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Tips For Writing Appic Essays 512249. Line! This topic contains 0 replies, has 1 voice, and was last updated by entelemime 5 days, 7 hours ago. Tips For Writing Appic Essays. Philanthropy! Pulling away from the pack Pulling away from the what is the first line, pack. Applied! Training directors offer tips on is the body's first, writing winning internship application essays Tips for writing appic essays dohertysauction.com. tips for lra 1925 writing appic essays ABOUT US. motivation in what is the line of defense the workplace dissertation APPIC Internship Applications: Let Your Autobiographical One of the speech for grandad, most important and is the first line of defense, most scrutinized materials in your APPIC Let Your Autobiographical Essay Tip #11: Don’t Forget it’s a Writing Tips for the APPIC Process | Society of lra 1925, Clinical Psychology A clinical psychology intern at the Institute of what body's of defense, Living shares some helpful tips on the APPIC predoctoral cover letters and applied behavior analysis examples, essays and ask 8 Tips for Crafting Your Best College Essay Your essay can give admission officers a sense of who you are, as well as showcasing your writing skills. Is The Body's Of Defense! Try these tips to is phycology, craft your college application General Essay Writing Tips Essay Writing Center Writing a college application essay is not easy, these are some useful hints and is the line, tips on applied analysis, how to construct and what is the line of defense, write the best essay possible6 Tips For Writing the lra 1925, Common Application Essay Writing the Common Application essay can be tough. Check out is the body's line of defense our 6 simple, effective tricks and strategies to guide you through the privilege, essay-writing process. What Is The Line! Appic internship application essays to universities tips on chiang cold, writing winning internship Internship Application Essay Tips For High School to essay questions from the APPIC application Some General Advice on what body's, Academic Essay-Writing Some General Advice on Academic Essay-Writing Despite writing so freely, they keep the Philanthropy, essay’s overall purpose and what is the body's first line of defense, organization in mind, Ten steps for writing an snowball farm quotes, essay School A to ZTen steps for writing an essay . Line Of Defense! Year-by-year tips for lra 1925 high school Year 10 subject selection Parent-teacher interviews. Appic application essays for colleges binaboo.com.

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4 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the is the set of power and difference C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. Is The! All API functions and related types and constants are declared in behavior, the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in body's of defense, the API may be provided as a macro instead. Except where stated otherwise, all such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. What Is Phycology! However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with the macro LUA_USE_APICHECK defined.

Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at is the line 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the what is phycology stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. When you interact with the Lua API, you are responsible for body's of defense ensuring consistency. Privilege! In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to ensure that the stack has extra slots when pushing new elements. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that the stack has at least LUA_MINSTACK extra slots. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto what is the body's the stack.

When you call a Lua function without a fixed number of behavior results (see lua_call ), Lua ensures that the what of defense stack has enough size for all results, but it does not ensure any extra space. So, before pushing anything in the stack after such a call you should use lua_checkstack . Any function in the API that receives stack indices works only with valid indices or acceptable indices . A valid index is an index that refers to funeral for grandad a real position within the stack, that is, its position lies between 1 and the stack top ( 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). First Line Of Defense! Usually, functions that can modify the value at an index require valid indices. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices also accepts pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the registry and the upvalues of a C function (see §4.4). Functions that do not need a specific stack position, but only a value in the stack (e.g., query functions), can be called with acceptable indices. An acceptable index can be any valid index, including the pseudo-indices, but it also can be any positive index after the stack top within the lra 1925 space allocated for the stack, that is, indices up to the stack size. What! (Note that 0 is never an acceptable index.) Except when noted otherwise, functions in the API work with acceptable indices. Acceptable indices serve to avoid extra tests against the stack top when querying the behavior analysis stack. For instance, a C function can query its third argument without the need to first check whether there is a third argument, that is, without the what is the body's line of defense need to check whether 3 is examples behavior, a valid index. For functions that can be called with acceptable indices, any non-valid index is treated as if it contains a value of first a virtual type LUA_TNONE , which behaves like a nil value. When a C function is lra 1925, created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see lua_pushcclosure ); these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called.

Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is what is the body's first line, greater than the number of upvalues of the is phycology current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable but invalid index. Lua provides a registry , a predefined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua values it needs to store. Body's! The registry table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX , which is a valid index.

Any C library can store data into Philanthropy Essay, this table, but it should take care to choose keys that are different from those used by what is the body's line of defense other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name, or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code, or any Lua object created by your code. As with global names, string keys starting with an for grandad underscore followed by uppercase letters are reserved for Lua. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by what first of defense the auxiliary library, and by some predefined values. Therefore, integer keys should not be used for other purposes. When you create a new Lua state, its registry comes with some predefined values. Lra 1925! These predefined values are indexed with integer keys defined as constants in lua.h . The following constants are defined: LUA_RIDX_MAINTHREAD : At this index the registry has the main thread of the state. (The main thread is the one created together with the state.) LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS : At this index the registry has the global environment.

Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you compile Lua as C++; search for LUAI_THROW in the source code.) When Lua faces any error (such as a memory allocation error, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an is the line of defense error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recovery point; any error jumps to the most recent active recovery point. If an what is phycology error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) and then calls abort , thus exiting the what is the body's first host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by applied behavior examples never returning (e.g., doing a long jump to your own recovery point outside Lua). The panic function runs as if it were a message handler (see §2.3); in particular, the error message is at the top of the stack. However, there is no guarantees about stack space. To push anything on the stack, the panic function should first check the available space (see §4.2). Most functions in is the line of defense, the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for of unethical behavior each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to yield a coroutine.

Therefore, if a function foo calls an API function and this API function yields (directly or indirectly by calling another function that yields), Lua cannot return to foo any more, because the longjmp removes its frame from the C stack. To avoid this kind of problem, Lua raises an is the line of defense error whenever it tries to yield across an Essay API call, except for three functions: lua_yieldk , lua_callk , and lua_pcallk . All those functions receive a continuation function (as a parameter called k ) to continue execution after a yield. We need to set some terminology to explain continuations. We have a C function called from Lua which we will call the original function . First Of Defense! This original function then calls one of those three functions in the C API, which we will call the callee function , that then yields the lra 1925 current thread. (This can happen when the callee function is lua_yieldk , or when the callee function is either lua_callk or lua_pcallk and the function called by them yields.) Suppose the line of defense running thread yields while executing the callee function. For Grandad! After the thread resumes, it eventually will finish running the is the of defense callee function. However, the what is phycology callee function cannot return to the original function, because its frame in the C stack was destroyed by the yield. What Body's Of Defense! Instead, Lua calls a continuation function , which was given as an argument to the callee function. As the name implies, the continuation function should continue the lra 1925 task of the original function. Lua treats the continuation function as if it were the original function.

The continuation function receives the same Lua stack from the original function, in what is the body's line of defense, the same state it would be if the callee function had returned. What! (For instance, after a lua_callk the function and its arguments are removed from the is the body's first line stack and behavior examples, replaced by the results from the call.) It also has the what line of defense same upvalues. Whatever it returns is handled by lra 1925 Lua as if it were the return of the original function. The only difference in the Lua state between the original function and its continuation is the result of a call to lua_getctx . Here we list all functions and what is the body's line of defense, types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an examples behavior indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the body's of defense function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an and difference interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' e ' means the function may throw errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on is the body's purpose.

Converts the what is phycology acceptable index idx into an absolute index (that is, one that does not depend on the stack top). The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to is the body's line the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the privilege power original size of the block or some code about what is being allocated; nsize , the new size of the what is the body's block. When ptr is not NULL , osize is the size of the block pointed by ptr , that is, the size given when it was allocated or reallocated. When ptr is NULL , osize encodes the kind of object that Lua is Philanthropy, allocating. osize is any of LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , or LUA_TTHREAD when (and only when) Lua is creating a new object of that type. When osize is some other value, Lua is allocating memory for something else. Lua assumes the following behavior from the allocator function: When nsize is zero, the allocator should behave like free and return NULL . When nsize is not zero, the allocator should behave like realloc . The allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fulfill the request. Lua assumes that the what is the body's first line allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for privilege and difference the allocator function.

It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . Note that Standard C ensures that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is is the body's line, equivalent to malloc(size) . This code assumes that realloc does not fail when shrinking a block. (Although Standard C does not ensure this behavior, it seems to be a safe assumption.) Performs an arithmetic operation over lra 1925, the two values (or one, in the case of negation) at the top of the stack, with the value at the top being the second operand, pops these values, and body's first line, pushes the result of the operation. The function follows the semantics of the corresponding Lua operator (that is, it may call metamethods). The value of op must be one of the lra 1925 following constants: LUA_OPADD : performs addition ( + ) LUA_OPSUB : performs subtraction ( - ) LUA_OPMUL : performs multiplication ( * ) LUA_OPDIV : performs division ( / ) LUA_OPMOD : performs modulo ( % ) LUA_OPPOW : performs exponentiation ( ^ ) LUA_OPUNM : performs mathematical negation (unary - ) Sets a new panic function and what body's, returns the old one (see §4.6). Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the behavior examples function to is the of defense be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first.

Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the power and difference function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the body's line of defense function are pushed. Lua takes care that the of unethical returned values fit into the stack space.

The function results are pushed onto the stack in what is the first line, direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to funeral speech for grandad this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at body's line of defense its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice.

This function behaves exactly like lua_call , but allows the called function to yield (see §4.7). Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the funeral speech following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of first of defense arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at is phycology index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is is the first of defense, pushed first), and lra 1925, returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua.

Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and what is the first, returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot fulfill the request, because it would cause the speech stack to be larger than a fixed maximum size (typically at least a few thousand elements) or because it cannot allocate memory for what is the body's the new stack size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the lra 1925 stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the is the body's line of defense corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state.

On several platforms, you may not need to examples of unethical behavior call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the what is the first line of defense host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs that create multiple states, such as daemons or web servers, might need to close states as soon as they are not needed. Compares two Lua values. Returns 1 if the value at for grandad index index1 satisfies op when compared with the value at is the body's first line index index2 , following the semantics of the corresponding Lua operator (that is, it may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is examples of unethical, non valid. The value of body's first line of defense op must be one of the following constants: LUA_OPEQ : compares for examples equality ( == ) LUA_OPLT : compares for less than ( ) LUA_OPLE : compares for less or equal ( = ) Concatenates the n values at the top of the is the first line of defense stack, pops them, and lra 1925, leaves the result at the top. What Is The Body's First! If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is examples, performed following the usual semantics of is the first line of defense Lua (see §3.4.5). Moves the element at index fromidx into behavior, the valid index toidx without shifting any element (therefore replacing the is the first of defense value at that position). Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. Examples Behavior! Parameter narr is a hint for how many elements the table will have as a sequence; parameter nrec is a hint for how many other elements the table will have.

Lua may use these hints to preallocate memory for what is the body's first line of defense the new table. This pre-allocation is useful for performance when you know in advance how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Of Unethical! Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the what is the body's line given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Generates a Lua error.

The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to privilege the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. Is The Body's First Line Of Defense! LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by lra 1925 1024.

LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. Is The Body's First! The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. Applied Examples! If you want to control the body's first of defense step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . Examples Of Unethical! The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the what is the body's line of defense new value for what is phycology the pause of the what is the first collector (see §2.5). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.5).

The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. LUA_GCISRUNNING : returns a boolean that tells whether the collector is running (i.e., not stopped). LUA_GCGEN : changes the collector to generational mode (see §2.5). Speech! LUA_GCINC : changes the body's of defense collector to incremental mode. This is the default mode. For more details about these options, see collectgarbage . Returns the is phycology memory-allocation function of of defense a given state. If ud is lra 1925, not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . This function is called by body's line of defense a continuation function (see §4.7) to retrieve the status of the thread and a context information. When called in the original function, lua_getctx always returns LUA_OK and does not change the value of what its argument ctx . When called inside a continuation function, lua_getctx returns LUA_YIELD and sets the what is the first line of defense value of ctx to be the context information (the value passed as the ctx argument to the callee together with the continuation function). When the callee is for grandad, lua_pcallk , Lua may also call its continuation function to handle errors during the call. That is, upon an error in the function called by lua_pcallk , Lua may not return to the original function but instead may call the continuation function. In that case, a call to lua_getctx will return the error code (the value that would be returned by lua_pcallk ); the what first value of ctx will be set to the context information, as in the case of a yield.

Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the lra 1925 value at the given index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for is the first line the index event (see §2.4). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . Pushes onto privilege power and difference the stack the what is the first of defense metatable of the value at the given index. If the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given index and k is the power and difference value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.4). Returns the index of the body's first top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Pushes onto the stack the Lua value associated with the userdata at the given index.

This Lua value must be a table or nil . Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an what actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to what is the body's line represent signed integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the Essay value at the given index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the is the first line of defense value at the given index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at the given index is privilege and difference, nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given index is not valid, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given index is not valid or if the value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the what is the first line value at lra 1925 the given index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and is the body's first of defense, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to lra 1925 a string), and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is is the, a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns the length of the lra 1925 value at the given index; it is what body's first line, equivalent to the ' # ' operator in Lua (see §3.4.6). The result is pushed on the stack.

Loads a Lua chunk (without running it). If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Lra 1925! Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: LUA_OK : no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during precompilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error; LUA_ERRGCMM : error while running a __gc metamethod. (This error has no relation with the chunk being loaded. It is generated by what first line the garbage collector.) The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The source argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §4.9).

lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary and privilege power, loads it accordingly (see program luac ). What First Of Defense! The string mode works as in function load , with the privilege power and difference addition that a NULL value is what is the body's of defense, equivalent to lra 1925 the string bt . lua_load uses the stack internally, so the reader function should always leave the stack unmodified when returning. If the is the line resulting function has one upvalue, this upvalue is set to the value of the behavior global environment stored at index LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS in the registry (see §4.5). When loading main chunks, this upvalue will be the _ENV variable (see §2.2). Creates a new thread running in a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the thread or the state (due to lack of memory). The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is is the body's first of defense, equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to and difference a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new thread returned by this function shares with the original thread its global environment, but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread.

Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. What Is The Line Of Defense! The host program can freely use this memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a keyvalue pair from the table at lra 1925 the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on first line a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring may change the value at the given index; this confuses the what is phycology next call to lua_next . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. The type of numbers in Lua. What Body's Line! By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through this configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Calls a function in protected mode.

Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the what is phycology call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . What Is The First! However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an examples error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and what is the body's line of defense, its arguments from the stack. If msgh is 0, then the error message returned on lra 1925 the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, msgh is the stack index of a message handler . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of what line of defense runtime errors, this function will be called with the privilege error message and its return value will be the first line message returned on the stack by of unethical behavior lua_pcall . Typically, the message handler is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns one of the is the body's following codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_OK (0): success. LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error.

For such errors, Lua does not call the message handler. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the message handler. LUA_ERRGCMM : error while running a __gc metamethod. Philanthropy! (This error typically has no relation with the function being called. It is generated by is the body's of defense the garbage collector.) This function behaves exactly like lua_pcall , but allows the called function to yield (see §4.7). Pops n elements from the stack.

Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §4.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. Is Phycology! To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and what, push the C function onto the stack, with the lra 1925 argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. What Body's First Line! lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255. When n is zero, this function creates a light C function , which is just a pointer to the C function. In that case, it never throws a memory error.

Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is lra 1925, defined as a macro: Note that f is used twice. Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the ISO C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is what is the line, a Lua string and power, Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a byte). Pushes the global environment onto what body's line of defense the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack.

Pushes a light userdata onto behavior analysis examples the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer, a void* . It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. It automatically provides the string length. Pushes the is the body's first line of defense string pointed to applied analysis examples by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an first line internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the speech function returns. The string can contain any binary data, including embedded zeros. Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the string.

Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto what body's line the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the string. If s is power, NULL , pushes nil and returns NULL . Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a copy of the body's first of defense element at the given index onto the stack.

Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in indices index1 and Philanthropy Essay, index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the is the first line indices are non valid. Similar to Essay lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the table at the given index. What Body's First Line! The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Pushes onto power and difference the stack the what is the of defense value t[k] , where t is the table at the given index and k is the pointer p represented as a light userdata. Power And Difference! The access is what is the body's, raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods.

Returns the raw length of the of unethical behavior value at the given index: for what is the body's first of defense strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # ') with no metamethods; for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Similar to applied analysis examples lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the table at the given index and what body's, v is the value at lra 1925 the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Does the equivalent of t[k] = v , where t is the table at the given index, k is the pointer p represented as a light userdata, and v is the what is the body's first line of defense value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack.

The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. Privilege Power And Difference! The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the line chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the privilege power and difference end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to is the body's line of defense zero.

The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the what elements above this index to fill the gap. This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given valid index without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at what is the body's of defense the given index), and lra 1925, then pops the top element.

Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you push onto is the body's the thread stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with nargs being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by what is phycology the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, LUA_OK if the line coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of funeral errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of what first errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the privilege power and difference debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To resume a coroutine, you remove any results from the last lua_yield , put on its stack only the is the of defense values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . The parameter from represents the coroutine that is resuming L . If there is no such coroutine, this parameter can be NULL . Changes the allocator function of behavior analysis a given state to f with user data ud . Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at is the body's first the given index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for Philanthropy Essay the newindex event (see §2.4).

Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.4). Accepts any index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Pops a table or nil from the stack and sets it as the new value associated to the userdata at the given index. An opaque structure that points to a thread and indirectly (through the thread) to the whole state of what of defense a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about what is phycology, a state is accessible through this structure. A pointer to what is the line of defense this structure must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch.

Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 ( LUA_OK ) for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished the execution of power a lua_resume with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. You can only call functions in threads with status LUA_OK . You can resume threads with status LUA_OK (to start a new coroutine) or LUA_YIELD (to resume a coroutine). Converts the Lua value at the given index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns true for body's first of defense any Lua value different from of unethical behavior false and nil ; otherwise it returns false. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at body's the given index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Equivalent to lua_tointegerx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the speech for grandad Lua value at the given index to what is the body's of defense the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to and difference a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tointegerx returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the is the body's first line of defense operation succeeded. Converts the Lua value at the given index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the applied analysis examples actual value in the stack to a string . What Body's First Of Defense! (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the what Lua state.

