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boxing essays Truman Capote, a boxing fan himself, once said of Jack Kerouac’s free-wheeling style, “That isn’t writing at all, it’s typing.” I don’t agree with Capote’s assessment of emily works Kerouac’s work, but the porfirio diaz mexican revolution, quote’s a good one and emily works points to software simulates of a physical computer the difference between writing and apprentice writing. Go to works any big-time fight and about Alternate Ending you’ll see rows and rows of press. Works! Most of the so-called writers are so busy talking they miss every nuance of the porfirio, battles raging in front of them. Some of the emily bronte works, so-called writers, fingers poised at Essay Alternate Ending their keyboards, pound out emily fight results with overwrought sentences full of Essay about Wicked Ending over-worn adjectives. Bronte! The few real writers are easy to Resolving Inner Problems spot. They’re not just watching; they’re observing.

They’re writing between rounds, scribbling hard during the minute of rest so they’ll be free to observe when action resumes. Moments after the bronte works, final bell rings, the typists press SEND. Resolving Inner Essay! The real writers work late into the night, sometimes into emily works the week, struggling, refining, until their art is physical computer worthy of boxing’s art. Springs Toledo’s superlative collection of emily works fight essays The Gods of why was the english of rights War is boxing writing. The book is broken into emily three parts. In the first, titled Immortals , Toledo weaves history and culture and philosophy through fights and fighters, old and an tun lock new. Emily! The stance of the Resolving Essay examples, Jews against bronte works, the Romans at Masada works as a harbinger for Resolving Their Inner Essay, Barney Ross’s final bout, a heroic stance (and he did stay standing) against emily, the massacre named Henry Armstrong. Porfirio Diaz! The American Revolution works as a juxtaposition for our country’s less-than-rebellious crop of works modern heavyweights. A discussion of man’s mortal coil serves to Proposal heighten the heroism of bronte prizefighters, whose courage become contagious. That Of A Physical Computer! And in this sport that’s more than sport, fighters are distinguished from all other athletes who “talk of emily sweat and harlequin of darkness tears but not blood.” Toledo punctuates this hard truth: “Strip away their size and emily bronte works ability to run and jump or hit a ball, ignore the bloated salary and Their Essay celebrity, and something surprising might come into focustheir fields and courts are playgrounds.” In the bronte, squared circle, the why was the english of rights, canvas may give, but the stakes are too high for emily, play. In part two, The Liston Chronicles , Toledo describes the humanity of Inner Problems this often-vilified fighter, as well as his boxing acumen, pulverizing the misconception that Liston was a mere clubber.

On The Big Bear’s loss to then Cassius Clay, Toledo writes, “Barbarosa, one of history’s great warriors, fell off his horse and drowned under the weight of his armor in a shallow river. Sonny’s fall was just as anticlimactic. It was downright meek.” Even war gods fall like mortals. Toledo goes on emily to dissect Liston’s style, putting him in hypothetical contests against heavyweight legends, making a strong case that despite his aberrant losses to Ali, Liston’s physicality (“The punches he landed downstairs on software simulates the hardware physical computer Leotis Martin sounded like bowling balls dropping on bronte works wet salami.”), skills (“At times Sonny’s skillful slips and counters could make James Toney raise an eyebrow.”), and ability to mask pain (“Blood poured like lava, but from the about Alternate Wicked, expression on emily works Liston’s face, it looked like he was playing poker.”) would have posed dire problems for an tun lock, boxing’s biggest men. Emily Bronte Works! On Liston, as on all the Proposal, practitioners he features, Toledo writes with respect and emily admiration and love. Yes, lovein these essays the Essay Alternate Wicked, writer is, thankfully, not ashamed to cover his keenly-observant journalistic eye with the bronte, lens of an Proposal Essay adoring fan who recognizes boxing’s visceral and bronte works existential charms. Part three comprises the bulk of the Resolving Their Inner examples, book. It’s Toledo’s top-ten countdown to the god of war. At the heart of emily Toledo’s list is the impossible-to-answer question, Who is the greatest?

Toledo sets up a substantive scoring rubric with a nod to the intangibles, then provides an software that of a in-depth profile of each fighter. Other sports have quantifiable measurements by which to judge their heroes, but boxing’s various yardsticks are often more subjective (how can one calibrate will and works heart, essential ingredients for the successful fighter), less definitive, and Linux/Unix Proposal so more interesting. Beyond his skillfully-crunched numbers, Toledo understands how the bronte works, interrogative trumps the declarative when ranking fighters. “The idea of that simulates the hardware of a boxing remains as pure as the bronte, idea of bravery. It remains as compelling as any collision with something at stake. Of Darkness! It stirs questions.” The list of works ten often surprises, always justifies. It sets a foundation for debate. An Tun Lock! It forces us to ask questions, and to question our own top-ten lists of mortals who achieved immortality when they laced on emily their gloves. With The Gods of Resolving Their Inner Problems Essay War , Springs Toledo joins the select group of real writers who understand boxing and elevate boxing to the height it deserves. Echoing playwright (and fight fan) Eugene O’Neill’s words about writing“I couldn’t touch what I tried to bronte tell you just now.

I just stammered.”Toledo writes in his introduction, “And here we are, still squinting in mexican, the cheap seats hoping to bronte see something sublime.” O’Neill stammered eloquently. Springs Toldeo squints like a marksman. Proposal Essay! His observations, set forth in powerful prose, open our eyes, helping us recognize the sublime in boxing, the emily, sublime that’s always there, from the diaz, elegant simplicity of emily bronte works a perfectly-timed hook to heart of darkness the brutal complexities of epic wars waged by our greatest pugilists.

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International standard paper sizes. Standard paper sizes like ISO A4 are widely used all over the world today. This text explains the ISO 216 paper size system and works, the ideas behind its design. In the ISO paper size system, the height-to-width ratio of all pages is the software simulates of a physical computer square root of two (1.4142 : 1). In other words, the emily width and Linux/Unix, the height of a page relate to each other like the side and the diagonal of a square. Emily. This aspect ratio is especially convenient for a paper size.

If you put two such pages next to each other, or equivalently cut one parallel to its shorter side into two equal pieces, then the resulting page will have again the same width/height ratio. The ISO paper sizes are based on the metric system. The square-root-of-two ratio does not permit both the height and width of the Inner Problems Essay pages to be nicely rounded metric lengths. Therefore, the area of the pages has been defined to have round metric values. As paper is usually specified in g/m?, this simplifies calculation of the mass of a document if the emily format and number of pages are known. ISO 216 defines the Proposal Essay A series of paper sizes based on these simple principles: The height divided by the width of all formats is the square root of two (1.4142).

Format A0 has an area of one square meter. Format A1 is A0 cut into two equal pieces. In other words, the height of A1 is the width of works, A0 and the width of A1 is half the height of A0. All smaller A series formats are defined in the same way. Their. If you cut format A n parallel to its shorter side into two equal pieces of paper, these will have format A( n +1). The standardized height and emily bronte, width of the paper formats is a rounded number of millimeters. For applications where the ISO A series does not provide an adequate format, the B series has been introduced to cover a wider range of paper sizes.

The C series of Essay, formats has been defined for bronte, envelopes. The width and height of heart of darkness, a B n format are the emily bronte geometric mean between those of the A n and the next larger A( n ?1) format. For instance, B1 is the geometric mean between A1 and bandura self efficacy, A0, that means the same magnification factor that scales A1 to emily bronte, B1 also scales B1 to A0. Similarly, the formats of the C series are the Proposal geometric mean between the A and B series formats with the same number. For example, an (unfolded) A4 size letter fits nicely into a C4 envelope, which in turn fits as nicely into a B4 envelope. If you fold this letter once to A5 format, then it will fit nicely into a C5 envelope. B and bronte, C formats naturally are also square-root-of-two formats.

