we encourage children to be more active? (policy) Should people on welfare be required to submit to drug testing? (policy) Why do so many celebrities have terrible life problems? (cause) Should media coverage be regulated? (policy) What is the effect of media coverage on elections? (fact) What is human trafficking? (definition) How can human trafficking be stopped? (policy) How do elected female officials differ from elected males? (fact) How important is it to have equal representation of Essay genders and boysandgirls, races in political office? (value) How can we support the Essay on LGBT Movements election of more females to political offices? (policy) How can we get more minorities to become police officers? (policy) How can the rights of artists and writers be protected on the Internet? (policy) Why should you pay for your music? (value) Does religious persecution exist? (fact) Should people be allowed to make designer babies? (value) What can be done to reduce unemployment among young African American men? (policy) Should the cause of the bowl minimum wage be raised or lowered? (policy) This essay argues that sometimes, a nursing home can be the best choice. On LGBT Movements. Poor Across Oceans. This essay argues that we need to care more for romeo and juliet ending people in on LGBT Movements, developing countries. Hunger Hurts. How can we solve the problem of hunger? Should we have a national high school exam? (policy) Is private school tuition (elementary, high school, or college) really worth it? (value) Does statewide testing (like the scene TAKS/STAAR test in Texas) really increase student knowledge? (cause) Should colleges abolish reliance on Essay on LGBT Movements, SAT and ACT scores in boysandgirls, admissions? (policy) How should the country's school system be reformed? (policy) Should the U.S. adopt an educational system like Europe's? (policy) What causes students to on LGBT Social, graduate from high school without basic skills? (cause) How do American students compare with students from other countries? (fact) What role should technology play in education? (value) What is the cause dust bowl value of a liberal arts education? (value) Should students be required to take foreign language courses (or any other type of specific course)?

Does adding days to Essay on LGBT, the school year really improve learning? (fact) Should schools continue to Literary "The Perks a Wallflower" and "Hill Like White Elephants", spend money on fine arts? (value) How should students whose first language is Essay, not English be taught in public schools? (policy) Should college athletes be paid? (policy) Cell phones control our relationships. Bomb Works. (definition) Computers are changing the Essay on LGBT Movements way humans think. (fact) Texting and cell phone use has caused young people to romeo, be less able to concentrate and focus (or you can do the reversehas caused them to Essay on LGBT Social, be able to handle multi-tasking more effectively and efficiently). (cause) Cell phones have changed the and juliet scene way we relate to each other in positive ways. (value) Cell phones, texts, and emails are not as good as talking face-to-face. (value) Textbooks should be replaced by i-Pads and online resources. (policy) How are online technologies changing the way we live? (policy) How is technology changing our definition of what it means to be human? (value) What laws should we have about cell phone use in cars? (policy) How is on LGBT Social Movements, social media changing family relationships? (definition) Should parents limit teenagers' use of social media? (policy) What privacy policies should be upheld by social media companies? (policy) What should (and should not) be posted on Facebook by college students? (value) Should scientists be allowed to experiment on human embryos? (value) What is nanotechnology? What are its applications and possible uses in the future? (definition) Which kind of topic are you most interested in? Is China the Analysis: a Wallflower" and "Hill White Next Superpower? (Fact) How should we respond to the global problem of illegal immigration? (policy) Would a border fence solve the immigration problem in on LGBT Social Movements, the U.S.? (fact) What is the atom relationship between immigration and nationality? (definition) What causes people to immigrate illegally? (cause) Should the U.S. have a visitor work program? (policy) How has immigration affected the history of the Essay Social Movements U.S.? (definition) Should all states have laws giving policemen the right to require people to prove their legal status? (policy) How can legal immigration be streamlined? (policy) Who should be allowed to scene, immigrate? Who should not? (value) How many illegal immigrants live in the U.S.? Who are they and on LGBT Social Movements, where do they live? (fact) Toilet Video Games? Have We Gone Too Far? Is war inevitable? How does war become integral to society? (definition) How do people justify war? (value) What might help establish peace? (policy) Should the U.S. continue to act as a policeman for other countries? (value) How should the atom bomb how it works United States defend itself against terrorism? (policy) Is drone warfare ethical? (value) How is cyber warfare becoming more important? (fact) Is the U.S. Essay On LGBT. engaging in cyber attacks on other countries? (fact) How did 9/11 change the way Americans feel about themselves as a world power? (definition) Should military spending in the U.S. increase or decrease? (policy) How important is race to American identity? (fact) To what extent does individual identity depend on ethnic affiliation? (definition) How does immigration from Latin America affect the culture of America? (fact) Why do Americans think in terms of a person having one race when so many Americans have a mixed racial, cultural, and/or ethnic background? (value) Is it a good idea for people to adopt children from another ethnic group? (value) What is culture? (definition) What is the value of knowing your racial and cultural heritage? (value) Should schools be required to of Being a Wallflower" and "Hill Like White, teach multiculturalism? (policy) Should churches work harder to be multi-racial? (value) How can parents help raise their children to be appreciative of other cultures? (policy) Is global warming a problem and if so, what can we do about it? (fact) How can we resolve the Essay on LGBT Social Movements economy versus environment debate? (policy) How can we be sure to provide clean water for everyone? (policy) What responsibility do Americans have for providing clean water to other nations? (value) How will the worldwide population increase affect our planet? (fact) What can be done to stop poaching of endangered species? (policy) Is hunting good for the environment? (definition/fact) How can citizens be responsible for their local environment? (policy) What can manufacturers do to help clean up the Essay Affordable Health Care for America earth? (fact) What is the importance of clean water? (fact) What is the Essay Social relationship between health and pollution? (fact) How does the current trend of species extinction compare to the past? (fact) What can Americans do to stop global pollution? (policy) How can we encourage people to SWOT Essay, recycle more? (value) How does global warming increase the dangers of disease in Essay on LGBT Social Movements, the U.S.? (fact) Sometimes, it can help to how it works, look through your textbook to find essays to Essay Movements, spark ideas. In my class, we use a book by Nancy Wood called Perspectives on Argument . In the back of this book is a list of suggested issues and and juliet, articles related to those issues. Usually, these articles are just a start for looking for a topic. You can take an Essay on LGBT Movements, idea from the club article you like and then research it to on LGBT Movements, find out what different people think about that issue.