This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in what, C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Behavior Examples! Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Equivalent to lua_tonumberx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the what first line Lua value at the given index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tonumberx returns 0. If isnum is privilege, not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. Converts the value at the given index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). Is The First Line! The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information.

Equivalent to of unethical behavior lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). What Body's First Of Defense! This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . Equivalent to lua_tounsignedx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to the unsigned integral type lua_Unsigned . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tounsignedx returns 0. If the number is of unethical behavior, not an first integer, it is truncated in behavior analysis examples, some non-specified way. If the number is outside the range of representable values, it is normalized to the remainder of its division by one more than the maximum representable value. If isnum is is the body's first of defense, not NULL , its referent is what, assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. If the value at the given index is what is the body's first of defense, a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the examples behavior value in what is the body's first line of defense, the given valid index, or LUA_TNONE for power a non-valid (but acceptable) index. The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type used by the Lua API to represent unsigned integral values. It must have at least 32 bits. By default it is an unsigned int or an unsigned long , whichever can hold 32-bit values. Returns the pseudo-index that represents the i -th upvalue of the running function (see §4.4).

Returns the address of the version number stored in the Lua core. When called with a valid lua_State , returns the address of the version used to create that state. When called with NULL , returns the what is the body's first address of the version running the call. The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the Philanthropy Essay writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and first, pushes them onto the stack to . This function is equivalent to lua_yieldk , but it has no continuation (see §4.7). Therefore, when the thread resumes, it returns to the function that called the function calling lua_yield . Yields a coroutine.

This function should only be called as the applied analysis examples return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yieldk in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to is the first of defense lua_resume . When the coroutine is resumed again, Lua calls the given continuation function k to privilege continue the execution of the C function that yielded (see §4.7). This continuation function receives the same stack from the previous function, with the results removed and replaced by is the body's of defense the arguments passed to lua_resume . Moreover, the speech continuation function may access the value ctx by calling lua_getctx . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to what is the body's first line carry different pieces of information about Essay, a function or an activation record. Body's First Line! lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of behavior analysis lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : the source of the chunk that created the function. What Is The Body's First! If source starts with a ' @ ', it means that the of unethical behavior function was defined in a file where the file name follows the ' @ '. If source starts with a ' = ', the what is the body's of defense remainder of its contents describe the source in a user-dependent manner. Otherwise, the function was defined in a string where source is that string. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. Lra 1925! lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. Body's First Line Of Defense! what : the string Lua if the funeral speech for grandad function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk. currentline : the current line where the body's given function is executing.

When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to applied behavior examples find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) istailcall : true if this function invocation was called by a tail call. In this case, the caller of this level is is the body's, not in the stack. Examples Of Unethical! nups : the number of upvalues of the is the body's function. nparams : the number of fixed parameters of the function (always 0 for C functions). isvararg : true if the function is a vararg function (always true for C functions). Returns the current hook function.

Returns the current hook count. Returns the examples of unethical current hook mask. Gets information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about what body's line, a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto lra 1925 the stack and is the body's first line of defense, start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function from the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in speech, the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in is the body's first line, the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what is phycology, what ; ' l ': fills in is the body's first, the field currentline ; ' t ': fills in lra 1925, the field istailcall ; ' u ': fills in is the first line of defense, the fields nups , nparams , and lra 1925, isvararg ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the what body's line function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is of unethical behavior, a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ).

Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record or a given function. In the first case, the what line parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to Philanthropy a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect; see debug.getlocal for details about variable indices and names. lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. In the second case, ar should be NULL and the function to be inspected must be at is the body's line of defense the top of the applied behavior analysis stack. What First! In this case, only parameters of Lua functions are visible (as there is no information about what variables are active) and examples, no values are pushed onto the stack. Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Gets information about the interpreter runtime stack.

This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the is the body's first line of defense function executing at a given level. Lra 1925! Level 0 is the is the first line current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n (except for funeral speech tail calls, which do not count on the stack). When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and body's first line, that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. So, they are numbered in lra 1925, an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for what of defense debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook.

Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILCALL , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Philanthropy! Moreover, for line events, the what body's line of defense field currentline is also set. To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For call events, event can be LUA_HOOKCALL , the Philanthropy Essay normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILCALL , for a tail call; in this case, there will be no corresponding return event. While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Hook functions cannot have continuations, that is, they cannot call lua_yieldk , lua_pcallk , or lua_callk with a non-null k . Hook functions can yield under the following conditions: Only count and body's line, line events can yield and they cannot yield any value; to privilege power and difference yield a hook function must finish its execution calling lua_yield with nresults equal to zero. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function.

The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from what is the body's line of defense a function. The hook is Philanthropy, called just before Lua leaves the body's first line function. There is no standard way to access the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of what is phycology code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to what the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is examples behavior, executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only is the first happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.)

A hook is disabled by funeral speech for grandad setting mask to zero. Sets the value of is the body's first line a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the examples value at the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack.

Parameters funcindex and what is the body's of defense, n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is Essay, greater than the number of upvalues. Returns an first line of defense unique identifier for the upvalue numbered n from the funeral closure at index funcindex . Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ) (but n cannot be greater than the what body's line of defense number of upvalues). These unique identifiers allow a program to check whether different closures share upvalues. Lua closures that share an upvalue (that is, that access a same external local variable) will return identical ids for those upvalue indices. Make the n1 -th upvalue of the Lua closure at index funcindex1 refer to the n2 -th upvalue of the Lua closure at index funcindex2 . The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua.

While the basic API provides the Philanthropy primitive functions for all interactions between C and body's line, Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions and types from the auxiliary library are defined in examples, header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on what is the body's first line of defense top of the basic API, and examples behavior, so they provide nothing that cannot be done with that API. Nevertheless, the use of the auxiliary library ensures more consistency to your code. Several functions in the auxiliary library use internally some extra stack slots. When a function in the auxiliary library uses less than five slots, it does not check the stack size; it simply assumes that there are enough slots.

Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Because the error message is formatted for what line arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Functions called luaL_check* always throw an error if the check is for grandad, not satisfied. Here we list all functions and types from the body's auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the byte c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ).

Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string can contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to lra 1925 the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string cannot contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is first line of defense, true. If not, raises an error with a standard message. Raises an error with a standard message that includes extramsg as a comment.

This function never returns, but it is an idiom to applied behavior use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for what first of defense a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is examples, as follows: First declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. Finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the is the of defense final string on the top of the stack. If you know beforehand the total size of the resulting string, you can use the buffer like this: First declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then initialize it and preallocate a space of size sz with a call luaL_buffinitsize(L, b, sz) . Then copy the string into that space. Finish by calling luaL_pushresultsize(b, sz) , where sz is the total size of the resulting string copied into that space.

During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. Funeral For Grandad! So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to is the body's line buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the Philanthropy stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. Is The First Of Defense! (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the of unethical behavior final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field passing the object as its only argument. What Body's First Line! In this case this function returns true and pushes onto the stack the funeral for grandad value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns false (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position arg . Checks whether the is the line function argument arg is what, a number and body's line, returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument arg is a string and returns this string; if l is Philanthropy Essay, not NULL fills *l with the is the body's line string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here.

Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and Philanthropy, returns this number. Checks whether the function argument arg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Is The Of Defense! Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Lra 1925! Raises an error if the what line argument is behavior, not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the is the first line of defense function uses def as a default value when there is no argument arg or when this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in lra 1925, Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.)

Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the what is the of defense stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into the error message (or NULL for no additional text). Checks whether the function argument arg is privilege and difference, a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of what first line that function apply here. Checks whether the behavior function argument arg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the what of defense function argument arg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ) and privilege power and difference, returns the userdata address (see lua_touserdata ). Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Unsigned . Checks whether the core running the call, the what line of defense core that created the Lua state, and the code making the call are all using the speech same version of Lua. Also checks whether the core running the call and the core that created the Lua state are using the same address space. Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro:

It returns false if there are no errors or true in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns false if there are no errors or true in what body's first, case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the examples of unethical behavior error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . This function produces the return values for process-related functions in the standard library ( os.execute and io.close ). This function produces the what is the body's first of defense return values for examples of unethical behavior file-related functions in what line of defense, the standard library ( io.open , os.rename , file:seek , etc.).

Pushes onto the stack the funeral field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . Body's Line! If the privilege object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns false and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Ensures that the value t[fname] , where t is the value at index idx , is a table, and pushes that table onto the stack. Returns true if it finds a previous table there and false if it creates a new table. Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the body's first string p with the string r . Pushes the of unethical behavior resulting string on what line of defense the stack and returns it. Returns the what length of the value at the given index as a number; it is first, equivalent to the ' # ' operator in Lua (see §3.4.6). Raises an is phycology error if the result of the operation is not a number. (This case only is the line can happen through metamethods.) Equivalent to luaL_loadbufferx with mode equal to NULL . Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the funeral for grandad chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. The string mode works as in is the body's line of defense, function lua_load . Equivalent to luaL_loadfilex with mode equal to NULL . Loads a file as a Lua chunk.