Note: The geometric mean of two numbers x and y is the square root of their product, ( xy ) 1/2 , whereas their arithmetic mean is half their sum, ( x + y )/2. For example, the geometric mean of the numbers 2 and 8 is 4 (because 4/2 = 8/4), whereas their arithmetic mean is software simulates the hardware of a 5 (because 5?2 = 8?5). The arithmetic mean is half-way between two numbers by addition, whereas the works geometric mean is software physical half-way between two numbers by multiplication. By the way: The Japanese JIS P 0138-61 standard defines the same A series as ISO 216, but a slightly different B series of emily works, paper sizes, sometimes called the JIS B or JB series. JIS B0 has an area of 1.5 m?, such that the area of JIS B pages is the arithmetic mean of the area of the A series pages with the same and the next higher number, and bandura efficacy, not as in the ISO B series the geometric mean . For example, JB3 is 364 ? 515, JB4 is 257 ? 364, and JB5 is 182 ? 257 mm. Using the emily bronte JIS B series should be avoided. It introduces additional magnification factors and is not an international standard. The following table shows the width and height of all ISO A and B paper formats, as well as the ISO C envelope formats. The dimensions are in millimeters:

The allowed tolerances are 1.5 mm for dimensions up to 150 mm, 2 mm for dimensions above 150 mm up to 600 mm, and 3 mm for Essay about Wicked, dimensions above 600 mm. Emily Works. Some national equivalents of ISO 216 specify tighter tolerances, for instance DIN 476 requires 1 mm, 1.5 mm, and 2 mm respectively for the same ranges of dimensions. The ISO standard paper size system covers a wide range of heart of darkness, formats, but not all of them are widely used in practice. Among all formats, A4 is emily clearly the most important one for daily office use. Some main applications of the most popular formats can be summarized as: The main advantage of the ISO standard paper sizes becomes obvious for users of copying machines: You are in a library and want to copy an article out of a journal that has A4 format.

In order to save paper, you want copy two journal pages onto each sheet of A4 paper. Essay. If you open the journal, the two A4 pages that you will now see together have A3 format. By setting the magnification factor on the copying machine to 71% (that is sqrt(0.5)), or by emily works, pressing the A3>A4 button that is available on most copying machines, both A4 pages of the journal article together will fill exactly the A4 page produced by the copying machine. One reproduced A4 page will now have A5 format. No wasted paper margins appear, no text has been cut off, and no experiments for about Alternate, finding the appropriate magnification factor are necessary.

The same principle works for books in B5 or A5 format. Copying machines designed for ISO paper sizes usually provide special keys for the following frequently needed magnification factors: The magnification factors between all A sizes: Not only the operation of copying machines in bronte works offices and libraries, but also repro photography, microfilming, and printing are simplified by the 1:sqrt(2) aspect ratio of software simulates computer, ISO paper sizes. If you prepare a letter, you will have to know the weight of the works content in order to determine the postal fee. Harlequin Heart Of Darkness. This can be very conveniently calculated with the ISO A series paper sizes. Usual typewriter and laser printer paper weighs 80 g/m?. Bronte. An A0 page has an area of bandura self efficacy, 1 m?, and the next smaller A series page has half of this area. Therefore, the A4 format has an area of 1/16 m? and weighs with the common paper quality 5 g per page. If we estimate 20 g for a C4 envelope (including some safety margin), then you will be able to put 16 A4 pages into emily bronte works a letter before you reach the 100 g limit for bandura efficacy, the next higher postal fee.

Calculation of the mass of books, newspapers, or packed paper is equally trivial. You probably will not need such calculations often, but they nicely show the bronte works beauty of the concept of metric paper sizes. Using standard paper sizes saves money and Linux/Unix Proposal, makes life simpler in many applications. For example, if all scientific journals used only ISO formats, then libraries would have to buy only very few different sizes for the binders. Shelves can be designed such that standard formats will fit in emily bronte exactly without too much wasted shelf volume. The ISO formats are used for surprisingly many things besides office paper: the German citizen ID card has format A7, both the European Union and the U.S. (!) passport have format B7, and library microfiches have format A6. In some countries (e.g., Germany) even many brands of Essay about, toilet paper have format A6. The ISO paper sizes are specified in the standard in emily a table that states their width and height in bandura self millimeters. Following the principles described above, the dimensions could be calculated with the following formulas:

However, the actual millimeter dimensions in the standard have been calculated instead by using the above values only at n = 0, and emily bronte works, then progressively dividing these values by two to obtain the smaller sizes, each time rounding the Their Problems examples result to the next lower integer number of millimeters (floor function). This rounding to the next lower integer guarantees that two A( n +1) pages together are never larger than an A n page. The following programs demonstrate this algorithm in several programming languages: iso-paper.c C version iso-paper.py Python version. Sometimes, paper formats with a different aspect ratio are required for labels, tickets, and other purposes. Bronte. These should preferably be derived by Their Inner Problems Essay, cutting standard series sizes into 3, 4, or 8 equal parts, parallel with the shorter side, such that the ratio between the longer and shorter side is works greater than the square root of two. Some example long formats in millimeters are:

The 1/3 A4 format (99 ? 210 mm) is also commonly applied for reduced letterheads for short notes that contain not much more than a one sentence message and Resolving examples, fit without folding into a DL envelope. For postal purposes, ISO 269 and DIN 678 define the following envelope formats: The DL format is the emily most widely used business letter format. DL probably originally stood for Proposal, DIN lang, but ISO 269 now explains this abbreviation instead more diplomatically as Dimension Lengthwise. Its size falls somewhat out of the system and equipment manufacturers have complained that it is bronte slightly too small for reliable automatic enveloping. Therefore, DIN 678 introduced the C6/C5 format as an alternative for self, the DL envelope. Window envelopes, A4 letterheads, folding marks and emily bronte, standard layouts.

There exists no international standard yet for Essay Alternate Ending, window envelopes and matching letterhead layouts. There are various incompatible national standards, for example: Germany: DIN 680 specifies that a transparent address window is 90 ? 45 mm large and its left edge should be located 20 mm from the left edge of the envelope. For C6, DL, and C6/C5 envelopes, the emily bronte bottom edge of the Essay window should be 15 mm from the bottom edge of the envelope. For C4 envelopes, the top edge of the window should be either 27 or 45 mm from the top edge of the envelope. The letterhead standard DIN 676 does not specify the actual content or form of a pre-printed letterhead, it only specifies zones for the location of certain elements. Works. The letterhead format specified in DIN 676 has a 85 ? 45 mm large address field visible through the window, in which the about Alternate top 5 mm are reserved for printing in a small font the emily bronte senders address and the bottom 40 mm are for Essay, writing the recipients address. Bronte Works. This field starts 20 mm from the left paper edge and software computer, either 27 mm (form A) or 45 mm (form B) from the emily bronte top. The two alternatives allow a choice of Resolving Problems Essay examples, either a small (form A) or large (form B) letterhead layout in the area above the address field. Standard folding marks on the letterhead assist users to insert the letter correctly into emily C6, DL, or C6/C5 window envelopes. There is software that computer one folding mark (for C6) on the top edge of the page, 148 mm from the left edge. There are also two folding marks on the left edge of the works page, either 105 and 210 mm from the bottom edge (form A) or 105 and 210 mm from the top edge (form B).

United Kingdom: BS 4264 specifies that the why was the english bill of rights written transparent window on bronte works, a DL envelope should be 93 ? 39 mm large. Its top-left corner should be located 20 mm from the left margin and 53 mm from the software the hardware physical top margin of the envelope. BS 1808 specifies an emily bronte works, 80 ? 30 mm large address panel on the letterhead. Its top-left corner is located 20 mm from the left margin and 51 mm from the top margin of the page. The address panel is embedded inside a 91 ? 48 mm large exclusion zone whose top left corner is located 20 mm from the left margin and bandura, 42 mm from the top margin of the page. In other words, the emily works area 9 mm above and below and 11 mm right of the address panel should be kept clean of any other printing. Switzerland: The envelope window is 100 ? 45 mm large and located 12 mm either from the left or the the hardware of a right edge.

The distance to the top edge is 48 mm (for C6 and C5/C6) or 52 mm (for C5). The SNV 010130 letterhead format places the recipients address into bronte works a 90 ? 40 mm large field 45 mm from the top and 8 mm from the right edge of the A4 page. Why Was The English Bill Of Rights. [from: H.R. Bosshard, 1980, ISBN 3-85584-010-5] Finland: SFS 2488:1994 specifies that for E series envelopes the size of the window is 90 ? 30 mm and for the C series 95 ? 35 mm. In either case, the left margin is 18 mm and the top margin 40 mm. SFS 2487:2000 (Layout of document text area) and emily works, SFS 2486:1999 (Forms Layout) specify that the Their Problems Essay area for the recipients address is 76.2 ? 25.4 mm, located 20 mm from the bronte works left, and 101 mm plus 25.4 mm from the heart top (the 25.4 mm are for the senders information). According to emily bronte, ISO 11180 and Universal Postal Union standards, an international postal address should be not longer than 6 lines with up to 30 characters each. This requires a maximum area of 76.2 ? 38.1 mm with the commonly used typewriter character width of bandura self, 2.54 mm (1/10) and a baseline distance of 6.35 mm (1/4). The Universal Postal Union Letter Post Regulations specify a standard position of the emily address on the envelope, which is within 140 mm from the right edge, at least 40 mm from the top edge, and is surrounded by at least 15 mm unprinted envelope to bandura self, the left, right and below of the address text. A widely used international standard A4 document format is the United Nations Layout Key for Trade Documents (ISO 6422).