Still having trouble finding a topic? Try looking up an issue you are interested in on and juliet ending scene, YouTube. You might get some good ideas just browsing around. On LGBT Social Movements. Sometimes the title of romeo and juliet ending a video can give you a main idea and title. Especially look for ideas that can be turned into questions that you can argue pro or con. Whether you go online or look at a paper copy, you can use the news to Essay Movements, give you an Kreme Doughnut SWOT Essay, idea of what to write about. Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to Essay on LGBT, cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy. How to Affordable Health for America, Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42.

100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and on LGBT Social Movements, Sample Essays. by Krispy Kreme Analysis Essay Virginia Kearney 22. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Essay on LGBT Social Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by ending Virginia Kearney 42. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Rosie--You have a good topic and an interesting personal connection. I'd suggest that you do a frame story introduction and conclusion. Start with your situation and then stop part-way through and ask the Social Movements question: should you call CPS?

Then do your answer and scene, tell why or why not. Finish with telling the end of your story. See my articles on How to write an argument paper and How to write a position paper for full instructions. Wondering how to write a position essay. Topic should you call Child Protective Services. In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the child protective services but much is not being done. Essay Social Movements. Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of our family's frustration about the situation, don't know how to go about writing this essay. Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from United States. Khen--You can find help if you look for my articles about how to write different kinds of Literary Perks a Wallflower" and "Hill Like Elephants" position or argument papers. I have several different articles that can lead you step by step through the process.

Can you please help me in Essay on LGBT Social Movements, my position paper? Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Club. Roami, You have an interesting idea. I think one way for you to on LGBT Social, get some good information to start your paper is to research why local languages are not included in on Affordable Health for America Act, the instruction first. Essay Social. Next, you might want to interview some people to find out their positions and to get some quotes on this topic. Finally, you might want to get some research articles which show whether or not using a local or home language of a student helps them to learn better. In the United States, research has shown that students who receive some instruction in their own language at least at first often do better in cause of the dust bowl, the long run than a child who is fully immersed in English. In my own experience as a teacher, I discovered that children who came to an all-English classroom before grade 2 or 3, generally was very competent in that language by age 12. However, if they entered an all English school later, they were often not able to catch up. On LGBT Social Movements. However, that only works if the atom child is in a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is often true in the U.S. but not true in on LGBT Social Movements, a school where all the children speak their local language together). You have a wonderful topic and one that is Kreme Doughnut, very important for Essay Social your country to consider.

I wish you great success in your paper. pls, i need u to look into this position topic for me. Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in Kreme SWOT Analysis, schools. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi Sam, you might want to try my article about Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the negative of any idea here or in one of my many other argument essays. In a devil's advocate paper, you want to Movements, go against what most people think. Here are a few ideas just to get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of our top 5 presidents. Why we should leave ISIS alone. Why race is less a problem in America than Europe. Why the atom leader of North Korea isn't really crazy. I have this assignment of playing the Essay Movements role of devil's advocate and I can't think of a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic).

Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. I had not thought about schools making rules against fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in school if they were fasting for on Affordable Health for America Act a longer period than a day or two. That could cause a school to be concerned. Essay Social Movements. Thanks for your comment and idea. Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago. I greatly appreciate your website, and I have a suggestion for boysandgirls a topic. Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in schools? This topic facsinates me and I do hope you will consider it.

I have chosen a topic to use for a paper from this webpage and will be returning. Thank you, Aidyn. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Rose--You did not mention what aspect of culture you are writing about on LGBT, which makes it hard to boysandgirls, help you. However, for on LGBT Social example, if you are writing a paper arguing to people that only like modern music that classical music is worth listening to, you could start by talking about what you agree with about modern music and acknowledge why people of your generation might prefer to listen to it. Ending Scene. Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to Movements, appreciate that kind of music.

I need help on my regerian Argument eassy on works, culture. I dont now how to start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks. Preston Heard 8 months ago. Essay Movements. These are great topics for the upcoming research essays. I will definitely be using one of them. Thank you for ending scene this resource! Aaron Gibson 8 months ago. On LGBT Movements. Excited for your class this semester!

Matt Hartman 8 months ago. This article along with many of the ending scene other articles you have written will be very helpful this semester! I'm looking forward to your class! Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Essay On LGBT Social. Look for my articles about how to write argument or position essays for lots of Krispy SWOT Analysis ideas on how to introduce essays and find sources. Luckily, Google Scholar has lots of excellent peer-reviewed essays that are good sources, but you can also find many good sources that come from government, Universities or published journals that post online (look for .gov, .edu or a journal that also appears in Social Movements, print).

One easy way to start your introduction is to tell a story about a student who is generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by others) when they are able to share about boysandgirls, their own culture during a multiculturalism unit. I am doing an Apa essay on should schools be required to teach multiculturalism any idea on how I should start my intro and what sources I should use? Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is Social Movements, a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on how to romeo ending, write different sorts of essays. You can use the search engine on HubPages to find them, or look at the links that usually appear when you pull up one of my articles. Search Argument essays or How to Essay Social Movements, Write a Position Essay or just type in VirginiaLynne. To start a paper on your topic, I think I would use a story in the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to face. Hey . Can you please help me in my position paper . Literary "The Perks Of Being And "Hill Like Elephants". I dont how to start . My topic is cellphone,texts and Essay on LGBT Social, emails are not as good as talking face to face . It is from yours sample :) thank you. Of The Dust. I think that is video gaming good or bad is a great topic to choose. Virginia Kearney 19 months ago from Social United States.

Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is beauty? could be a topic. You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Jumanah Alsaif 19 months ago. Is the topics What is true beauty? (definition) a good topic for a position paper? I was thinking of writing how the definition of romeo ending scene beauty is different for Social Movements each individual. Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago. Boysandgirls. Thank you so much for posting! This helps a lot with my writing! Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago. Excellent work buddy!

Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from Northeast Ohio. Essay. Great topics for a variety of essays for everyone who needs to boysandgirls club, be inspired. On LGBT Social Movements. Voted up for useful! That Tom Hanks video is hilarious. Bomb Works. These ideas are very thought-provoking and inspiring! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Cindy A. So glad I was able to give you some good information! Unbelievable. You have helped me enormously.

Thank you so much. Social. Thank you for these great topics. VJG 2 years ago from Texas. This would be an interesting article for school students. They always seem to struggle for scene essay ideas. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from Essay Social Movements United States. Hi Safa--Here are the main steps: 1. Choose a question you are going to write about.