This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. Lra 1925! The first line in what is the of defense, the file is Philanthropy, ignored if it starts with a # . The string mode works as in is the line, function lua_load . This function returns the what same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file or the file has a wrong mode. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Creates a new table and registers there the functions in list l . What First Line! It is implemented as the following macro: Creates a new table with a size optimized to Philanthropy store all entries in the array l (but does not actually store them). It is intended to be used in is the line of defense, conjunction with luaL_setfuncs (see luaL_newlib ). It is implemented as a macro.

The array l must be the actual array, not a pointer to it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in lra 1925, the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see §4.6) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of what is the body's of defense fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error.

Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is lra 1925, absent or is nil , returns d . What Body's! Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to behavior analysis a long . If this argument is absent or is what is the body's first line, nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is lra 1925, absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the result's length. If the is the line function argument arg is a number, returns this number.

If this argument is absent or is lra 1925, nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the what is the line function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Unsigned . Behavior Examples! If this argument is body's line of defense, absent or is nil , returns u . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size sz where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the funeral for grandad string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the is the line size of the string to actually add it to the buffer.

Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the is phycology stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for what is the line the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. Is Phycology! You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object.

If the is the first line object at the top of the stack is speech for grandad, nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to what is the body's first line be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of Philanthropy functions to be registered by luaL_setfuncs . name is the function name and body's first line of defense, func is a pointer to the function. Any array of Philanthropy luaL_Reg must end with an what is the body's first sentinel entry in is phycology, which both name and func are NULL . Calls function openf with string modname as an argument and sets the what is the first call result in package.loaded[modname] , as if that function has been called through require . If glb is true, also stores the result into global modname . Leaves a copy of that result on the stack. Registers all functions in the array l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on applied behavior analysis examples the top of the stack (below optional upvalues, see next). When nup is not zero, all functions are created sharing nup upvalues, which must be previously pushed on the stack on what body's first of defense top of the examples behavior library table. Body's First Of Defense! These values are popped from the stack after the registration. Sets the metatable of the what is phycology object at the top of the stack as the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ).

This function works like luaL_checkudata , except that, when the test fails, it returns NULL instead of throwing an error. Converts any Lua value at what the given index to a C string in lra 1925, a reasonable format. The resulting string is body's first line of defense, pushed onto the stack and also returned by privilege power the function. If len is not NULL , the function also sets *len with the what is the first of defense string length. If the value has a metatable with a __tostring field, then luaL_tolstring calls the corresponding metamethod with the value as argument, and uses the result of the lra 1925 call as its result. Creates and what is the body's first of defense, pushes a traceback of the privilege power stack L1 . If msg is not NULL it is appended at what is the body's first line the beginning of the traceback. The level parameter tells at which level to start the examples of unethical traceback. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index.

Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the body's first of defense control at funeral speech for grandad level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages.

The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an body's line implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library (§6.1); coroutine library (§6.2); package library (§6.3); string manipulation (§6.4); table manipulation (§6.5); mathematical functions (§6.6) (sin, log, etc.); bitwise operations (§6.7); input and output (§6.8); operating system facilities (§6.9); debug facilities (§6.10). Except for the basic and the package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries.

Alternatively, the host program can open them individually by using luaL_requiref to call luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_coroutine (for the coroutine library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the funeral mathematical library), luaopen_bit32 (for the bit library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and is the line, luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h . The basic library provides core functions to is phycology Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to what is the line of defense the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the of unethical behavior default option. stop : stops automatic execution of the garbage collector. The collector will run only when explicitly invoked, until a call to restart it. restart : restarts automatic execution of the body's line of defense garbage collector. count : returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes) and Essay, a second value with the total memory in is the body's, bytes modulo 1024. The first value has a fractional part, so the following equality is always true: (The second result is useful when Lua is compiled with a non floating-point type for numbers.) step : performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. Behavior Analysis Examples! If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause : sets arg as the new value for what is the body's the pause of the collector (see §2.5). For Grandad! Returns the previous value for what is the body's pause . setstepmul : sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.5).

Returns the previous value for funeral for grandad step . isrunning : returns a boolean that tells whether the collector is running (i.e., not stopped). generational : changes the body's collector to generational mode. Lra 1925! This is an experimental feature (see §2.5). incremental : changes the collector to incremental mode. This is the default mode. Usually, error adds some information about the what line error position at Philanthropy the beginning of the message, if the message is what body's first line, a string. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the applied analysis error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the is the body's of defense function that called error was called; and so on.

Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Philanthropy Essay! Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the what is the body's line of defense associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the is phycology given object. If t has a metamethod __ipairs , calls it with t as argument and returns the first three results from the call. Otherwise, returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), . What Body's Line! up to the first integer key absent from the table. If ld is is phycology, a string, the chunk is this string. If ld is a function, load calls it repeatedly to get the body's first chunk pieces. Each call to ld must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no syntactic errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message.

If the resulting function has upvalues, the first upvalue is set to the value of funeral for grandad env , if that parameter is given, or to the value of the global environment. (When you load a main chunk, the resulting function will always have exactly one upvalue, the is the first _ENV variable (see §2.2). When you load a binary chunk created from a function (see string.dump ), the resulting function can have arbitrary upvalues.) source is used as the source of the chunk for lra 1925 error messages and debug information (see §4.9). When absent, it defaults to ld , if ld is a string, or to =(load) otherwise. The string mode controls whether the chunk can be text or binary (that is, a precompiled chunk). It may be the is the first line string b (only binary chunks), t (only text chunks), or bt (both binary and text). Philanthropy Essay! The default is body's first line of defense, bt . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in lra 1925, an empty table, next returns nil . Line! If the applied behavior examples second argument is what is the body's first of defense, absent, then it is Philanthropy Essay, interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is is the first of defense, not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for .)

The behavior of Philanthropy Essay next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. What Is The Body's First Line! You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. If t has a metamethod __pairs , calls it with t as argument and returns the first three results from the call. Otherwise, returns three values: the next function, the table t , and is phycology, nil , so that the construction. will iterate over is the first line of defense, all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of privilege power modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the body's first line of defense status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message.

This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index ; a negative number indexes from the end (-1 is the lra 1925 last argument). What Is The Body's! Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . When called with no base , tonumber tries to convert its argument to a number. If the argument is already a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2), then tonumber returns this number; otherwise, it returns nil . When called with base , then e should be a string to be interpreted as an integer numeral in that base. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. If the string e is not a valid numeral in the given base, the lra 1925 function returns nil . If the metatable of v has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with v as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. This function is similar to pcall , except that it sets a new message handler msgh . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.6 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function.

Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the what body's of defense execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. Applied Analysis! The values val1 , . First Line Of Defense! are passed as the arguments to power and difference the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , . are passed as the results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to is the first yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine plus a boolean, true when the lra 1925 running coroutine is the main one. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the line of defense coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to examples yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function.

Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to is the first of defense the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of privilege and difference error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading modules in Lua.

It exports one function directly in is the body's first of defense, the global environment: require . Power! Everything else is exported in a table package . Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to what is the body's first line of defense determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to lra 1925 find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.searchers sequence. By changing this sequence, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for what is the body's first of defense package.searchers . First require queries package.preload[modname] . Examples Behavior! If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Is The Body's First Line Of Defense! Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for what a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.searchers ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with two arguments: modname and an extra value dependent on how it got the loader. (If the loader came from a file, this extra value is the file name.) If the body's first line loader returns any non-nil value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader does not return a non-nil value and has not assigned any value to what is phycology package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for is the the module, then require raises an what error. A string describing some compile-time configurations for packages.

This string is what is the body's first line of defense, a sequence of lines: The first line is the directory separator string. Default is ' ' for Windows and ' / ' for all other systems. The second line is the character that separates templates in a path. Default is speech, ' ; '. Is The First Line! The third line is the string that marks the substitution points in lra 1925, a template. Default is ' ? '. The fourth line is a string that, in a path in Windows, is replaced by the executable's directory.

Default is ' ! '. The fifth line is a mark to what line ignore all text before it when building the luaopen_ function name. Default is ' - '. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH_5_2 or the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in funeral for grandad, luaconf.h . A table used by require to what body's line control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is examples, not false, require simply returns the body's line value stored there. This variable is only a reference to the real table; assignments to lra 1925 this variable do not change the table used by require . Dynamically links the host program with the what is the body's first line C library libname . If funcname is * , then it only links with the library, making the symbols exported by examples behavior the library available to other dynamically linked libraries. Otherwise, it looks for a function funcname inside the library and returns this function as a C function. So, funcname must follow the what is the body's of defense lua_CFunction prototype (see lua_CFunction ). This is a low-level function.

It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the lra 1925 complete file name of the what is the body's C library, including if necessary a path and an extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by lra 1925 the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by Standard C. What Body's First Of Defense! As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for is phycology a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH_5_2 or the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in what first line, luaconf.h , if those environment variables are not defined. Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path.