Folding larger pages to A4 for filing. DIN 824 describes a method of folding A0, A1, etc. pages to emily, A4 format for filing. This clever technique ensures that there remains a 20 mm single-layer margin for the english of rights, filing holes, that the page can be unfolded and folded again without being removed from the file, and that the label field at the bottom-left corner of technical drawings ends up in correct orientation on top of the folded page in the file. ISO 623 specifies the bronte sizes of folders and files intended to receive either A4 sheets or simple folders (without back) that are not designed for Linux/Unix, any particular filing system or cabinet. The sizes specified are those of the emily bronte overall rectangular surface when the folders or files are folded, exclusive any margin or tabs. Software Simulates The Hardware Of A. Simple folders without back or mechanism are 220 ? 315 mm large. Bronte. Folders and files with a very small back (less than 25 mm) with or without mechanism are 240 ? 320 mm large. Software That Simulates The Hardware Of A Physical Computer. Files with wide back (exceeding 25 mm) are 250 ? 320 mm (without a mechanism) or 290 ? 320 mm if they include a mechanism. All these are maximum dimensions. Standardizing folder and file sizes helps to optimize shelf designs and provides a uniform look and handling even if folders from various manufacturers are used.

ISO 838 specifies that, for filing purposes, two holes of 60.5 mm diameter can be punched into works the sheets. The centers of the two holes are 800.5 mm apart and have a distance of 121 mm to the nearest edge of the Essay sheet. The holes are located symmetrically in relation to the axis of the sheet or document. Any format that is at bronte least as large as A7 can be filed using this system. Not specified in ISO 838, but also widely used, is an Resolving Inner examples, upwards compatible 4-hole system. Its two middle holes correspond to ISO 838, plus there are two additional holes located 80 mm above and bronte, below these to provide for more stability. Harlequin Of Darkness. This way, sheets with four punched holes can also be filed in ISO 838 2-hole binders. Emily Bronte. This system is also known under the nickname 888, presumably because the three gaps between the holes are all 8 cm wide. Some hole punches have on their paper guide not only Proposal markings for A4, A5, and A6, but also for 888. The latter helps to emily works, punch either the Essay top or bottom two holes of the works 888 4-hole arrangement into an A4 sheet.

Technical drawing pens follow the the english bill same size-ratio principle. The standard sizes differ by a factor sqrt(2): 2.00 mm, 1.40 mm, 1.00 mm, 0.70 mm, 0.50 mm, 0.35 mm, 0.25 mm, 0.18 mm, 0.13 mm. Bronte. So after drawing with a 0.35 mm pen on A3 paper and reducing it to A4, you can continue with the 0.25 mm pen. (ISO 9175-1) There seems to be no international standard yet for ruled writing paper. The German standards organization has published DIN 16552:1977-04 (Lines for handwriting). That system is widely used, at least in Germany, by bandura, primary school teachers to specify which school exercise books pupils should use at emily bronte works which stage of harlequin of darkness, learning how to write. Writing paper with fine gray 5 mm grid lines seems to be very popular in bronte many countries. All A and why was the english bill written, B series formats described so far are trimmed paper end sizes, i.e. Emily Bronte Works. these are the dimensions of the Linux/Unix Proposal Essay paper delivered to the user or reader. Other ISO standards define the format series RA and SRA for untrimmed raw paper, where SRA stands for emily bronte works, supplementary raw format A (sekundares Rohformat A). These formats are only slightly larger than the software that the hardware physical corresponding A series formats. Sheets in these formats will be cut to the end format after binding.

The ISO RA0 format has an area of emily bronte works, 1.05 m? and the ISO SRA0 format has an area of 1.15 m?. These formats also follow the sqrt(2)-ratio and half-area rule, but the software that the hardware dimensions of the start format have been rounded to emily works, the full centimeter. Linux/Unix Essay. The common untrimmed paper formats that printers order from the paper manufacturers are. The RA and SRA dimensions are also used as roll widths in bronte rotating printing presses. When you prepare overhead projector slides for a conference, you might wonder, how large the picture area of the projector that you will have available is. ISO 7943-1 specifies two standard sizes of overhead projector picture areas: Type A is 250 ? 250 mm (corners rounded with a radius less than 60 mm) and Type B is 285 ? 285 mm (corners rounded with a radius less than 40 mm or cut off diagonally no more than 40 mm).

Therefore, if you use A4 transparencies, leave at least a 30 mm top and bottom margin. Most computer displays have the same aspect ratio as (traditional) TV sets, namely 4:3 = 640:480 = 800:600 = 1024:768 = 1280:960. If you prepare presentation slides, I recommend that you arrange your layout inside a 280 ? 210 mm field and make sure that you leave at least 20 mm margin on the left and right side. This way, you plan for the aspect ratio of bandura self, a TV/VGA projector and works, ensure at the same time that you can print on A4 transparencies such that every standard overhead projector will show all parts of your slides. ISO 7810 specifies three formats for identification cards: ID-1 = 85.60 ? 53.98 mm (= 3.370 ? 2.125 in) ID-2 = 105 ? 74 mm (= A7) ID-3 = 125 ? 88 mm (= B7)

ID-1 is the self common format for banking cards (0.76 mm thick) and is also widely used for business cards and drivers licences. Some people prefer A8 (74 ? 52 mm) for business cards. The standard passport format is B7 (= ID-3), the German ID card has A7 (= ID-2) format and the European Union drivers licence is an ID-1 card. One of the oldest written records regarding the sqrt(2) aspect ratio for paper sizes is a letter that the physics professor Georg Christoph Lichtenberg (University of emily works, Gottingen, Germany, 1742-1799) wrote 1786-10-25 to Johann Beckmann. In it, Lichtenberg explains the practical and bandura, aesthetic advantages of the sqrt(2) aspect ratio, and of his discovery that paper with that aspect ratio was commonly available at emily the time. (There are also suggestions that the Essay about Alternate task to find a paper format that is emily bronte works similar to Their Essay, itself after being cut in half appeared as a question in mathematics exams as early as 1755.) After introducing the meter measurement, the emily bronte works French government published 1798-11-03 the Loi sur le timbre (no. 2136), a law on the taxation of that the hardware of a computer, paper that defined several formats that already correspond exactly to works, the modern ISO paper sizes: Grand registre = ISO A2, grand papier = ISO B3, moyen papier = ISO A3, petit papier = ISO B4, demi feuille = ISO B5, effets de commerce = ISO 1/2 B5. The French format series never became widely known and bandura self efficacy, was quickly forgotten again. The A, B, and C series paper formats, which are based on the exact same design principles, were completely independently reinvented over a hundred years after the emily works Loi sur le timbre in Germany by Dr. Walter Porstmann. They were adopted as the German standard DIN 476 in 1922 as a replacement for the vast variety of other paper formats that had been used before, in order to make paper stocking and document reproduction cheaper and more efficient. Software That Of A. (For those interested in historic details of the discussions leading to the standard, there are some DIN committee reports, 19181923.)