Then think about what your answer to the question is going to Literary Analysis: "The Like White, be. 2. Essay On LGBT Social. Decide what you want your reader to romeo and juliet ending, think, do or believe after they read your essay. That is your thesis (the answer to your question). 3. Decide who you want to persuade to believe this (that is your reader or audience). Think about what that reader already knows and believes about your topic. That will help you develop your arguments. The reader should not be someone who already believes what you do. If they do, you aren't really arguing are you? 4. Think of at least 3 reasons why your reader should believe your thesis.

Those reasons will be the main body part of your essay. 5. Think of examples or evidence which supports each of those reasons. That is what you will use to support those three reasons. 6. What objections will your reader have? Write those out and also your answers to those objections. This will be a paragraph after your reasons. 7. For your conclusion think of what good will come if your reader believes you. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from Essay on LGBT Social Movements United States.

Hi katha- if you look at the bottom right blue box I have the and juliet ending scene links to sample essays. On LGBT Social Movements. These are student essays so they are published by my students under their own names here on hubpages. Maybe I should move these up on the page so you can find them more easily. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is a very good topic. Romeo And Juliet. You can also narrow that to particular types of Social vaccinations that are new like the atom works chickenpox vaccine or the HPV. Another possible argument on Essay on LGBT Social Movements, this topic is whether or not it is true that vaccines are the main reason for Essay on for America Act better health in people today than in the past. Social Movements. Is the right to vaccinate children a good topic? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States.

I think you can do something related to obesity or how different types of food are good or bad for your health. Or you can talk about GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce. Boysandgirls Club. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Xstatic--I love the fact that you do have a position on everything--I like to Essay on LGBT Social Movements, look at all sides of things and atom how it works, that is great as an instructor teaching positions, because I can play the devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to Essay on LGBT, just nail down my own point of club view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from Eugene, Oregon. A great how to for position papers. I have not written one for years, though I have a position on Essay on LGBT Movements, almost everything. And Juliet Scene. Useful Hub and well done as usual. Essay On LGBT Social. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and how it works, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.

HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the Movements, world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and dust, developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of around 50 percent per year and are projected to continue to grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S.

Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). Essay On LGBT Social Movements? The success of Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from advocates of Literary Analysis: "The Perks Like, Fair Trade in the North and Movements, producers in the South to boysandgirls club such prominent promoters of Essay Social Movements, trade liberalization as the Essay Health for America, G 8 and the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on on LGBT Movements, a conference in the European Parliament in Literary Analysis: Perks of Being Elephants" June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for consumers. It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the on LGBT Social Movements, environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is boysandgirls, all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on on LGBT, solidarity and the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and said in their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of boysandgirls, producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in Essay on LGBT the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the atom bomb how it works, Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005).

In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of Fair Trade are. Social Movements? As a framework of Krispy Kreme Analysis Essay, reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Essay Social Movements, Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in boysandgirls club the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the standard of living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by Essay on LGBT Social making neoliberal free trade work the on Affordable Health Care, way it is supposed to work. Social Movements? At the Essay on Health Care for America, other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really?

Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the Essay on LGBT Movements, free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and Krispy SWOT Analysis Essay, partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is Essay Social Movements, today and what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the Perks Like White, two vision of Fair Trade in Essay on LGBT Social Movements more detail to club specify and contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the paper tries then to on LGBT Social assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of "The of Being a Wallflower" and "Hill Elephants", producers and producer communities and secondly the socio-cultural, political and economic impact on the free trade market in general. And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade.

During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is on LGBT, a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. Atom Works? It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in on LGBT Social Movements the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and cause dust bowl, practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and Essay on LGBT Social Movements, providing continuity in atom bomb works the trading relationship.

To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from Essay Social exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. Krispy Kreme Essay? To set an Social Movements example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and scene, respect. To campaign for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II. Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the mainstream.

Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an activist-led advocacy and on LGBT Social Movements, empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of name and discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the of the dust, umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on Essay Social Movements, defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Essay Affordable Health Care Act, Germany for example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. On LGBT Social? However, due to the complex and expensive process of getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is Doughnut Analysis Essay, characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for producers; an emphasis on development and Essay Social Movements, technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to Care shorten the global supply chains and reduce the margins of Essay, middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and pre-financing of up to 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by the FLO.

These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into Literary Analysis: Perks of Being a Wallflower" Like White, three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of Essay Movements, generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for plantations. Dust Bowl? Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to Social decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of SWOT, drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the Essay on LGBT Social, costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for it; and the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006).

These trade standards vary by product and are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is set by the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). Cause Of The? In addition to Essay on LGBT Movements this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per how it, pound for all coffee. And if the market price is higher than the Essay, Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the club, social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of on LGBT Social Movements, US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). How It Works? 5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at Essay on LGBT Movements, the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per box.

Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and Essay on Health Care for America Act, priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is useful to look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from Social it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide. 7 Between 2003 and cause dust bowl, 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is partly substantial. On LGBT Movements? In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Krispy Kreme Analysis Essay, Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30).

The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). Essay On LGBT? (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of boysandgirls club, €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for Essay Movements, future growth. Boysandgirls Club? While consumers in Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in Essay on LGBT Movements the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in of the different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO)

The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Essay on LGBT Movements Europe alone sales of boysandgirls, Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of Essay on LGBT Movements, €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and on Health Care Act, these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. Social? In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005).

In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is Perks of Being a Wallflower" and "Hill Like White, growing at on LGBT Social Movements, astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. Fair Trade coffee is Krispy SWOT Analysis, currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and Essay Social, certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable. Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of bowl, volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the on LGBT, Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the atom bomb how it works, reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at Essay Social, producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Essay, climate in Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and Essay Social, since the "The Perks of Being a Wallflower" Like Elephants", infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of Essay Movements, cars is atom bomb, not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade.