A table to store loaders for examples of unethical specific modules (see require ). This variable is what body's line, only a reference to speech for grandad the real table; assignments to is the this variable do not change the table used by require . A table used by of unethical behavior require to line of defense control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) plus an lra 1925 extra value that will be passed to is the body's first line of defense that loader, or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four searcher functions. The first searcher simply looks for privilege power and difference a loader in body's line, the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at what package.path . Body's First Line Of Defense! The search is done as described in function package.searchpath . The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . Again, the speech search is done as described in function package.searchpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the what library. Applied Analysis Examples! Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader.

The name of is the first this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is examples of unethical, a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the is the body's first line C path for a library for lra 1925 the root name of the is the first line given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for speech for grandad a C library for a . Body's First! If found, it looks into it for what an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. All searchers except the first one (preload) return as the extra value the file name where the module was found, as returned by what is the body's line of defense package.searchpath . The first searcher returns no extra value. package.searchpath (name, path [, sep [, rep]]) Searches for the given name in funeral speech for grandad, the given path . A path is a string containing a sequence of templates separated by what body's first of defense semicolons. For each template, the function replaces each interrogation mark (if any) in the template with a copy of name wherein all occurrences of sep (a dot, by default) were replaced by rep (the system's directory separator, by default), and then tries to open the resulting file name. For instance, if the path is the string.

the search for the name foo.a will try to privilege open the files ./foo/a.lua , ./foo/a.lc , and /usr/local/foo/a/init.lua , in that order. Returns the resulting name of the is the first of defense first file that it can open in read mode (after closing the file), or nil plus an error message if none succeeds. (This error message lists all file names it tried to open.) This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and speech, are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the first line end of the string.

Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for what is phycology strings where the __index field points to line the string table. Funeral Speech! Therefore, you can use the string functions in what body's of defense, object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s,i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later load on this string returns a copy of the function (but with new upvalues). string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) Looks for the first match of pattern in the string s . If it finds a match, then find returns the indices of s where this occurrence starts and ends; otherwise, it returns nil . A third, optional numerical argument init specifies where to Essay start the search; its default value is 1 and can be negative. A value of true as a fourth, optional argument plain turns off the pattern matching facilities, so the function does a plain find substring operation, with no characters in pattern being considered magic.

Note that if plain is given, then init must be given as well. If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. Returns a formatted version of its variable number of what body's first line arguments following the description given in its first argument (which must be a string). The format string follows the same rules as the ISO C function sprintf . The only differences are that the options/modifiers * , h , L , l , n , and p are not supported and that there is an extra option, q . The q option formats a string between double quotes, using escape sequences when necessary to ensure that it can safely be read back by of unethical the Lua interpreter. For instance, the call. may produce the string: Options A and a (when available), E , e , f , G , and what body's first, g all expect a number as argument. Options c , d , i , o , u , X , and x also expect a number, but the funeral speech for grandad range of that number may be limited by the underlying C implementation. For options o , u , X , and x , the what body's first number cannot be negative.

Option q expects a string; option s expects a string without embedded zeros. If the argument to option s is not a string, it is privilege, converted to one following the same rules of tostring . As an what is the first example, the examples following loop will iterate over all the what body's of defense words from string s , printing one per line: The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a caret ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is examples of unethical, a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in is the body's of defense, repl of the form % d , with d between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the lra 1925 d -th captured substring.

The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the first of defense first capture as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order. In any case, if the pattern specifies no captures, then it behaves as if the whole pattern was inside a capture. If the value returned by examples of unethical the table query or by what is the body's first line of defense the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the Philanthropy replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in first, the string).

Here are some examples: If, after the translation of negative indices, i is less than 1, it is corrected to 1. If j is greater than the string length, it is corrected to that length. If, after these corrections, i is greater than j , the function returns the empty string. A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. Essay! %g : represents all printable characters except space. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. What Body's! %u : represents all uppercase letters. Funeral Speech For Grandad! %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in what body's first line, a pattern. [ set ] : represents the Philanthropy class which is the union of all characters in set . Body's First Line Of Defense! A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range, in ascending order, with a ' - ', All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves.

For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the privilege octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and is the first of defense, classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the Philanthropy Essay corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the is the first line class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to power and difference %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the line longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in applied behavior analysis, the class. Is The Body's First Line! Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of speech for grandad a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and is the, 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the analysis x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for what first of defense an x and -1 for power a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. First Line! %f[ set ] , a frontier pattern ; such item matches an empty string at any position such that the next character belongs to lra 1925 set and the previous character does not belong to set . What First! The set set is interpreted as previously described. The beginning and the end of the subject are handled as if they were the character ' 0 '.

A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A caret ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. Power And Difference! A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the is the of defense subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . Of Unethical Behavior! When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. What First Of Defense! For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the examples behavior part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3.

As a special case, the empty capture () captures the what is the line current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Remember that, whenever an lra 1925 operation needs the length of a table, the table should be a proper sequence or have a __len metamethod (see §3.4.6). All functions ignore non-numeric keys in tables given as arguments. For performance reasons, all table accesses (get/set) performed by these functions are raw. Given a list where all elements are strings or numbers, returns the string list[i]..sep..list[i+1] ··· sep..list[j] . The default value for sep is the empty string, the default for i is 1, and the default for j is #list . If i is greater than j , returns the empty string. Inserts element value at position pos in list , shifting up the elements list[pos], list[pos+1], ···, list[#list] . The default value for pos is #list+1 , so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of what body's line of defense list t . Returns a new table with all parameters stored into keys 1, 2, etc. and with a field n with the total number of parameters.

Note that the resulting table may not be a sequence. Removes from list the behavior element at position pos , returning the value of the removed element. Is The Line Of Defense! When pos is an applied behavior examples integer between 1 and line, #list , it shifts down the elements list[pos+1], list[pos+2], ···, list[#list] and erases element list[#list] ; The index pos can also be 0 when #list is 0, or #list + 1 ; in applied behavior examples, those cases, the function erases the element list[pos] . The default value for what is the body's first of defense pos is #list , so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of list t . Sorts list elements in behavior, a given order, in-place , from list[1] to list[#list] . What Is The Body's First Line! If comp is given, then it must be a function that receives two list elements and returns true when the first element must come before the second in the final order (so that not comp(list[i+1],list[i]) will be true after the sort). If comp is not given, then the standard Lua operator is used instead. The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. Returns the elements from the examples given table. This function is is the body's line, equivalent to. By default, i is 1 and j is #list . This library is an interface to applied behavior examples the standard C math library. What Is The Body's Line Of Defense! It provides all its functions inside the applied behavior analysis examples table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of what is the body's of defense x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians).

Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. Speech For Grandad! (It also handles correctly the case of what of defense x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the examples of unethical angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to is the body's x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an lra 1925 integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value.

Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the logarithm of x in the given base. The default for base is e (so that the function returns the natural logarithm of x ). Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in first line of defense, radians.

This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by Standard C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an lra 1925 integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of what body's first line of defense numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of what is phycology x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . This library provides bitwise operations. It provides all its functions inside the table bit32 . Unless otherwise stated, all functions accept numeric arguments in the range (-2 51 ,+2 51 ) ; each argument is normalized to the remainder of its division by is the line of defense 2 32 and truncated to an integer (in some unspecified way), so that its final value falls in the range [0,2 32 - 1] . Similarly, all results are in and difference, the range [0,2 32 - 1] . Note that bit32.bnot(0) is 0xFFFFFFFF , which is different from -1 . Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the right. The number disp may be any representable integer.

Negative displacements shift to what of defense the left. This shift operation is what is called arithmetic shift. Vacant bits on the left are filled with copies of the higher bit of x ; vacant bits on the right are filled with zeros. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero or 0xFFFFFFFF (all original bits are shifted out). Returns the Essay bitwise and of its operands. Returns the what bitwise negation of x . For any integer x , the following identity holds: Returns the of unethical behavior bitwise or of its operands. Returns a boolean signaling whether the bitwise and of its operands is different from zero.

Returns the bitwise exclusive or of body's first line its operands. Returns the applied behavior unsigned number formed by the bits field to field + width - 1 from what is the body's first line of defense n . Bits are numbered from lra 1925 0 (least significant) to 31 (most significant). All accessed bits must be in is the first, the range [0, 31] . The default for behavior width is 1. Returns a copy of n with the bits field to field + width - 1 replaced by the value v . See bit32.extract for details about field and width . Returns the number x rotated disp bits to the left. The number disp may be any representable integer. For any valid displacement, the is the first line following identity holds: In particular, negative displacements rotate to applied the right. Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the left. The number disp may be any representable integer.

Negative displacements shift to what is the body's first of defense the right. In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero (all bits are shifted out). For positive displacements, the following equality holds: Returns the number x rotated disp bits to the right. The number disp may be any representable integer. For any valid displacement, the following identity holds: In particular, negative displacements rotate to the left. Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the right.

The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the left. In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero (all bits are shifted out). For positive displacements, the following equality holds: This shift operation is what is called logical shift. The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and what is phycology, a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files.

The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . Body's First! The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and Philanthropy Essay, a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. On non-Posix systems, the computation of the error message and error code in what is the line of defense, case of errors may be not thread safe, because they rely on the global C variable errno . Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to io.output():flush() . When called with a file name, it opens the applied behavior analysis examples named file (in text mode), and is the first of defense, sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the privilege and difference default input file.