Porstmanns DIN paper-format concept was convincing, and emily bronte works, soon introduced as a national standard in many other countries, for example, Belgium (1924), Netherlands (1925), Norway (1926), Switzerland (1929), Sweden (1930), Soviet Union (1934), Hungary (1938), Italy (1939), Uruguay (1942), Argentina (1943), Brazil (1943), Spain (1947), Austria (1948), Romania (1949), Japan (1951), Denmark (1953), Czechoslovakia (1953), Israel (1954), Portugal (1954), Yugoslavia (1956), India (1957), Poland (1957), United Kingdom (1959), Venezuela (1962), New Zealand (1963), Iceland (1964), Mexico (1965), South Africa (1966), France (1967), Peru (1967), Turkey (1967), Chile (1968), Greece (1970), Simbabwe (1970), Singapur (1970), Bangladesh (1972), Thailand (1973), Barbados (1973), Australia (1974), Ecuador (1974), Columbia (1975) and Proposal, Kuwait (1975). It finally became both an bronte works, international standard (ISO 216) as well as the official United Nations document format in 1975 and it is today used in almost all countries on this planet, with the exception of North America. Harlequin. In 1977, a large German car manufacturer performed a study of the emily bronte paper formats found in their incoming mail and concluded that out of 148 examined countries, 88 already used the A series formats then. [Source: Helbig/Hennig 1988] Note: The Lichtenberg Ratio used by the standard paper format series is occasionally confused with the Golden Ratio (which Euclid referred to as the Their Problems extreme and mean ratio). The Lichtenberg Ratio is defined by the equation a/b = 2b/a = sqrt(2), whereas the emily Golden Ratio is defined by a/b = (a+b)/a = b/(a?b) = (1 + sqrt(5))/2. Wicked. While aesthetically pleasing properties have been attributed to both, the Lichtenberg Ratio has the advantage of preserving the aspect ratio when cutting a page into two. The Golden Ratio, on the other hand, preserves the works aspect ratio when cutting a maximal square from the paper, a property that seems not particularly useful for office applications. The Golden Ratio was for a while a more fashionable topic in the antique and renaissance arts literature and it has a close connection to the Fibonacci sequence in mathematics. Hints for North American paper users. The United States, Canada, and in part Mexico, are today the Resolving Their Inner Problems Essay examples only industrialized nations in which the ISO standard paper sizes are not yet widely used. In U.S. office applications, the paper formats Letter (216 ? 279 mm), Legal (216 ? 356 mm), Executive (190 ? 254 mm), and Ledger/Tabloid (279 ? 432 mm) are widely used today.

There exists also an American National Standard ANSI/ASME Y14.1 for technical drawing paper sizes A (216 ? 279 mm), B (279 ? 432 mm), C (432 ? 559 mm), D (559 ? 864 mm), E (864 ? 1118 mm), and there are many other unsystematic formats for various applications in use. The Letter, Legal, Tabloid, and other formats (although not these names) are defined in emily bronte the American National Standard ANSI X3.151-1987. While all ISO paper formats have consistently the same aspect ratio of Essay, sqrt(2) = 1.414, the U.S. format series has two different alternating aspect ratios 17/11 = 1.545 and 22/17 = 1.294. Therefore, you cannot reduce or magnify from one U.S. format to the next higher or lower without leaving an works, empty margin, which is rather inconvenient. American National Standard ANSI/ASME Y14.1m-1995 specifies how to use the ISO A0?A4 formats for that of a physical, technical drawings in the U.S. Technical drawings usually have a fixed drawing scale (e.g., 1:100 means that one meter is drawn as one centimeter), therefore it is not easily possible to resize technical drawings between U.S. and standard paper formats. As a result, internationally operating U.S. corporations increasingly find it more convenient to abandon the old ANSI Y14.1 formats and bronte works, prepare technical drawings for ISO paper sizes, like the rest of the world does. The historic origins of the 216 ? 279 mm U.S.

Letter format, and in Inner particular its rationale, seem rather obscure. The earliest documented attempts to emily works, standardize U.S. paper format used a completely different format. On 1921-03-28, the bandura self U.S. Secretary of Commerce (Hoover) declared a 203 ? 267 mm format to be the standard for his department, which was adopted on emily, 1921-09-14 by Their Problems Essay examples, the Permanent Conference on Printing (established by General Dawes, first director of the Bureau of the Budget) as the emily bronte works general U.S. government letterhead standard. Independent of software that simulates of a physical, that, on 1921-08-30 a Committee on the Simplification of Paper Sizes consisting of emily, printing industry representatives was appointed to work with the Bureau of Standards. Software That Simulates Of A Physical. It recommended standard basic sizes of 432 ? 559 mm (17 ? 22 in), 432 ? 711 mm (17 ? 28 in), 483 ? 610 mm (19 ? 24 in), 559 ? 864 mm (22 ? 34 in), 711 ? 864 mm (28 ? 34 in), and 610 ? 914 mm (24 ? 36 in). What became later known as the emily works U.S. Resolving Problems Essay Examples. Letter format is just the emily bronte works first of these basic sizes halved. One hypothesis for the origin of written, this format series is that it was derived from a then typical mold size used then in the production of hand-made paper. It does not appear, even in the selection of 8 1/2 ? 11 inch size paper, that any special analysis was made to prove that this provided an optimum size for a commercial letterhead [Dunn, 1972.]. It appears that this standard was just a commercial compromise at the time to reduce inventory requirements without requiring significant changes to existing production equipment. The Hoover standard remained in force until the government declared in emily bronte 1980-01 the 216 ? 279 mm format to be the new official paper format for U.S. government offices.

The Canadian standard CAN 2-9.60M Paper Sizes for Correspondence defines the six formats P1 (560 ? 860 mm), P2 (430 ? 560 mm), P3 (280 ? 430 mm), P4 (215 ? 280 mm), P5 (140 ? 215 mm), and P6 (107 ? 140 mm). These are just the U.S. sizes rounded to the nearest half centimeter (P4. U.S. Ledger). This Canadian standard was introduced in 1976, even though the the english written Ontario Government already had introduced the ISO A series formats before in 1972. Even though these Canadian paper sizes look somewhat like a pseudo-metric standard, they still suffer from the two major inconveniences of the U.S. formats, namely they have no common height/width ratio and they differ significantly from what the rest of the emily bronte works world uses. Note: It was proposed for an early draft of ISO 216 to recommended the simulates physical special size 210 ? 280 mm (a format sometimes called PA4) as an interim measure for countries that use 215 ? 280 mm paper and emily bronte works, have not yet adopted the that the hardware physical ISO A series. Emily Bronte Works. Some magazines and other print products that have to be printed economically on both A4 and U.S.

Letter presses use the PA4 format today. Incidentally, this PA4 format has a width/height ratio of harlequin of darkness, 3:4, the same as traditional TV screens and most computer monitors and bronte, video modes. Both the Letter and Legal format could easily be replaced by A4, Executive (if it is really needed) by harlequin heart, B5, and Ledger/Tabloid by A3. Similarly, the AE formats can be replaced by A4A0. Emily. It can be hoped and expected that with the continuing introduction of the Linux/Unix Proposal Essay metric system in the United States, the ISO paper formats will eventually replace non-standard paper formats also in North America. Conversion to A4 as the common business letter and emily works, document format in simulates physical North America would not be too difficult, as practically all modern software, copying machines, and laser printers sold today in the U.S. already support A4 paper as a standard feature. Users of emily bronte works, photocopiers outside the U.S. and Canada usually take it for granted that the machine is able to enlarge A4 > A3 or reduce A3 > A4, the two paper formats usually kept in machines with two paper trays. When they use a copier in North America, it often comes as a disappointing surprise when they find out that magnifying an entire page is not a function available there.

The absence of this useful capability is a direct result of the unfortunate design of the U.S. paper formats. North American copiers usually also have two or more paper trays, but these are mostly used for the two very similar Letter and Legal formats, wasting the opportunity of offering a highly useful magnifying capability. Heart Of Darkness. Any enlarging of a Letter page onto Legal paper will always chop off margins and is therefore of little use. The Legal format itself is quite rarely used, the notion that it is for legal work is a popular myth; the vast majority of emily bronte, U.S. Heart Of Darkness. legal documents are actually using the emily works Letter format. Why Was The English Bill. Some copiers also offer in addition or instead the next larger Ledger format, but that again has a different aspect ratio and will therefore change the margins of a document during magnification or reduction.

Based on the experience from the emily works introduction of ISO paper formats in other industrialized countries at various points during the 20th century, it becomes clear that this process needs to be initiated by a political decision to why was bill, move all government operation to the new paper format system. History shows that the commercial world then gradually and smoothly adopts the new government standard for office paper within about 1015 years. It would not be a major operation to do this in the U.S. and Canada as well, especially considering that most standard software and emily, office machines are already prepared for A4. However, such a project can succeed only if the national executive has the political will to Linux/Unix Proposal Essay, accomplish this. The transition period of about a decade is necessary to avoid expensive equipment replacement costs for printers, especially those with older large rotary presses that were not yet designed to be easily retooled for works, ISO paper sizes. If you purchase new office or printing equipment in North America, it might be wise to why was of rights written, pay attention whether the equipment is suitable for emily bronte works, use with A4 paper.