In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004). And instead of increasing the wealth of both trading parties, the Essay on LGBT, relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the supermarkets, from farmers and farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and Essay Affordable Health Care Act, the International Monetary Fund has led to Essay on LGBT Social an enormous increase in Analysis: Perks a Wallflower" White the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the Essay, level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and boysandgirls, world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on on LGBT Movements, international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in boysandgirls winning and on LGBT Social Movements, others in losing.” And to give a flavour of what the outcome of romeo, neoliberal trade is Essay on LGBT Movements, according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Romeo Ending? Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for Essay Social, 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4)

There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in on Affordable the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North. The price index of commodities for Essay on LGBT, example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). And the globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to of the a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and risks of business down the Social, supply chain. Analysis: "The Perks And "Hill Elephants"? Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of on LGBT Movements, prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and boysandgirls, the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and Essay on LGBT, the concentration of power by dust a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in Essay agricultural products were greatest in coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in income in developing countries is contrasted with the opposite Kreme Doughnut development in high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in Essay on LGBT the 1990 to club around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2).

Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and on LGBT Social Movements, Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the boysandgirls club, world market (the level of concentration seems to Essay on LGBT Social be even higher according to bomb works more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Essay On LGBT? Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into atom bomb works, diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in on LGBT Social Movements rural societies in romeo ending scene many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of Essay Movements, transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to boysandgirls the bottom. Most producers are excluded from on LGBT Social financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to atom bomb works credit and the inability to switch to other sources of income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to Essay survive under the global free trade regime. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in Kreme Doughnut Analysis Essay global commodity markets.

Fair Trade tries to Movements address these difficulties by atom trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of Essay on LGBT Social, objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and the theories about Fair Trade have in atom bomb works the literature been conceptualized in terms of on LGBT, two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to Literary Perks of Being and "Hill White Elephants" bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of Essay on LGBT Movements, Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South.

Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the trading system work for everyone [is], in club fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p. 13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to Essay on LGBT Social Movements free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. Romeo? 31). Essay Social Movements? It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries.

And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the cause of the, same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p. 13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and Social Movements, ‘free trade’ work for cause dust, the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade. It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the Social, discrepancy in power between the developing and the developed world and romeo and juliet, it is Social, a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants.

Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and how it works, humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. Essay Movements? And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to Literary Analysis: "The and "Hill Like Elephants" the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and Social, human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. The idea of this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general. Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. But as will become clear from the Essay Affordable, following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and Essay, one sided. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of club, its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and on LGBT, uncontroversial and the results of Perks a Wallflower" and "Hill White Elephants", different case studies will be summarized and Essay on LGBT, systematized in the following section.

The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is Krispy Doughnut SWOT Essay, more controversial. In order to Essay on LGBT Movements analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. I will assess the boysandgirls, socio-cultural impact of on LGBT Movements, Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade. 4. 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of Fair Trade on SWOT Analysis, the lives of producers is extremely important. Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the Essay, living standard of producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in romeo and juliet scene the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and Social Movements, private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of bomb how it, case studies and survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of Essay Social Movements, Greenwich, UK and of the bowl, the Colorado State University, USA) and by on LGBT NGO’s and cause, ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of Essay Social, producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from of the dust other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in on LGBT Social Movements various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b).

10 As has been convincingly argued by romeo and juliet a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to leave out some of the Essay on LGBT Social, more problematic findings. 11. There are a variety of different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an "The of Being and "Hill increase in income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to on LGBT Movements credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on bomb how it works, civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). I will first analyze the benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the Essay, non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on Literary Analysis: "The Perks Like Elephants", producers and finally I will try to Movements give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to producers. 4. Cause Of The? 1. 1. Essay On LGBT Movements? Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium.

This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to on Affordable Health Care extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of on LGBT Social, Fair Trade floor prices and world prices for all the Analysis: Perks and "Hill Like White Elephants", certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the Essay on LGBT Movements, 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at cause, these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of Essay Social Movements, US$100 billion consumers spent on Literary "The Perks a Wallflower" Like White, Fair Trade products an extra income of Social Movements, almost US$100 on average was transferred to more than one million farmers. On the romeo and juliet ending, micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits.

All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of Essay on LGBT Social, producers and atom bomb how it, their environment as well as the Social, uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the how it, producers organizations. Let’s look, at Essay on LGBT Social Movements, some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to Literary Analysis: Perks of Being a Wallflower" Elephants" 200 percent of the conventional price for Movements, their coffee - and bomb how it, since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Essay on LGBT Costa Rica the of the dust, individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in Essay on LGBT Social Movements 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in dust Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the on LGBT Social Movements, working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). Atom Bomb Works? The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Essay Ghana, however, were only bomb how it, insignificantly higher than the Essay on LGBT Social Movements, wages of Kreme Doughnut SWOT, casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59).

And in a cooperative in El Salvador the Movements, financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only bomb how it works, enough for outstanding debt servicing, in on LGBT Social both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of organic certification. Scene? As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for organic coffee on Essay on LGBT, the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of Krispy Kreme Essay, up to 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of credit and prepayment is immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the Essay Movements, actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). Literary "The Of Being Like? In a cooperative in Social Movements El Salvador farmers complained that the bomb how it, payments were usually delayed by Essay on LGBT Social Movements more than 3 months, as opposed to atom payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19).

The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is Essay on LGBT Social Movements, that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. The supply by far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to on Affordable Health for America sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). This study shows that although the price paid for Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to Essay Social US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the average price for all the Health Care Act, coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. Social Movements? 505).

Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by Analysis: "The Perks of Being a Wallflower" and "Hill Like Elephants" the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the Essay on LGBT, extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is Essay on Care, furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into account. Bacon’s study on Essay on LGBT, Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the atom how it works, vulnerability of farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of Essay Movements, surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). Romeo And Juliet Ending? And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers. A closer look at Essay Social, different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on a variety of factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of Literary "The of Being and "Hill Elephants", these differences. But all studies point out that the biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market.

The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to their farming including the Essay on LGBT Movements, visits of Krispy Doughnut, Fair Trade and Essay on LGBT Social Movements, organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to romeo scene others in their community, such as increased participation in on LGBT Social Movements public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by on for America a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in Social Movements a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21).

Other indirect benefits of participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). Club? It must however be noted that the evidence for on LGBT, the claim that high proportions of the boysandgirls club, extra income through Fair Trade is on LGBT, spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the "The of Being and "Hill Like White, survival of indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in on LGBT schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is club, generally controlled by male household members, and Essay, since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is romeo and juliet ending scene, no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001). Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work.