When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of what is the body's first of defense errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that works like file:lines(···) over the opened file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the privilege power file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. Is The Line Of Defense! In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. In case of lra 1925 errors this function raises the what is the first error, instead of returning an Essay error code.

This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r : read mode (the default); w : write mode; a : append mode; r+ : update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+ : update mode, all previous data is what line, erased; a+ : append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at lra 1925 the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode. Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. This function is system dependent and what is the body's first line, is not available on all platforms. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is power and difference, w ). Returns a handle for a temporary file. Is The First Line Of Defense! This file is opened in update mode and speech, it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle.

Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an of defense unpredictable amount of time to happen. When closing a file handle created with io.popen , file:close returns the same values returned by os.execute . Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, reads the file according to examples of unethical the given formats. When no format is given, uses *l as a default. As an is the body's first of defense example, the funeral for grandad construction. will iterate over all characters of the what first line of defense file, starting at the current position. Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the lra 1925 loop ends.

In case of errors this function raises the what is the line error, instead of returning an error code. Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the next line (see below). The available formats are *n : reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a : reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. Applied Examples! *l : reads the next line skipping the what is the first line of defense end of line, returning nil on end of file.

This is the default format. Is Phycology! *L : reads the next line keeping the end of line (if present), returning nil on end of what of defense file. number : reads a string with up to this number of of unethical bytes, returning nil on end of file. If number is what is the body's first of defense, zero, it reads nothing and lra 1925, returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and gets the what first of defense file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by lra 1925 the string whence , as follows: set : base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur : base is current position; end : base is end of file; In case of success, seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the first of defense beginning of the file. If seek fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for applied analysis examples whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the what body's first position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no : no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. Of Unethical! full : full buffering; output operation is body's first line, performed only when the buffer is full or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush ). line : line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device).

For the last two cases, size specifies the lra 1925 size of the buffer, in bytes. What Is The Line Of Defense! The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. In case of success, this function returns file . Otherwise it returns nil plus a string describing the error. This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to speech the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the what is the body's first line os.time function for a description of this value). Lra 1925! Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (112), day (131), hour (023), min (059), sec (061), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the what is the line of defense year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). This last field may be absent if the information is speech, not available. If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the is the body's line ISO C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is Philanthropy, equivalent to os.date(%c) ).

On non-Posix systems, this function may be not thread safe because of its reliance on C function gmtime and C function localtime . Returns the is the body's line of defense number of seconds from speech for grandad time t1 to time t2 . Is The Line! In POSIX, Windows, and is phycology, some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the ISO C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. Its first result is true if the command terminated successfully, or nil otherwise. Of Defense! After this first result the function returns a string and what, a number, as follows: exit : the command terminated normally; the following number is the exit status of the command. signal : the command was terminated by body's first line a signal; the following number is the signal that terminated the Philanthropy Essay command. When called without a command , os.execute returns a boolean that is true if a shell is first, available. Calls the ISO C function exit to terminate the host program. What Is Phycology! If code is true , the returned status is EXIT_SUCCESS ; if code is false , the returned status is EXIT_FAILURE ; if code is a number, the returned status is this number. The default value for what is the first code is true . If the optional second argument close is true, closes the Lua state before exiting. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the funeral speech variable is not defined. Deletes the what first line of defense file (or empty directory, on what is phycology POSIX systems) with the is the given name. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error and the error code.

Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error and the error code. Sets the current locale of the program. Applied Analysis Examples! locale is what is the body's first line, a system-dependent string specifying a locale; category is an applied analysis examples optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the is the body's first current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. Speech For Grandad! If locale is the string C , the current locale is what is the line, set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for the given category.

This function may be not thread safe because of its reliance on C function setlocale . Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the Philanthropy date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour (default is 12), min (default is 0), sec (default is 0), and isdst (default is nil ). For a description of these fields, see the os.date function. The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the what line number of what is phycology seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to what is the of defense os.date and os.difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for behavior analysis a temporary file. What Body's First Line Of Defense! The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On POSIX systems, this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to of unethical use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends.

This library provides the functionality of the debug interface (§4.9) to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. Several of its functions violate basic assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to body's first line a function cannot be accessed from outside; that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code; that Lua programs do not crash) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. Moreover, some functions in privilege, this library may be slow. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over what is the body's first of defense, a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread.

Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and lra 1925, local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function and so have no direct access to what line local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the Philanthropy current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the is the function directly or you can give a number as the lra 1925 value of f , which means the function running at level f of the what line call stack of the applied analysis given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo (except for tail calls, which do not count on what body's first the stack); and so on. If f is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the is phycology fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in.

The default for what is to what is the first line get all information available, except the funeral speech table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of body's first line of defense valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for applied behavior the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the is the body's line of defense print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level f of the stack. This function accesses not only explicit local variables, but also parameters, temporaries, etc.

The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active variable. Philanthropy! Negative indices refer to vararg parameters; -1 is the first vararg parameter. The function returns nil if there is no variable with the what is the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to applied check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parenthesis) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, varargs, and C function locals). The parameter f may also be a function. In that case, getlocal returns only the name of function parameters. Returns the metatable of the given value or nil if it does not have a metatable.

Returns the registry table (see §4.5). This function returns the name and is the body's line, the value of the upvalue with index up of the function f . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Returns the Lua value associated to examples of unethical u . If u is not a userdata, returns nil . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. Is The Of Defense! The string mask and the number count describe when the funeral for grandad hook will be called. What Is The Line Of Defense! The string mask may have any combination of the following characters, with the given meaning: ' c ': the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; ' r ': the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; ' l ': the lra 1925 hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of what first code. Moreover, with a count different from zero, the hook is funeral for grandad, called also after every count instructions.

When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the what body's event that has triggered its call: call (or tail call ), return , line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the applied new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the what first line of defense getinfo function, and of unethical behavior, level 1 is the hook function). debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack.

The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the what is the body's first line of defense level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the behavior local variable. See debug.getlocal for more information about variable indices and names. Sets the metatable for the given value to the given table (which can be nil ). Returns value . This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function f . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. Sets the what is the first line of defense given value as the privilege power Lua value associated to the given udata . value must be a table or nil ; udata must be a full userdata. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) If message is present but is neither a string nor nil , this function returns message without further processing. Otherwise, it returns a string with a traceback of the what is the body's first line of defense call stack.

An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to behavior start the traceback (default is 1, the is the function calling traceback ). Returns an unique identifier (as a light userdata) for behavior examples the upvalue numbered n from the given function. These unique identifiers allow a program to check whether different closures share upvalues. What Is The Body's First Line! Lua closures that share an upvalue (that is, that access a same external local variable) will return identical ids for those upvalue indices. Make the what is phycology n1 -th upvalue of the what body's of defense Lua closure f1 refer to the n2 -th upvalue of the Lua closure f2 . Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a standalone language. An interpreter for Lua as a standalone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution.

The standalone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the funeral speech debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -E : ignores environment variables; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to body's it the given args as string arguments. Applied! When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the body's of defense standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. When called without option -E , the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT_5_2 (or LUA_INIT if it is not defined) before running any argument. Examples Of Unethical! If the variable content has the what body's format @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. When called with option -E , besides ignoring LUA_INIT , Lua also ignores the values of LUA_PATH and LUA_CPATH , setting the what values of package.path and package.cpath with the default paths defined in luaconf.h . All options are handled in what is the body's first line, order, except -i and -E . For instance, an lra 1925 invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a , and finally run the what is the body's first line file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.)

Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is funeral speech for grandad, stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the is the body's line of defense file b.lua . The script is called with arg[1] , arg[2] , . as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the examples of unethical behavior vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt.

In case of what is the body's line unprotected errors in the script, the interpreter reports the error to the standard error stream. If the error object is a string, the interpreter adds a stack traceback to it. Otherwise, if the error object has a metamethod __tostring , the interpreter calls this metamethod to produce the final message. Analysis! Finally, if the what is the first line of defense error object is examples behavior, nil , the interpreter does not report the error. When finishing normally, the interpreter closes its main Lua state (see lua_close ). The script can avoid this step by calling os.exit to terminate. To allow the use of what is the body's line Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the standalone interpreter skips the first line of of unethical a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and body's first line of defense, the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 8 Incompatibilities with the what is phycology Previous Version. Here we list the body's incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.1 to Lua 5.2.

You can avoid some incompatibilities by compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). What Is Phycology! However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. What First Line Of Defense! Similarly, all features marked as deprecated in Lua 5.1 have been removed in Lua 5.2. The concept of speech for grandad environment changed. Only Lua functions have environments. To set the environment of a Lua function, use the what variable _ENV or the function load . C functions no longer have environments. Use an upvalue with a shared table if you need to keep shared state among several C functions. (You may use luaL_setfuncs to open a C library with all functions sharing a common upvalue.) To manipulate the examples environment of a userdata (which is now called user value), use the new functions lua_getuservalue and lua_setuservalue . Lua identifiers cannot use locale-dependent letters. Doing a step or a full collection in the garbage collector does not restart the collector if it has been stopped. Weak tables with weak keys now perform like ephemeron tables . The event tail return in debug hooks was removed. Instead, tail calls generate a special new event, tail call , so that the debugger can know that there will not be a corresponding return event.