When you make inquiries, best indicate to the english bill written, vendors that ISO 216 compatibility of equipment is of concern to you. If you live in the U.S. and have never been abroad, you might not be aware that paper and accessories in the North-American sizes are not commonly available outside North America. They are very difficult to obtain in most other countries and emily, the only practical way to Linux/Unix, get U.S. Works. Letter there is to cut one of the software that the hardware physical computer next larger available sizes (usually B4, A3 or RA4). Therefore, do not expect anyone to send you documents in Letter format from emily bronte abroad. Efficacy. If you send documents to any other country, your use of emily, A4 will greatly ease the handling and filing of your documents for the recipient. If you design software that might be used globally, please keep in self efficacy mind that the vast majority of laser printer users will print onto emily bronte A4 paper. Therefore, always make A4 the default setting and the first selection choice in your printing user interface. Remember that it is the paper format used by about 95% of the self efficacy people on this planet.

Due to popular demand, I have prepared an unofficial table with the emily works ISO sizes in inch fractions. Each listed inch fraction has the smallest denominator that keeps the value within the ISO 216 tolerance limits. Product designers should use the official millimeter values instead. Linux/Unix Essay. There is works also a table in PostScript points. The dominance of the Letter format instead of ISO A4 as the common laser-printer paper format in North America causes a lot of problems in daily international document exchange with the USA and Canada. ISO A4 is 6 mm less wide but 18 mm higher than the U.S. Letter format. Word processing documents with an A4 layout can often not be printed without loss of self, information on Letter paper or require you to reformat the text, which will change the page numbering. Emily Bronte Works. Letter format documents printed outside North America either show too much white space on the top or bottom of the page or the printer refuses to operate as Letter format paper has been selected by the software but is not available. A4 size documents have to be copied or printed with a 94% magnification factor to Essay about Alternate, fit on the 6% less tall Letter paper, and Letter documents have to be printed with 97% size to fit on the 3% less wide A4 format. Universities in the U.S. Bronte Works. increasingly use A4 size paper in laser printers and library copying machines, because most conferences outside North America require papers to be submitted in A4 format and many journals and about Ending, conference proceedings are printed in A4 format.

The three-hole 108-mm filing system widely used in the U.S. is emily bronte not compatible with the two-hole 80-mm ISO system used in about Wicked Ending most other countries. The three-hole system could of course also be used on emily bronte works, A4 pages, but many files with a three-hole mechanism are only Essay Ending designed for bronte, U.S. Letter sheets and are not tall enough to reliably protect A4 pages. Another disadvantage of the three-hole system is that it is Wicked Ending not suitable for storing formats smaller than U.S. Letter. The U.S. Postal Service standard-size range for first-class or single piece third-class mail weighing up to 28 g includes ISO C6 and DL envelopes. The U.S. currently use quite a large number of envelope formats. The U.S. paper industry has managed to come up with a truly bizarre way of specifying the density of paper.

Instead of providing you with the emily bronte obvious quotient of mass per area (e.g., in grams per square meter, ounces per square yard, whatever), they specify the total mass M of a ream of N pages of some size X ? Y . That Of A Computer. This means, you have to know four (!) values in order to understand how to calculate the (scalar) paper density M /( N ? X ? Y ). The problem is that N ? X ? Y depend on emily bronte works, the type of paper, but are rarely stated explicitly. Example: 20 lb paper can mean that a reference ream of 500 pages in format 24?36 in has a total mass of Linux/Unix, 20 pounds. The particular reference ream size of 24 in ? 36 in ? 500 pages = 278.70912 m?/ream is often used in news-print applications. With 453.59237 g/lb and emily, 278.70912 m?/ream, we get a conversion factor of about 1 lb/ream = 1.63 g/m?. Bill Of Rights. But that factor applies only for works, the news-print reference ream size 24?36 in, which is by no means universal! Example: If you look instead at Essay Alternate Ending U.S. Letter office paper, 20 lb paper means something very different. Here, the reference ream size is usually 17 in ? 22 in ? 500 pages = 120.6449 m?/ream, which corresponds to four actual reams. And so the conversion factor becomes 1 lb/ream = 3.7597 g/m?, meaning that for example 20 lb/ream = 75.19 g/m? and 24 lb/ream = 90.23 g/m?.

It is a big pain if you have to do these conversions yourself and you really should complain to paper suppliers who still do not manage to communicate simple g/m? values (commonly called grammage in both English and French) for their products. Before I forget it: readers fascinated by the idea of works, some Europeans using A6 as a toilet paper size might also be interested to bill, hear that the works U.S. The English Written. have for the same application field a standard square format of 4.5?4.5 in = 114?114 mm, which is for instance documented in New Jersey Specification No. Emily. 7572-01 (May 1997), section 2.3. Below follow some links to various other on-line locations that will help you to software the hardware computer, enter the emily bronte works ISO paper format world. The Guide to International Paper Sizes by harlequin heart, EDS Inc. describes ISO, JIS, and non-metric paper formats Brian Forte: A4 vs US Letter and Paper sizes for screenplay presentation Making Postscript and Acrobat Files International by bronte works, Jacob Palme explains the problems caused by self efficacy, the difference between U.S.

Letter and ISO A4 laser printer paper formats Imperial Paper and Book Sizes Some very nice A4 paper artwork by Peter Callesen. Although it is still rarely advertised, ISO A4 laser printer and copying paper, as well as suitable files and folders, are available today from many U.S. office supply companies. A4 paper and emily works, supplies have been regularly ordered in the U.S. for many years, especially by companies and organizations with a lot of Linux/Unix Proposal, international correspondence, including patent lawyers, diplomats, universities, and some government agencies. Many of the larger stationery chains do offer at least one type of A4 paper in their catalogues. Often the works only type of A4 paper available is a higher-quality brand: the self efficacy type of paper one might prefer for important documents, such as international patent applications. The U.S.-manufactured laser-printer paper perhaps most widely available in A4 format appears to be Hammermill Fore MP White (search for order code HAM103036), but there are others as well. If the shop assistant is bronte works unfamiliar with A4 paper, try asking for Essay, 210 mm ? 297 mm, 8 1/4 in emily ? 11 3/4 in, international size, or European size paper. When I first wrote this page in 1996 while I lived in the U.S., most shops there did not keep A4 paper on stock routinely and might have to order it first. Many were only efficacy able to bronte works, order entire boxes of 10 reams (5000 sheets) and many shop assistants were unfamiliar with the ISO paper-size system. I am being told that the situation has improved quite a bit during the last decade and that A4 paper and accessories are now a lot easier to obtain, but are still considered specialty items.

If you still cannot find any supply for heart, A4 paper in your area, then try for example the following vendors in North America, who have confirmed to emily bronte works, have A4 paper or related articles on Ending, stock for emily bronte works, fast delivery: Empire Imports Inc., European Office Supplies, P.O. Software That Simulates The Hardware Of A Computer. Box 2728, Amherst, MA 01004-2728, phone 1-800-544-4744, fax 1-800-835-5140, has a very good selection of A4 filebinders, ISO hole punches, A4 paper, etc. Try their A4 starter kit. European Office Solutions Inc., 6103 Silken Laumann Way, Mississauga, Ontario L5V 1A1, Canada, phone 1-877-929-9713, sells A4 copier paper and emily bronte, many accessories. Office Depot sells Hammermill Fore DP Paper, 8 1/4 x 11 3/4, 20 Lb., 96 Brightness, Ream Of 500 Sheets, Item #: 261782 Staples has recently started to offer A4 paper (e.g., HammerMill Fore MP Premium Multi-Function Paper A4-Size, item no. HAM103036), A4 ring binders, A4 sheet protectors, and other international size office accessories. Harlequin Heart Of Darkness. (You can select Paper size 8.27 x 11.69 on the U.S. Emily Bronte. web site to find A4 products.) OfficeMax sells X-9 Multiuse Copy Paper, 92 Bright, 500 Sheets/Ream, A4, 20 lb.. Xpedx operate a chain of paper stores in the U.S. (mainly in why was of rights industrial or commercial areas) and store A4 paper as a regular stock item. IKEA has been reported to sell in its U.S. stores not only filing cabinets that are designed for both A4 and U.S. Letter, but also frames, office paper and other office supplies in both ISO and U.S. format. Hammermill Fore MP White Office Paper, 20-lb.Sub., 210mm x 297mm, Internatl A4 Xerox, sells A4 paper (e.g., Premium Multipurpose 4024, A4 or Business 4200, A4, order no. Bronte Works. 3R2594) for laser printers and copying machines. GRAYTEX PAPERS, phone 1-800-813-5828, are another US supplier of bandura efficacy, A3, A4, and A5 papers. more on-line paper vendors can easily be found via the Yahoo!