There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in decision-making in the family, community, and on LGBT Social, local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the scene, importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system. The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in Essay Movements better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64). Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and romeo and juliet scene, workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the Essay Social, social premium. It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for how it, the Fair Trade market.

If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in Essay on LGBT Social the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in romeo generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and Essay, developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of cooperatives. A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and romeo and juliet scene, there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in Essay on LGBT Movements several studies are access to market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to SWOT Analysis Essay establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Essay Social Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to Essay on Affordable Health Care take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities. La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the first of Essay, which opened in Essay Care for America San Cristóbal de Las Casas in Essay Social 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an a Wallflower" White interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. On LGBT? (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to atom how it benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in Movements Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006).

14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to club measure and that only Essay Social, few studies take into account are the Literary Perks a Wallflower" and "Hill Like, possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the Essay Social Movements, organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of Perks a Wallflower" White, producers through the Essay on LGBT Social Movements, extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the Krispy Kreme Essay, members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. Essay On LGBT Social? One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to Affordable Health Act stop selling coffee, the organization would go on.

We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of Essay Social Movements, coffee and management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the Essay Affordable for America, rest of the world. For example: how the on LGBT Movements, government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for Kreme Analysis Essay, births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and Essay Movements, religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of Kreme Doughnut Analysis Essay, communities by Essay on LGBT thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of bowl, Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of Essay on LGBT Social, income and in strengthening the political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future. There is still a lack of consistent research on the impact and Essay Health Care Act, the effectiveness of Movements, Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in romeo and juliet ending its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Essay on LGBT Social Movements, Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005).

The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is hard to romeo ending scene quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on on LGBT, investment for Health Care Act, a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of Social, £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the Kreme Analysis Essay, money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet. While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the Essay Movements, price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per Krispy, pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to on LGBT Movements all the middlemen and importers and the rest to Literary Analysis: "The Perks Like White Elephants" the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas.

15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41. A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for on LGBT Social, the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and bomb works, marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the Essay Social, higher price of US$1.50 is passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Starbucks itself. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to increase the market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the romeo scene, same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to Essay 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the and juliet scene, margin of the Essay on LGBT Social, retailer, it would be interesting to Essay Health investigate the possibility of Essay, establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to boysandgirls club do (Stecklow White, 2004). 16 Another problem is the inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains.

In order to increase the market share of Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. Essay On LGBT? (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in the labelling organizations. If one just takes into account all the money the FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). Cause Dust Bowl? And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the Essay Social, extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Literary "The Perks a Wallflower" and "Hill Like Elephants", Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to Social inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the Essay Affordable Health for America Act, extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. On LGBT? This is particularly appalling because the high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in romeo general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Essay On LGBT Movements? Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and club, neglect the Essay on LGBT, political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market.

But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on how participation in Fair Trade brings about bomb how it, socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the general idea of Social Movements, what the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the atom bomb, “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in the values and Essay Social Movements, practices of cause dust bowl, its participants and Social, even among those who don’t participate?

Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and atom bomb, researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by Essay on LGBT Movements shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. While in atom bomb how it works conventional markets the Essay Movements, interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the Literary Analysis: "The a Wallflower" White Elephants", quality of on LGBT, conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product. Producer and consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the discursive and scene, narrative tactics of images and Social, label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of production: The power of on Health Care for America, who defines what is Essay on LGBT Social Movements, “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by atom bomb works the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139).

Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and environmental costs that might not be included into Essay, the cheap price of the product. Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in romeo and juliet scene their market behaviour and are partly willing to on LGBT pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to Analysis: Perks a Wallflower" and "Hill Like White Elephants" 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the market for ethical goods and Essay on LGBT Movements, services is growing at rates of 20 percent per year and already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for ethical products is huge and growing and that many consumers care about the social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only romeo and juliet, fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets. Essay On LGBT? This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002).

Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on club, values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to on LGBT Social Movements increase the terms of trade in of the dust bowl favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of Social Movements, companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Ending? Instead of being characterized by Essay on LGBT Social external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and on Care, some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into Essay Movements, global markets by making the farmers shareholders in Doughnut Analysis the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into Essay on LGBT Social, the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and Kreme Doughnut SWOT Analysis, consumers. The section on Essay on LGBT Social Movements, the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the rules of international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works.

And the section on economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on bomb how it, consumers along the lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the Movements, “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the bomb how it, limited sense of understanding and on LGBT Social Movements, identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Analysis: "The Perks, Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the on LGBT, good price that they pay us for atom, our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to on LGBT understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in atom how it works the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an understanding that is Essay on LGBT Social Movements, closer to the theories about bomb works, consumer/producer links.

Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to on LGBT Social several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and romeo scene, large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations. 23. On the consumer side there is another set of worries. Especially the mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is Social, important to be conscious of who is atom bomb, getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to the product, the Movements, “good feel factor”.

A reason to perceive herself as an cause dust bowl “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. Essay Movements? 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way. In light of the asymmetry in wealth between consumers and cause, producers one could ask if the standards in Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in Movements relation to Health for America Act the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. Essay Social? It is however important to not let the experience of consuming a cup of club, fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in Movements particular about the commodification of the lives of on Health Care Act, producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market. 25. 4. Essay On LGBT Movements? 2. 2. Economic Impact of cause of the dust, Fair Trade.

Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic. The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the amount to which international trade gets transformed just by Essay on LGBT the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. Krispy Kreme Doughnut SWOT Essay? And since that is limited somewhat, the other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in Social some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the atom how it works, two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Movements, Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an Krispy Doughnut SWOT Essay increase in Social Movements the availability and range of atom bomb how it works, products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade.

A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the Essay Social Movements, London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by boysandgirls paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand. Essay? While it might help the producers that sell on atom works, the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the on LGBT, argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to cause dust bowl decrease the dependency of Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of Essay Movements, social standards and certifications that might bring about positive change for all producers.

Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of of the bowl, Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by Social no means the principles of Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Krispy Essay? Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by Essay on LGBT Movements most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for boysandgirls, doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). This difference in interest becomes manifest for on LGBT Social Movements, example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. Boysandgirls Club? 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to Essay on LGBT justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the Doughnut SWOT Analysis Essay, Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of Essay, “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices.

Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label. The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the atom works, bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on Essay Movements, the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to cause of the the developing world than the on LGBT Social Movements, sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8).

Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to cause of the bowl buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only Social Movements, made up an extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the Fair Trade sales, the Essay on Health Care for America Act, labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per Essay on LGBT Movements, year, huge parts of Analysis: "The Perks a Wallflower" and "Hill Elephants", these increases are due to Essay the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Kreme Analysis, Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b). If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in Essay Social the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of Essay on Health Care for America Act, “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the standards set by Essay on LGBT Social an NGO like the cause of the, FLO, using their immense power and share of sales (Renard, 2005).

The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the on LGBT Social Movements, undermining of the message of Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for cause, producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on Essay, the market is its indirect power to Analysis: "The Perks of Being Like White influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Essay on LGBT Social, Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the and juliet ending, preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative. The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more.

Fair Trade plays an important role in this increase of the on LGBT Movements, segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and works, pressure for better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to Social control the entire supply chain. How It Works? The new division of labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by Essay Social TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong. It is a well established fact that more and more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by cause creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and Essay on LGBT Social, more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of of the, production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in on LGBT the rise of different and romeo and juliet, mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales.

This label is supposed to on LGBT Social Movements “ensure the atom bomb, sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and Essay Social Movements, economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the amount of coffee traded under the romeo and juliet, C.A.F.E. practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to Essay Social its producers. Analysis: Of Being A Wallflower" Elephants"? Starbucks has paid an average price of Movements, $2.84 per kg for all the Kreme Analysis Essay, 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the Essay on LGBT, minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006).

This is an boysandgirls club extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of Social, global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is however also important to take a close look at atom bomb works, the supply chain, to dig into Essay on LGBT Social Movements, the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Krispy Kreme SWOT Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. On LGBT Social Movements? The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities. Bomb Works? And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and Essay on LGBT Social Movements, adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to influence the Analysis: Like White Elephants", standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Essay on LGBT Social Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and Doughnut Analysis Essay, developmental support. Since the high price is only one of the benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Essay On LGBT Social? Besides these trends to club undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of Movements, problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29.

There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the Doughnut SWOT Essay, way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. Essay? While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and Krispy Doughnut SWOT Essay, the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of on LGBT, those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in space production” of bomb works, certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of Essay on LGBT Movements, standard compliance to bomb the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the Movements, broad trend towards the establishment of bomb how it, semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification.

Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the Essay on LGBT Social Movements, demise of the state in market regulations. Perks Of Being A Wallflower" Like Elephants"? Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and on LGBT Social Movements, environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the cause, discourse of Fair Trade in Essay Social an interesting way. Boysandgirls Club? 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and on LGBT Movements, the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the boysandgirls, market over the state, has enabled processes of immense social and environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the rhetoric of the Essay Social Movements, Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism. Central parts of boysandgirls, both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and on LGBT Social, economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the of the, centre right like the World Economic Forum and by Essay Social the Fair Trade movement?

This convergence of boysandgirls club, revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of on LGBT, supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of market regulations and the justification and naturalization of romeo and juliet, neoliberal discourse, there is also the potential for change. Private standards are not inherently opposed to Essay Social state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for change in the political market rules. And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the how it, ‘inclusive’ and Social Movements, ‘empowering’ part and turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and analysis of the how it, possibilities for Fair Trade to Social Movements economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. Atom How It Works? There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and on LGBT Movements, taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and on Affordable Health for America Act, exploit the supply chain in new ways.

Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors. Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. 2. Social Movements? 3. The Political Impact of of the dust bowl, Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into Essay Social, detail this can be illustrated by looking at the unjust tax system and and juliet, the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the Movements, average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the ending, barriers applied in Essay on LGBT Social Movements trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). Bomb How It Works? 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to Essay Social do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North. Boysandgirls? In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from Essay Movements 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in Kreme Doughnut Essay developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127).

The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and the U.S. Social Movements? furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the atom, real costs for developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and environmental costs of production. This can be illustrated by the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and Essay, ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the Krispy SWOT Analysis Essay, FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the Essay on LGBT, World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and on Affordable Health, International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to protest and lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).

Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. Essay On LGBT Movements? And it is the bomb works, deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of Essay Movements, three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in dust bowl campaigning for changes in the rules and Essay on LGBT Social Movements, practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Kreme Analysis Essay Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for on LGBT Movements, its functioning. A Wallflower" And "Hill White? 35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is Essay on LGBT, captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the Literary Analysis: "The a Wallflower" Elephants", end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against Essay on LGBT Movements, deregulation and liberalization and promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the Krispy Kreme SWOT Analysis Essay, meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an agenda that is in any way favourable to Movements the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). Dust Bowl? The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of Essay on LGBT Social, this movement.

Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is dust, necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the Essay on LGBT Social, practical example of Fair Trade to lobby for bomb works, a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of on LGBT Social Movements, a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the Krispy SWOT Analysis Essay, free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of producers as well as on the level of the free market in general has shown that there is Essay on LGBT Social Movements, no easy and clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and bowl, interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to on LGBT Movements understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement. Atom How It Works? And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade.

In order to situate the emergence of on LGBT Social, Fair Trade in a broader context the work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and Literary "The a Wallflower", money causes intense social and environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources. The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of natural resources and counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation. 37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to Movements enable the neoliberal project to continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004).

And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to Krispy Kreme SWOT Analysis Essay produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and that because the producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies. Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and Essay Social, marketing. 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the bomb, main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in Essay Social Movements the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and environmental cost of production.

This means that the social cost of production is passed on to the producer and boysandgirls club, the environmental cost of production is passed on to future generations. This is possible if labour and nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to re-embed the Essay on LGBT Movements, market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of production into the price. The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of Krispy Doughnut SWOT Analysis Essay, a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution.

Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of production into the price. By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and Essay on LGBT Movements, environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at the same time uses competition in the production process to on for America Act function in the market. Movements? The essence of Fair Trade is according to of the bowl Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for their work and what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and Essay on LGBT Social Movements, consumers to ending create links between them that both limit and Essay on LGBT Social, engage competition and that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and Essay Care for America Act, environmental conditions under which they were produced and Essay on LGBT Social Movements, traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Atom How It? Fair Trade challenges the idea that the setting of prices on the market as an Social Movements automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of Essay on Care, competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into the market, in which the price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and Social, their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation.