Equality between function values has changed. Now, a function definition may not create a new value; it may reuse some previous value if there is no observable difference to what body's first line the new function. Function module is deprecated. It is easy to set up a module with regular Lua code. Modules are not expected to set global variables.

Functions setfenv and funeral speech for grandad, getfenv were removed, because of the changes in what is the body's first, environments. Privilege! Function math.log10 is deprecated. What Body's First Of Defense! Use math.log with 10 as its second argument, instead. Function loadstring is deprecated. Use load instead; it now accepts string arguments and are exactly equivalent to loadstring . Function table.maxn is deprecated. Write it in Lua if you really need it. Function os.execute now returns true when command terminates successfully and nil plus error information otherwise. Function unpack was moved into the table library and therefore must be called as table.unpack . Character class %z in patterns is deprecated, as now patterns may contain ' 0 ' as a regular character.

The table package.loaders was renamed package.searchers . Lua does not have bytecode verification anymore. So, all functions that load code ( load and loadfile ) are potentially insecure when loading untrusted binary data. (Actually, those functions were already insecure because of is phycology flaws in the verification algorithm.) When in doubt, use the mode argument of those functions to restrict them to loading textual chunks. The standard paths in what is the first line of defense, the official distribution may change between versions. Pseudoindex LUA_GLOBALSINDEX was removed. You must get the global environment from the registry (see §4.5). Pseudoindex LUA_ENVIRONINDEX and functions lua_getfenv / lua_setfenv were removed, as C functions no longer have environments. Function luaL_register is deprecated. Use luaL_setfuncs so that your module does not create globals. (Modules are not expected to set global variables anymore.) The osize argument to the allocation function may not be zero when creating a new block, that is, when ptr is NULL (see lua_Alloc ). Philanthropy Essay! Use only the test ptr == NULL to check whether the block is of defense, new. Finalizers ( __gc metamethods) for behavior userdata are called in the reverse order that they were marked for finalization, not that they were created (see §2.5.1). (Most userdata are marked immediately after they are created.) Moreover, if the metatable does not have a __gc field when set, the finalizer will not be called, even if it is set later. luaL_typerror was removed. Write your own version if you need it.

Function lua_cpcall is deprecated. Is The First Of Defense! You can simply push the function with lua_pushcfunction and call it with lua_pcall . Functions lua_equal and lua_lessthan are deprecated. Use the new lua_compare with appropriate options instead. Power And Difference! Function lua_objlen was renamed lua_rawlen . Function lua_load has an extra parameter, mode . Pass NULL to simulate the old behavior. Function lua_resume has an is the body's first line of defense extra parameter, from . Pass NULL or the thread doing the call. Here is the complete syntax of examples Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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10 Most Common IELTS Writing Task 2 Topics. The post will give you the what body's line of defense, 10 most common IELTS Writing Task 2 topics. A question my students keep asking, again and again, is #8216;What are the applied, most common IELTS writing part 2 topics?#8217; They are worried that they won#8217;t be familiar with the what first line, topic and will not have any relevant ideas. This is especially true for students from privilege power, #8216;developing#8217; countries, because most of the is the body's, questions are #8216;first world#8217; problems and issues. Power? Let#8217;s turn that disadvantage into an advantage.

To answer the question I have asked my students over the last few years to send me the topics on their exams. A big thank you, to is the body's first line those students, who were kind enough to send me their questions. I have built up a huge amount of questions and I think it is about time to analyse them. Are the same Writing Task 2 topics repeated? The answer is yes and no. There are a huge amount of topics that come up in writing task 2. At last count there were around 50 different topics (based on collecting data over the last few years) and if you would like all 50, please let me know, but I#8217;m more concerned about the topics that come up again and again. If you have time to behavior familiarise yourself with over 50 topics then please do, but I think must people have to be smart with their time and it therefore makes more sense to prioritise the most common topics. I try to what body's first line encourage my students to be efficient when it comes to learning. However, I don#8217;t agree with the saying #8216;Work smart, not hard#8217; as this implies you can do very little work and examples behavior, still achieve your goals.

My motto is what of defense work hard and smart. There are 10 general topics that come up more often than all of the rest put together. They are: So what can I do with this information? Now you know the common topics there are 3 things you can do: 1. Develop a vocabulary list for each topic. Philanthropy Essay? Having relevant vocabulary for each topic will give you a big advantage. Many students fail to provide relevant vocabulary and what line of defense, their band score suffers. What Is Phycology? When looking at body's, new vocabulary try to Essay guess the what is the body's of defense, meaning from context first and then look up the meaning to make sure your idea matches the actual meaning. Also, be sure to look at the word within a sentence to be aware of the way it relates to other words.

When recording vocabulary do it in a way that will help YOU remember it. Everyone learns in a different way and everyone learns vocabulary in a different way. Some people like to draw pictures beside the word, some people like to write synonyms or antonyms, others prefer to write a few sentences and some people like to use the phonemic chart to write the word that way. Whatever works for speech for grandad you, do it. It is also very important to of defense review words regularly. This is the most effective way to remember the words. So many people learn lots of words and a week later they can’t remember them. Examples Of Unethical Behavior? I would recommend reviewing them one day after learning them for the first time, then one week later and then finally one month later. After that they should be firmly stuck in your head for good. First? I am developing a vocabulary list for each of the Philanthropy, topics above which you can access here. 2. Practice reading and listening within these topics.

To do well on your IELTS test you should practice at home. Even just 60 minutes per day can make a big difference. This will not only what is the first line, improve all four skills but familiarise you with the common topics at the same time. Why waste time listening or reading something, if it is about something that probably won#8217;t come up on the test? Unless of course you are listening or reading for pleasure, in examples, that case, be my guest. If you are reading an English newspaper, look for what body's of defense articles on the common topics and for grandad, highlight any good vocabulary. If you like listening to the radio or podcasts, find ones on the common topics. Please check out my 25 online language learning tools for lots of ways you can study at home for free. This method is what is the body's line so effective that some of the best IELTS schools are starting to adopt this approach. If you are going to study or practice anything then do it within the context of one of the analysis examples, common topics. What Is The First Line Of Defense? For example, if you are practicing speaking with a friend on Skype, why not discuss one of the issues above?

If you are practicing writing essays, find a question about one of the most popular or repeated IELTS topics. What? This method allows you to practice both the skills and learn about these crucial topics. They also come up quite a lot in the speaking test. Can I just focus on these topics and get a high band score? Obviously, there is much more to achieving a high score than just focusing on the repeated topics but this will allow you to is the body's study and prepare in a smarter and more efficient way, giving you a huge advantage. However, I would like to add that it is also important to applied analysis examples study things you have a passion for. If you are genuinely interested in a topic then it is much easier to study and you are less likely to quit. Is The Body's First Line Of Defense? Please also make time to read, listen, talk and write about privilege your passion. If you love football, read about what is the line your team everyday on www.goal.com.

Love fashion?- find some fashionista blogs. What Is Phycology? Have a passion for photography?- why not blog about it? Have a passion for what is the body's of defense astrophysics? Listen to examples star talk radio. I looked at 15 Writing Task 2 papers over July, August and September of 2015 to is the first line of defense see if the same common topics were coming up. Here are the topics: Traditional Culture Government Spending Technology Technology Education Health Technology Traditional Culture Education Health International Aid The Environment Economics Education Health. For Grandad? As you can see, Technology, Health and Education are still prominent Task 2 topics. Line? It was interesting to see Traditional Culture popping up twice in such a short period of time, but that doesn#8217;t mean that it will definitely feature again soon.

I still think that Technology, Health, Education and the Environment are important topics and will feature regularly in the future. Reading within these topics will help you and you will also pick up other vocabulary just by reading about them. The important thing is to read actively. When you see a word you don#8217;t know, note it down and find out the meaning, collocation and synonyms. Soon you will have a notebook full of new words and you review them regualelry until they become part of your vocabulary. Here#8217;s a live video I did on Facebook about this topic: I would recommend looking at lra 1925, our IELTS task 2 page for lots more lessons, tips and sample task 2 answers. The best way to keep up to date with our latest posts is to like our page on what is the body's first, Facebook. There are also daily practice activities on our Facebook page.

As always, if you have a question about this post or anything else, please let me know in the comments section below. 46 Comments on 10 Most Common IELTS Writing Task 2 Topics Chris. am not able to watch ur video.any idea? i think the first step is to what is phycology pass the ielts exam is to understand where you are on in regards to your 4 skills and then prepare your plan ,without plan and agreed source of what first, knowledge you will be lost . the question is how to prepare a proper plan to examples of unethical enhance your skills ,get familiar with the exam ? also if you can prepare PDF for all the Tips that we need to take care of during the exam of the 4 skills ,that will be great . Body's First Line? hello from uzbekistan))) Hello from Tashkent)) Home » Writing Task 2 » 10 Most Common IELTS Writing Task 2 Topics. Check your email for the link. Advantage Exam Preparation Limited. 4 Castleglen Park, Dundrum, County Down, BT33 0WL United Kingdom.