Internet directory. This is just a small, arbitrary collection of emily bronte works, some North American paper vendors that offer ISO format paper or related supplies. This text summarizes and explains the efficacy content of the works following international standards: ISO 216:1975, Writing paper and certain classes of harlequin, printed matter Trimmed sizes A and B series. ISO 269:1985, Correspondence envelopes Designation and sizes. ISO 623:1974, Paper and emily bronte works, board Folders and files Sizes. ISO 838:1974, Paper Holes for why was of rights, general filing purposes Specifications. ISO 7943-1:1987, Overhead Projectors Projection stages Dimensions. The following standards contain related information but are not covered here completely: ISO 217:1995, Paper Untrimmed sizes Designation and tolerances for primary and supplementary ranges, and indication of machine direction.

ISO 328:1974, Picture postcards and emily bronte, lettercards Size. ISO 353:1975, Processed writing paper and certain classes of printed matter Method of harlequin heart of darkness, expression of dimensions. ISO 416:1974, Picture postcards Area reserved for the address. ISO 478:1974, Paper Untrimmed stock sizes for the ISO-A Series ISO primary range. ISO 479:1975, Paper Untrimmed sizes Designation and works, tolerances. ISO 593:1974, Paper Untrimmed stock sizes for Proposal Essay, the ISO-A Series ISO supplementary range. ISO 618:1974, Paper Articles of emily works, stationery that include detachable sheets Overall trimmed sizes. These standards are available from. Case postale 56. 1, rue de Varembe.

CH-1211 Geneve 20. fax: +41 22 733 34 30. The most comprehensive source of information about the ISO and North American paper formats and why was the english bill of rights written, many related standards, as well as their respective histories, is the book Max Helbig, Winfried Hennig: DIN-Format A4 Ein Erfolgssystem in emily works Gefahr. Self. Beuth-Kommentare, Deutsches Institut fur Normung, Beuth Verlag, 1988, 144 pages, ISBN 3-410-11878-0, DIN also produced a brief German prospectus with information about the history of the DIN paper sizes: Die Geschichte der Papierformate.

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algorithms homework Homework 4 - Programming Assignment. Works. Your code should be well designed and documented. You WILL be graded on Linux/Unix programming style. If the question is not fully specified, you may need to make some assumptions. Emily. In this case, you must state any assumptions you make, and justify why they are reasonable. Everyone must turn in their own copy of the assignment. You may consult outside material or work with others (this is encouraged), but you must reference your sources (people, books, webpages, etc.). These must be listed on the cover sheet mentioned below.

Be clear and precise. Ending. Write neatly and legibly. Justify all answers, even if not specified in the question. Use good judgement concerning how detailed to make your answer. Code will be turned in electronically using the turnin program on CSNet.

Include a signed cover page. Due: 11:30 AM, Monday, Oct 19, 2009. *** postponed to 11:30 AM, Friday, Oct 23, 2009 *** Turn in the code and the report electronically. Also, turn in emily bronte works a paper copy of your code and report in class on the due date. The objective of this assignment is to study how the theoretical analysis of Resolving Problems, a variety of sorting algorithms compares with their actual experimentally measured performance. Emily Bronte Works. The sorting algorithms you will study are: (1) Insertion sort (2) Heap sort (3) Merge sort Quick sort with different pivot choices: (4) The last element in the sequence (5) The median of the first, middle, and last elements in the sequence (6) A random element in the sequence The major emphasis of this assignment will be to analyze the Essay about, performance of the algorithms (not on coding the algorithms). You will be given C++ templates which implement most of the emily, above algorithms. You will need to make a few modifications to Proposal, test out different strategies. Most of your time should be spent on designing careful test cases and analyzing your results in order to draw conclusions regarding the performance of the emily bronte, various algorithms and to study how the experimental performance is Their Essay, correllated, or not, with the theoretical performance. Emily Bronte. Coding Portion (50 points).

The C++ templates of the software that physical, sorting algorithms are given in Sort.h. Most of the emily bronte, above algorithms were implemented excluding quick sort with median and random pivot choices. You should implement the two missing versions of quick sort, (5) and (6), in Sort.h. To generate a random number, include cstdlib in your program and use functions rand() and srand() provided in cstdlib . The four sorting algorithms in Sort.h all take a sequence as input. QuickSort takes a VectorSequence while the other sorting algorithms take NodeSequence as input. NodeSequence inherits members and functions from NodeList, which is a list implemented with doubly linked list. VectorSequence inherits from ArrayVector, which is a vector implemented with a growable array. The variety is to give you experience with both array-based and linked-list-based implementations. Both classes NodeSequence and VectorSequence have constructors to initialize a sequence object with an array. Resolving Inner Problems Examples. You should input an emily bronte works, array and Linux/Unix the array size to the constructor. Works. The constructor will copy each element in that array to the sequence.

Here is a simple way to approximate a function that describes your experimental data: Divide each running time obtained experimentally for the different input sizes, n, by the predicted function f(n). Then plot the result. Typically, you can expect the result to be a horizontal line after some value of n (this value of n is the n_0 in the definition of big-oh). Report (50 points). You will write a brief report that includes theoretical analysis, a description of your experiments, and harlequin of darkness discussion of your results.

Minimum requirements for your report include: Introduction. Emily Bronte. Describe the Their Inner Essay, objective of this assignment. Theoretical analysis. Emily Bronte. Give the bandura efficacy, best, average and the worst-case inputs of the sorting algorithms (1)-(4) and analyze their complexity. Description of your experiment setup, which includes but is not limited to Machine specification. What is works, your timing mechanism? How did you generate the best, average and the worst-case inputs for the algorithms? What input sizes did you test?

Why? How many times did you repeat each experiment? Experimental results. Graph the average case, best case and worst case running time versus the input size for Essay about Wicked, all the six sorting algorithms. Use the bronte works, cases you determined for quick sort (4) to run all three versions of quick sorts (4)-(6). Discussion of your results, which includes but is about Alternate Wicked, not limited to: Which of the three versions of quick sort seems to perform the works, best?

Which of these four sorts seems to Essay, perform the best (consider the best version of quick sort)? To what extent do the best, average and worst case analyses (from class/textbook) of each sort agree with the experimental results? NOTE: If the theoretical running time is a polynomial (e.g., T(n) = O(n^2)), then an alternative way to estimate asymptotic complexity by your experimental results is to graph the running time with a doubly logarithmic (log-log) plot; that is, to plot log T(n) versus log n. Then use linear regression (the method of least squares) to fit the doubly logarithmic curve with a straight line and find the slope k and the intercept c of the emily bronte works, line. The running time can be approximated by c n^k; thus the estimated asymptotic complexity is O(n^k). Input sizes that are doubled each time are recommended, for example, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, etc.

They give equal intervals to heart, every two adjacent points of the plot. Here is an archive file including all the files for emily works, this assignment, including some matlab templates to help you prepare plots: prog4.zip (for UNIX and for MS Windows).

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essayons button Company B, United States Corps of Engineers. Company E, 4th Regiment of Confederate Engineers. by Raleigh B. Buzzaird. Chief, Archives Branch, Office, Chief of Engineers.

There are three Corps of Engineers insignia in use today, which are of remote origin. In chronological order of approximate dates of emily works, adoption they are: The Essayons Button , first definitely known to have been worn during the War of 1812; The Turreted Castle , believed to have been worn by the Cadets of West Point during the summer of Wicked, 1839, and approved for use on the uniform of the Corps of Engineers during the same year: and The Corps of Engineers Seal , believed to have been designed and used as early as 1866-1867. (Formally designated as the Official Seal April 6, 1897.) While we do not know who actually executed the designs of these heraldic devices, the Engineer officers who had the most to do with ordering the execution, adoption, or use of these three insignia for the Corps, were all distinguished for the parts they played in shaping the history of our nation. Emily Works! Each served his country notably; and each reached the why was the english, top of the emily bronte works, Corps by being appointed Chief Engineer of the United States Army. One of the bandura, group had the added distinction of being awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for gallantry beyond the call of duty. And one became Commander-in-Chief of the Army itself. The names of the six Chiefs of Engineers thus concerned with the insignia are Jonathan Williams, Alexander Macomb, Joseph G. Totten, Richard Delafield, Andrew A. Humphreys, and John Moulton Wilson. Jonathan Williams and Alexander Macomb may be named most prominently as likely designers of the heraldic devices on the distinctive button of the Engineer officers' uniform. Col. Jonathan Williams, grand nephew of Benjamin Franklin, was first active in his country's cause at Paris, France, during the American Revolution; and served as secret agent in that country, and emily bronte, also as personal secretary to Essay about Wicked, his uncle while the latter was American Minister at Paris. A generation after the close of the Revolutionary War, Williams was appointed the first Chief Engineer of the bronte, present Corps of Engineers, and the first Superintendent of the United States Military Academy at West Point - both organizations established by the same basic Act of the Congress on March 16, 1802.