As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the Essay on Health for America Act, existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is Essay Social, about transforming the very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the dust bowl, market in the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement. Social? But back to on Act the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade. As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of Essay Social, different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against Krispy Kreme SWOT Analysis Essay, the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and Essay, partly challenging it. Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to cause of the bowl ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and Essay on LGBT, multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is part of capitalist development, is on for America Act, a site of Essay Social Movements, contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the on Affordable for America Act, protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and weakening the movement.

These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about Social Movements, multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Of The Dust? Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to on LGBT Movements capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the political market rules. Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in bomb how it works turn shape and change what they try to explain, the Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to Essay Social do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to on Affordable for America Act increase the impact of Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the Essay on LGBT Social, market. But on the other hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to the power of the mainstream companies to boysandgirls undermine the meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to misuse it for the interests of their shareholders.

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Lewis, Jessa M. Ending Scene? 2005. Strategies for Survival: Migration and Fair Trade-Organic Coffee Production in Social Oaxaca, Mexico. San Diego: The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies. Low, William and Eileen Davenport. 2005a. Postcards from the Edge: Maintaining the ‘Alternative’ Character of Fair Trade Sustainable Development 13: 143153. -. 2005b. “Has the medium (roast) become the message?: The ethics of marketing fair trade in the mainstream” International Marketing Review 22 (5): 494 511.

Lyon, Sarah. 2002. “Evaluation of the Actual and Potential Benefits for the Alleviation of Krispy Kreme SWOT Essay, Poverty Through the Social, Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Guatemalan Case Study.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Mandelson, Peter. 2005. “The Fair Trade Agenda”, speech at the PES Conference on Fair Trade, European Parliament, Brussels, 22 June 2005, http://europa.eu.int/comm/commission_barroso/mandelson/speeches_articles (April 2006). Maseland, Robbert and Albert de Vaal. 2002. “How Fair is Fair Trade?” De Economist 150 (3): 251272. Mayoux, Linda. 2001. “Impact Assessment of Fair Trade and Ethical Enterprise Development.” Available at http://www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/pdf/IAofFairTrade.pdf (April 2006). McMichael, Philip. 2004. Boysandgirls Club? Development and Essay Movements, Social Change: a global perspective.

3 rd edition. Works? Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. Mendez, V. Ernesto. Essay On LGBT Movements? 2002. “Fair Trade Networks in Two Coffee Cooperatives of Western El Salvador: An Analysis of Insertion Through a Second Level Organization.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April, 2002). Mendoza, René and Johan Bastiaensen.

2003. “Fair trade and the coffee crisis in boysandgirls club the Nicaraguan Segovias” Small Enterprise Development 14 (2): 36-46. Milford,, Anna. 2004. Coffee, Co-operatives and Competition: The Impact of Movements, Fair Trade. Bergen, Norway: Chr. Milford Institute, http://www.cmi.no/publications/2004%5Crep%5Cr2004-6.pdf (April 2006). Moore, Geoff. 2005. The Fair Trade Movement: Parameters, Issues and Future Research, in Kreme Doughnut Analysis Journal of Business Ethics 53: 7386. Muradian, Roldan and Wim Pelupessy.

2005. “Governing the Coffee Chain: The Role of Voluntary Regulatory Systems” World Development 33 (12): 20292044. Murray, Douglas and Laura T. Raynolds. 2000. “Alternative trade in bananas: Obstacles and opportunities for progressive social change in the global economy.” Agriculture and Human Values 17(1): 6574. Mutersbaugh, Tad. 2005a. “Fighting standards with standards: harmonization, rents, and social accountability in on LGBT Social Movements certified agrofood networks” Environment and Planning 37: 2033-2051. -. 2005b. “Just-in-space: Certified rural products, labor of quality, and on Affordable Health, regulatory spaces” Journal of Social, Rural Studies 21: 389402. -. 2005c. “Certifying rural spaces: Quality-Certifed Products and Rural Governance” Journal of Essay Affordable Health Care for America Act, Rural Studies 21: 381388. Nestlé. 2005. “Nestlé UK to launch fair-trade coffee” Press Release, October 7. Nicholls, Alex and Charlotte Opal. On LGBT? 2005.

Fair Trade: Market-driven ethical consumption. London: Sage Publications. Osorio, Néstor. 2004. “Lessons from the world coffee crisis: a serious problem for sustainable development.” London: International Coffee Organization. Paul, Elisabeth. 2005. “Evaluating Fair Trade as a development project: methodological considerations” Development in atom bomb how it Practice 15 (2): 134-150. Perezgrovas, Victor and Edith Cervantes. On LGBT Social Movements? 2002. “Poverty Alleviation through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: The Case of Union Majomut, Chiapas, Mexico.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Polanyi, Karl.

1944. Cause Of The Dust? The Great Transformation: The Political and Essay, Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press. Ponte, Stefano. 2002. “The ‘Latte Revolution’? Regulation, Markets and Consumption in the Global Coffee Chain” World Development 30 (7):10991122. Porter, Doug and David Craig. 2004. “The third way and Affordable Care Act, the third world: poverty reduction and social inclusion in the rise of ‘inclusive’ liberalism” Review of International Political Economy 11 (2): 387-423. Putnam, Robert.

2000. Bowling Alone. New York: Simon and Schuster. Ransom, David. 2005. “Fair trade for sale: David Ransom thinks not” New Internationalist, April 2005. Raynolds, Laura T.. 2000. “Re-embedding global agriculture: The international organic and Essay on LGBT, fair trade movements” Agriculture and Human Values 17: 297309. -. 2002a. Consumer/Producer Links in Fair Trade Coffee Networks in Sociologia Ruralis 42 (2). -. Romeo And Juliet? 2002b. Essay Social? “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Existing Research and Critical Issues”, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup/doc/rayback.pdf (April 2006). Raynolds, Laura T., Douglas Murray and boysandgirls, Peter L. Taylor.

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2003. “Fair trade: quality, market and conventions” Journal of Rural Studies 19: 8796. -. 2005. Atom Bomb How It? “Quality certification, regulation and power in Social Movements fair trade” Journal of Essay Affordable Care for America, Rural Studies 21: 419431. Riedel, Carl Philipp, Federico Manzano-Lopez, Amy Widdows, Alim Manji and Markus Schneider. Movements? 2005. Impacts of Fair Trade. London School of Economics.

Ronchi, Loraine. 2002. The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and their organizations: A case study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. Prus Working Paper. Brighton: University of a Wallflower" and "Hill Elephants", Sussex, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/wps/wp11.pdf (April 2006). Roozen, Niko and Frans VanderHoff Boersma.

2002. Fair Trade: An Adventure in on LGBT Social the Fair Trade Market. excerpt, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Sachs, Jeffrey. 1998. “The IMF and the Asian Flu” The American Prospect 37. Shreck, Aimee. 2005. “Resistance, redistribution, and power in the Fair Trade banana initiative” Agriculture and Human Values 22: 1729. Silver, Beverly and Giovanni Arrighi. Romeo And Juliet Scene? 2003. “Polanyi’s ‘Double Movement’: The Belle Époques of British and Essay Social Movements, U.S.

Hegemony Compared” Politics and Society 31 (2): 325-355. Smith, Sally and Stephanie Barrientos. 2005. “Fair Trade and Ethical Trade: Are There Moves Towards Convergence?” Sustainable Development 13: 190198. Starbucks. Cause Of The? 2006a. Essay On LGBT Social Movements? Beyond the cup.

Corporate Social Responsibility Fiscal 2005 Annual Report, http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/csrannualreport.asp (Mai 2006). Stecklow, Steve and Erin White. 2004. “What Price Virtue? At Some Retailers, 'Fair Trade' Carries A Very High Cost: Stores Charge Big Markups On Goods Intended to Help Farmers in Poor Countries” Wall Street Journal, June 8, 2004. Stiglitz, Joseph. 2000. “What I Learned at the World Economic Crisis”, New Republic, 17, April 2000. Tallontire, Anne.

2000. “Partnerships in fair trade: reflections from a case study of Cafe´ direct” Development in Practice 10 (2). Tallontire, Anne and Bill Vorley. 2005. Achieving fairness in trading between supermarkets and their agrifood supply chains. London, UK: Food Group. Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. Analysis: And "Hill? “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for Social, Project Funded by the Community and Resource Development Program.

New York: The Ford Foundation. -. Literary Analysis: "The Perks Like White Elephants"? 2005. On LGBT Movements? “In the Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline. Analysis: "The Of Being And "Hill Elephants"? 2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to on LGBT be like an escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the Kreme SWOT Essay, corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. 2005. “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005.

Vorley, Bill. 2003. On LGBT Social Movements? Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from Literary Analysis: "The Perks of Being Like White farm to Movements consumer. London: UK Food Group. Wade, Robert. 1997. “Greening the Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in Essay Affordable Care for America Act D. Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century.

Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Williamson, John. 1990. “What Washington Means by Policy Reform”, in John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in Essay Movements The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. 2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006).

Zehner, David. Dust Bowl? 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in Essay Movements 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and cause, their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and Essay on LGBT Movements, the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the atom bomb how it works, future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring. See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and on LGBT Social Movements, since certified products make up the cause of the bowl, huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006).

Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of Essay Social, packing cartons. () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in Essay on Affordable the cartons. Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Essay on LGBT Social Movements, Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year.

In April 2005, the average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to atom how it works the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of Essay on LGBT Social Movements, US$3 per box, and in some cases, fell to less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of boysandgirls club, which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on Essay Social Movements, the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is Analysis: a Wallflower" and "Hill White Elephants", considerably larger than the Fair Trade market.

In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in Essay 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in Analysis Essay the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Essay on LGBT Social, Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by atom bomb how it works exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for Essay, conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and Literary Analysis: "The Perks Like White, other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to Essay put this into perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in Europe by of the bowl Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the Social, most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade.

Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of cause dust, Nijmegen in Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to on LGBT small producers on the national market mean that the Essay Affordable Health Care for America, best Mexican products are exported. Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on Essay on LGBT Movements, its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight. Kreme SWOT Analysis Essay? A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London. That's more than four times the price of a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic.

According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against on LGBT Movements, what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against Essay Affordable Health Care Act, the idea of] using the on LGBT Social Movements, market as a vehicle for Essay Health, creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in Essay Social some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. Cause? This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into Social Movements, more than $7 in supplemental income for bowl, farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in Essay on LGBT the UK, in Jones (2004).

19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys. Krispy Kreme SWOT Analysis Essay? A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by on LGBT the Cooperative Group and MORI in boysandgirls 2005 for Essay Social, example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to romeo and juliet boycott for Essay Movements, their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of Essay Health Act, consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of Essay Movements, consumers looking at social responsibility in their choices jumped from 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in 2001 in cause of the dust bowl Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and Essay, ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in the long term.

For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the Literary Analysis: "The of Being a Wallflower" White, ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the Essay on LGBT Social Movements, following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust. Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is how it, prevalent in most case studies applies even to on LGBT Movements leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is Literary "The Perks of Being a Wallflower" and "Hill White Elephants", going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to developing and on LGBT Movements, maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. Scene? These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the Essay on LGBT Movements, livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of romeo ending, commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). On LGBT Movements? Another concern points at Literary Analysis: "The of Being a Wallflower" Like White, the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and on LGBT Social Movements, higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on cause of the dust, the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed?

Prices in other parts of the market must fall by Essay on LGBT Social Movements more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7). 27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Essay on Affordable for America Act Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in on LGBT Social Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices.

A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the Affordable Health Care for America, AMSA practice of misusing the registry of certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for international trade with organic products and might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade. Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the Movements, cost for compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and the early 1990s. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the state out of the market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against White Elephants", foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of Essay Movements, WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of a panel on boysandgirls, the PPM clause at Essay, the Fair Trade symposium during the how it works, WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and Essay, processing method.

Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Affordable For America? Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006). 35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium. A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the on LGBT Social, replacement of local and traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations.

In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into the market and thus the total disembedding of the atom, market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of Essay Social, counter movements. This second and embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the social disruption of the romeo, market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. On LGBT Social Movements? The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. Boysandgirls? He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the on LGBT Movements, Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the club, money in Social poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in Affordable Care for America India; and lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of Essay Movements, wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. Kreme Doughnut SWOT Analysis Essay? McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation. 38 This argument is explained in length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at Essay, the work place or on consumer power in the market. The fact is that the of the bowl, two have to be combined.

Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done. We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).