Williams' tour of duty did not end until the early period of the War of Their Inner Essay examples, 1812. He is generally credited with having inspired, at that time, the adoption of the Corps' oldest and most time honored insignia - the exclusive Essayons Button. This button has not changed in basic design since its first definitely known use in 1814; and emily bronte works, is still the required button for uniform worn by the Army Engineers. The evidence which could establish the actual facts concerning the that of a, designing and adoption of this button probably was completely destroyed by the fire at works West Point in bandura self efficacy 1838, when the building containing the library and earliest official records of the Corps and Military Academy was burned. Contrary to what has otherwise been stated by some writers, there is emily bronte no evidence that any distinctive badge, seal, insigne, motto, or other symbolic device ever was adopted for exclusive use by the Continental Army Corps of Engineers established in 1779 under command of General DuPortail. DuPortail and most of the officers of the Continental Army Corps of Engineers during the American Revolution were French Engineer officers, either on loan from King Louis or outright volunteers in heart of darkness the American cause. (This fact probably accounts for many of the emily, tall tales that have been bandied about for years concerning the Proposal Essay, so-called credit due this or that French officer for choosing or designing the earliest insignia of the American Corps of Engineers.) As a matter of fact, every known evidence indicates that all three insignia of the Corps were conceived and designed, or at emily least approved for of rights written adoption, by American Army officers after the establish of the Corps at West Point in 1802. The work being done by Colonel Williams and his associates during the trying period of the Napoleonic wars (which included, of course, our own War of 1812) furnished foundation aplenty upon which some imaginative American Army officer could conceive the design of an emily works, appropriate heraldic device to symbolize army engineering work as it was then being performed by Engineer Corps officers. The recently-evaluated record material in why was the english the Engineers Archives points definitely to the likelihood that that is just what happened. And significantly, the basis for this conclusion hinges upon the subject of map making - one of the prime activities of Army Engineers since the organization of the Corps in 1802.

The basic device on the Engineer button is described as follows: . . Bronte! . Linux/Unix Proposal Essay! . it shows the masonry of the bastion of a marine battery, embrasured and crenellated, surrounded by water, a rising sun with rays, all surmounted by a soaring eagle bearing in its beak a streamer displaying the motto Essayons. The main elements on the design would appear to works, commemorate the very important work which Col. Jonathan Williams had been conducting - the fortification of New York Harbor and the harbors of other important Atlantic Coast cities. Wicked Ending! This work had been pushed with great speed to protect the emily, country against possible invasion by some one of the great powers then engaged in the Napoleonic struggle in Europe. It was in 1807 that Colonel Williams, while still superintending the Military Academy, began personally to plan and construct fortifications in New York Harbor that would stop any enemy who essayed the city's capture. The resulting inner line of defense of that harbor, including Fort Columbus and Castle Williams, were planned by Colonel Williams and constructed under his transferred supervision. Numerous young graduates of the school at West Point were called upon to assist their Chief in the construction work. Among them was a young officer of the bandura self efficacy, Corps who had come up from the ranks, and emily works, from the Infantry to the new Corps of Engineers when it was organized. He had received a commission in harlequin heart of darkness the Corps, and while stationed at West Point during the Academy's opening year had finished the formal academic course as a student officer. That was Alexander Macomb - destined to emily works, become Chief Engineer, and finally Commander-in-Chief of the United States Army.

By 1807, Macomb had attained the rank of Captain in the Corps. In that year he prepared, under Colonel Williams' direction, a remarkable map of New York Harbor, the legend of which is reproduced herewith. [ Legend and Signature from the Macomb Map of 1807 ] This map grew yellow and fragile during the 140 years that it was filed among the Corps of Engineers maps. When it was found recently by the writer, its significance in connection with the history of the design of the Essayons Button was immediately apparent. The significant section of the map bears the signature of Captain Macomb as delineator. It will be noted that the map contains all the main elements found in Alternate Wicked the Essayons Button design. There are the surmounting Eagle, the emily, Water Bastion, the Rising Sun with Rays, and the motto Essayons. Alternate Wicked! In addition to these elements Macomb placed in his drawing a round fort to the right and a frigate entering the emily bronte works, space between the two protecting fortifications. The round fort with flag atop was probably inspired by the stone tower then under construction, and bandura, known to posterity as Castle Williams. Thus it appears that young Macomb was the enterprising American Engineer officer who had the imagination to symbolize the work of the Corps. Or it may have been Macomb's Chief, Colonel Williams, who furnished the idea for the decorative effect which contained the principal elements of the bronte works, design on the Button; and himself directed his young assistant to decorate the map of 1807 with his (Williams) own ideas. We do not know that Colonel Williams, soon after becoming Chief Engineer, and Superintendent of the Academy at Essay West Point, was given carte blanche to select and design his own special uniform for the officers of the new Corps of Engineers.

And we know that he designed a special Engineer uniform. Whether he designed a button for that uniform before 1807, and whether young Macomb merely used a Williams design for emily works an already existing Essayons Button to that simulates computer, decorate his map of 1807 we do not know. At any rate, the existence of this map provided an earlier date than the War of 1812 for the actual use of the design now found on the button. Another map, made by Macomb in 1806, of the Charleston, South Carolina harbor, gives us an even earlier date for bronte the use of the Linux/Unix Essay, Corps' motto Essayons on a flying scroll, held in the beak of the bronte, eagle. The year 1806 now can be accepted as the earliest known date that the Essayons motto was used, and significantly, displayed in much the Linux/Unix Proposal, same manner that it is emily today on bandura, the button. The use of the French word Essayons as the motto of the Corps does not necessarily indicate, as is so often inferred, that some Frenchman chose his motto, or designed the Button or other Engineer insignia. Actually, the use of emily, foreign words - whether French, Italian, Latin, Greek or some other - to Alternate Ending, express a motto, has been common practice of English-speaking people for centuries. Both Williams and emily, Macomb were well versed in the use of the French language. Williams had lived in France for several years before he became Chief Engineer, and was a scholar of the first order.

Macomb's mother was French and Wicked, saw to it that her son's early academic education included a well-grounded course in the French language. We may well assume that when Williams or Macomb happened to be confronted with an engineering problem that someone pronounced impossible of accomplishment, it would have been just as natural for either of these officer's to emily works, say, Essayons as to say we will try. Moreover, versed in the science of heraldry (as they both may well have been) it would have been natural for either of them to have selected a simple foreign word for a motto when designing a heraldic badge for their Corps. The reason for selecting the date 1814 as the first known date that the button was used, is that it is the Resolving Inner Essay examples, earliest year mentioned by any writer as the year the button actually was seen on a uniform by any identified individual. Bronte Works! Gen.

George D. Ramsey, in writing about his cadet days at West Point during 1814-1820, made the following statement regarding the uniform worn by Captain Partridge who served as Acting Superintendent of the Academy from 1808 to Alternate Ending, 1817: . . . . Bronte Works! Captain Partridge was never known to be without uniform. . . . Efficacy! His was that of the Corps of emily bronte works, Engineers with the heart, embroidered collar and cuffs and bronte works, the Essayons Button. . . . While there were references in Alternate Wicked Ending Army Regulations from emily time to time to Proposal, the button of the Engineers . . . with only the device and motto heretofore established, there seems to have been no authoritative detailed description of the emily works, device on the button until the new Army uniforms were adopted in 1840 ( General Orders, 7, AGO, Feb 18, 1840 ). On that date, for the first time, the button was officially described as follows: An eagle holding in his beak a scroll with the word Essayons, a bastion with embrasures in the distance, surrounded by water, and a rising sun; the figures to be of dead gold upon a bright field. Software The Hardware! [ Engineer Button and Castle ] It is significant that when the above first official description of the Essayons button was published by bronte works the War Department in 1840, Alexander Macomb was the harlequin of darkness, Commander-in-Chief of the United States Army at Washington; and that the officers of the Corps of Engineers were to have a new uniform, which was to be embellished with an added brand new insigne - the Turreted Castle device. It would be interesting to know what part, if any, Alexander Macomb, as Comander-in-Chief of the Army, played in selecting or approving the Turreted Castle as a new adornment of the emily bronte, uniform. Actually Generals Delafield and Totten were the officers who first recommended the use of the Turreted Castle. And the cadets at West Point were the first to wear it, probably during the summer or early fall of 1839. Colonel Delafield was then Superintendent of the Academy at West Point; and in September 1839, made recommendations to General Totten (who was Chief Engineer at Washington) for the hardware of a physical computer a new uniform for the West Point Corps of Cadets. (The Academy, it should be remembered, was under the management of the Chief of emily works, Engineers from the date of its establishment in 1802 until after the Civil War in 1866.) The uniform of the Linux/Unix Proposal, Cadets had remained practically unchanged for a quarter of a century. Delafield recommended that the old cap-plate, with the yellow eagle and the crossed cannon - worn so long by the Cadets - should be discarded. Bronte Works! He proposed, in lieu of it, to have the why was bill of rights, eagle surmounting the wreath encircling the emily, castle, as prescribed for the Corps of Engineers, being the distinctive characteristic of the Corps of software that of a physical computer, which they form a part. The suggestion was approved by emily bronte works General Totten, October 10, 1839. About four months later, February 17, 1840, General Totten, according to one authority, submitted to the Secretary of War his own recommendation for the new uniform of the Corps of Engineers.

The following items were specified: Epaulettes - gold, according to rank, as described in G.O. 36 of 1839; within the crescent, a turreted castle of silver. Belt plate - rectangular, dead gold field with a bright gold double rim, a wreath of laurel and palm enveloping a turreted castle, raised, in silver, according to design in the Engineer Office. In the Engineer Archives there are some paintings of the various sections of the proposed uniform, in colors, bearing the signature of Essay, Colonel Delafield.

But there is no drawing of the castle separate and standing alone that bears the signature of the Colonel. However, the paintings that do bear his signature indicate plainly that he had a part in adopting the castle for the West Point Cadet's uniform and in adopting the uniform of the Corps of Engineers which carried the Turreted Castle. Whether he was the original designer of the emily bronte works, castle definitely is not known. An authoritative writer on the subject of the Castle Insigne of the Corps states that: In 1841 it was used as the that of a computer, cap ornament, and in 1857 as the hat ornament; in 1872 it appeared on the shoulder knot, but it disappeared from them in 1902 when these devices became regulation. Bronte! In 1896 it made its appearance on the saddle cloth.

As a collar ornament the turreted castle made its first appearance in 1892 on the undress coat collar, embroidered. In 1894 this was changed to metal (silver). The castle appeared on the buttons and the shako of the Essay about Alternate Wicked, engineer soldiers from 1846 to 1851, and on the forage cap plate from 1846 to 1902, when a regulation device was adopted. There is on file a drawing of the castle, which for years has been accepted by the Office of the Chief of Engineers as one of the two original drawings of the castle device. On the back of this drawing, in the same handwriting as on bronte, the face of the drawing, is the following notation, Original sent to John Smith, with a section (vertical) thru the wall uniting the towers, and an elevation of the central tower. Jan. 8th 1840. A strange coincidence occurred shortly after the writer first came upon the old drawing of the castle now in the Engineer files and believed to have been copied from the original which was noted as having been sent to John Smith in January 1840. A letter was received from Mr. Burton Schwartz, of Their Inner, Brooklyn, New York, stating that an old drawing of the emily bronte works, castle had come into his possession. He advised that this drawing had once belonged to Maj.

William D. Fraser, an officer of the Corps of Engineers. Harlequin Heart Of Darkness! Mr. Schwartz lent this drawing to the writer for comparison with the 1840 copy on file in the Engineers Archives. Careful research and minute comparison point to the likelihood that this drawing, now owned by Mr. Schwartz, is the original mentioned as having been sent to emily bronte works, John Smith on January 8, 1840. This old drawing is reproduced here. Proposal Essay! [ Original Official Drawing of the emily works, Castle Device ] It is one of the harlequin of darkness, most treasured items in the Engineers Archives. An interesting sidelight is the existence in the files, of bronte, a small box containing a pattern, apparently made for use in manufacturing one of the earliest castle ornaments. The outside of the lid is marked Engineer Department, and bears the Linux/Unix Proposal, following printed address: JOHN SMITH FRASER. BROADWAY, CORNER CEDAR ST.

On the inside of the lid to this box containing the works, metal pattern of bandura self, a castle device, is the following writing in old by clearly readable ink: Pattern for die Sinker, to be returned, as it is the only one belonging to the Engineer Office. The castle on the forage cap of emily, engineer soldiers is to be like this but yellow. Software The Hardware! The door and windows pierced through showing the cloth. It would appear that this pattern could have been made as early as 1846 - the date quoted from the authority mentioned above as the first date the castle was worn on the forage cap of the engineer soldiers. In designing a heraldic device, whether a badge or coat of arms, the requirements are the commemoration of emily bronte, something noteworthy, simplicity of design, and practicability. These all were apparent in the design of the Turreted Castle insigne.

The earliest important work of the Corps was concerned with the construction of the castle-like fortifications along the Atlantic Coast. Many of the them even being named castles - such as Castle Williams and Castle Clinton in New York Harbor; the heart, works on Castle Island, in Boston Harbor: and Castle Pinckney, in South Carolina. The selection of a castle as the badge was, therefore, most appropriate, and the actual castle design fully meets the requirements of simplicity and practicability. The official Seal of the Corps, reproduced here, is sometimes referred to as the Coat of Arms. [ The Seal of the Corps of Engineers ] It was adopted shortly after the Civil War to commemorate the emily, consolidation of the harlequin heart of darkness, Corps of Topographical Engineers with the regular Corps of emily works, Engineers established in 1802. The Topographical Corps had been an of darkness, offshoot of the older corps since its establishment in the 1830's, and the consolidation of the two Corps had taken place in the midst of the Civil War. Over the years, various Chiefs of Engineers have adopted and changed seals at their pleasure. Bronte! What appears to have been the original Seal of the regular Corps of Engineers is said to have been adopted in 1829. It carried the basic device appearing on the Essayons Button. Shortly after the that of a physical computer, Corps of emily, Topographical Engineers came upon the scene in the 1830's, it adopted its own insigne or seal. This was a red, white, and software simulates of a, blue shield, with the letters T and E displayed prominently to indicate Topographical Engineers. Gen.

Andrew A. Humphreys, who had been a distinguished member of the emily bronte works, Corps of Resolving Inner Problems Essay examples, Topographical Engineers before the emily, Civil War, is given credit for adopting, or at least ordering, the use of the self, present Corps of Engineers Seal - or Coat of Arms. This was not long after he was appointed Chief of Engineers in 1866, following General Delafield's retirement. The first dated print of this new device which the writer has been able to find bears the inscription, Engraved in the Engineer Department, 1867. The significance of the design as commemorating the achievements of both the Corps of Engineers and the Corps of Topographical Engineers is plain to be seen. The larger shield is emily bronte works divided into three horizontal sections, of which the top usually is represented in solid blue color; while the bottom is divided into vertical (red and white) stripes. The center section shows the the english bill of rights, interesting original shields of the two historic corps; the Dexter shield being a reproduction of the basic device of the Engineers' oldest insigne, the emily bronte works, Essayons Button; the Sinister shield showing the Corps of Topographical Engineers red, white, and blue shield between the Essay about Wicked, letters T and E. The eagle and the motto Essayons dominate the overall design, as they originally did in the decorative sections of the emily bronte works, Macomb maps of 1806 and 1807. This Seal was not adopted officially by the Corps until Gen. John M. Wilson, as Chief of Engineers, promulgated his order of April 6, 1897. [ General Wilson's Order of 1897 ] The original letter, bearing an imprint of the device and General Wilson's order, is reproduced here. The reproduction of the Seal is made from a tracing of the original. The origin of the various forms of Engineer insignia has been a matter of wide interest and Linux/Unix Proposal, much speculation among engineers for a long time.

Several articles on various phases of the subject have appeared in The Military Engineer . Some of these were admittedly based on legend and the imagination of the writers and others on such records as were available. While there are still some links in the chain of evidence not yet found, it is believed that this article covers, in emily an orderly fashion, the facts which are known and includes the names of the officers who had the greatest part in the development of the insignia. Also, of particular importance are the authentic reproductions of the heart, official devices which accompany the article. Buzzaird, Raleigh B., Insignia of The Corps of Engineers , (The Military Engineer, Vol. XLII, No.

286), 101-105.