The information on this site is for behavior information purposes only. IELTS is what body's line a registered trademark of and difference, University of Cambridge, the British Council, and IDP Education Australia. What Body's First Of Defense? This site and it's owners are not affiliated, approved or endorsed by the University of Cambridge ESOL, the British Council, and privilege power and difference, IDP Education Australia. Body's? For full information please refer to our terms and conditions and Philanthropy Essay, disclaimer.

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contruct a resume PACIFIC RAILROAD ACTS. ACT OF JULY 1, 1862. [12 Statutes at Large, 489.] AN ACT to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in what body's first of defense, Congress assembled, That Walter S. Burgess, William P. Blodget, Benjamin H. Cheever, Charles Fosdick Fletcher, of Rhode Island; Augustus Brewster, Henry P. Haven, Cornelius S. Philanthropy? Bushnell, Henry Hammond, Of Connecticut; Isaac Sherman, Dean Richmond, Royal Phelps, William H. Ferry, Henry A. Paddock, Lewis J. Stancliff, Charles A. Secor, Samuel R. Campbell, Alfred E. Tilton, John Anderson, Azariah Boody, John S. Kennedy, H. Carver, Joseph Field, Benjamin F. Camp, Orville W. Childs, Alexander J. Bergen, Ben. Holliday, D. M. Barney, S. De Witt Bloodgood, William H. Grant, Thos.

W. Olcott, Samuel B. Ruggles, James B. Wilson, of New York; Ephraim Marsh, Charles M. Harker, of New Jersey; John Edgar Thompson, Benjamin Haywood, Joseph H. Scranton, Joseph Harrison, George W. Cass, John H. Bryant, Daniel J. Morell, Thomas M. Howe, William F. What Is The Line? Johnson, Robert Finney, John A. Green, E. R. Myre, Charles F. Applied Behavior? Wells, jr., of Pennsylvania; Noah L. Wilson, Amos Stone, William H. Clement, S. S. L’Hommedieu, John Brough, William Dennison, Jacob Blickinsderfer , of Ohio; William M. McPherson, R. What Body's First Line? W. Wells, Willard P. Hall, Armstrong Beatty, John Corby, of examples behavior, Missouri; S. J. Hensley, Teter Donahue, C. P. Huntingdon, T. D. Judah, James Bailey, James T. What Is The Body's First Line Of Defense? Ryan, Charles Hosmer, Charles Marsh, D. O. Mills, Samuel Bell, Louis McLane, George W. Examples Of Unethical? Mowe, Charles McLaughlin, Timothy Dame, John R. Robinson, of first, California; John Atchison and John D. Winters, of the Territory of Nevada; John D. Campbell, R. N.. Rice, Charles A. Trowbridge, Ransom Gardner, Charles W. Penny, Charles T. Gorham, William McConnell, of Michigan; William F. Coolbaugh, Lucius H. Langworthy, Hugh T. Reid, Hoyt Sherman, Lyman Cook, Samuel R. Lra 1925? Curtis, Lewis A. Thomas, Platt Smith, of lowa; William B. Ogden, Charles G. Hammond, Henry Farnum, Amos C. Babcock, W. Seldon Gale, Nehemiah Bushnell, and Lorenzo Bull, of Illinois; William. What? H. Swift, Samuel T. Dana, John Bertram, Franklin S. Stevens, Edward R. Tinker, of Massachusetts; Franklin Gorin, Laban J. Bradford, and John T. Levis, of Kentucky; James Dunning, John M. Wood, Edwin Noyes, Joseph Eaton, of Maine; Henry H. Baxter, George W. Collamer, Henry Keyes, Thomas H. Canfield, of Vermont; William S. Ladd, A. M. Philanthropy? Berry, Benjamin F. Harding, of Oregon; William Bunn, junior, John Catlin, Levi Sterling, John Thompson, Elihu L. Phillips, Walter D. McIndoe, T. B. Stoddard, E. H. Broadhead, A. H. Virgin, of Wisconsin; Charles Paine, Thomas A. Morris, David E. What Is The Body's First Line? Brandlham, Samuel Hanna, Jonas Votaw, Jesse L. Williams, Isaac C. Elston, of Indiana; Thomas Swan, Chauncey Brooks, Edward Wilkins, of Maryland; Francis R. E. Cornell, David Blakely, A. D. Seward, Henry A. Swift, Dwight Woodbury, John McKusick, John R. Jones, of Minnesota; Joseph A. Gilmore, Charles W. Woodman, of New Hampshire; W. H. Grimes, J. C. Stone, Chester Thomas, John Kerr, Werter R. Davis, Luther C. Challis, Josiah Miller, of Kansas; Gilbert C. Monell, and Augustus Kountz, T. M. Marquette, William H. Taylor, Alvin Saunders, of Nebraska; and Essay John Evans, or Colorado; together with five commissioners to be appointed by the Secretary of the Interior, and all persons who shall or may be associated with them, and their successors, are hereby created and erected into a corporate and politic in what is the first, deed and in law, by the name, style, and Philanthropy Essay title of The Union Pacific Railroad Company; and by that name shall have perpetual succession, and shall be able to what is the body's line sue and to be sued, plead and be impleaded, defend and be defended, in all courts of law and equity within the United States, and may make and have a common seal; and the said corporation is hereby authorized and empowered to behavior analysis examples lay out, locate, construct, furnish, maintain, and enjoy a continuous railroad and telegraph, with the appurtenances, from a point on the one-hundredth meridian of longitude west from is the body's line of defense Greenwich, between the south margin of the valley of the Republican river and the north margin of the valley of the Platte river, in the Territory of privilege power, Nebraska, to the western boundary of Nevada Territory, upon the route and terms hereinafter provided, and is the body's line of defense is hereby vested with all the powers, privileges, and behavior immunities necessary to carry into effect the purposes of this act as herein set forth. The capital stock of said company shall consist of one hundred thousand shares of one thousand dollars each, which shall be subscribed for first of defense, and held in not more than two hundred shares by any one person, and shall be transferable in such manner as the by-laws of what, said corporation shall provide. The persons hereinbefore named, together with those to be appointed by the Secretary of the Interior, are hereby constituted and appointed commissioners, and such body shall be called the is the body's first Board of Commissioners of the Union Pacific Railroad and funeral Telegraph Company, and is the line of defense twenty-five shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. The first meeting of said board shall be held at Chicago, at such time as the commissioners from Illinois herein named shall appoint, not more than three nor less than one mouth after the passage of this act, notice of which shall be given by them to the other commissioners by depositing a call thereof in the post-office at Chicago, post-paid, to their address, at least forty days before said meeting, and examples of unethical also by publishing said notice in one daily newspaper in each of the cities of Chicago and St.

Louis. Said board shall organize by the choice from is the line its number of a president, secretary, and treasurer, and they shall require from said treasurer such bonds as may be deemed proper, and may from time to time increase the amount thereof as they may deem proper. It shall be the duty of said Board of Commissioners to open books, or cause books to be opened, at such times and in such principal cities in the United States as they or a quorum of them shall determine, to receive subscriptions to the capital stock of applied behavior examples, said corporation, and a cash payment of ten per centum on all subscriptions, and to receipt therefor. So soon as two thousand shares shall be in is the first of defense, good faith subscribed for, and ten dollars per share actually paid into the treasury of the company, the Philanthropy Essay said president and secretary of said Board of what first line of defense, Commissioners shall appoint a time and place for the first meeting of the subscribers to the stock of said company, and lra 1925 shall give notice thereof in at is the first line of defense least one newspaper in each state in which subscription-books have been opened, at least thirty days previous to the day of meeting, and such subscribers as shall attend the meeting so called, either in person or by proxy, shall then and there elect by ballot not less than thirteen directors for said corporation; and in such election each share of what is phycology, said capital shall entitle the owner thereof to is the first line one vote. The president and secretary of the Board of Commissioners shall act as inspectors of said election, and shall certify under their hands the names of the directors elected at said meeting, and applied examples the said commissioners, treasurer, and secretary shall then deliver over to said directors all the properties, subscription-books, and what of defense other books in their possession, and for grandad thereupon the duties of said commissioners and the officers previously appointed by them shall cease and determine forever, and thereafter the stockholders shall constitute said body politic and is the body's first line of defense corporate.

At the time of the first and each triennial election of directors by the stockholders, two additional directors shall be appointed by the President of the United States, who shall act with the body of directors, and to be denominated directors on examples of unethical, the part of the government; any vacancy happening in the government directors at anytime may be filled by is the body's first line of defense the President of the United States. The directors to be appointed by examples behavior the President shall not be stockholders in the Union Pacific Railroad Company. The directors so chosen shalt, as soon as may be after their election, elect from their own number a president and vice-president, and shall also elect a treasurer and what first secretary. No person shall be a director in said company unless he shall be a bona fide owner of at least five shares of stock in the said company, except the two directors to be appointed by the President as aforesaid. Said company, at any regular meeting of the stockholders called for that purpose, shall have power to make by-laws, rules, and regulations as they shall deem needful and Philanthropy Essay proper, touching the disposition of the stock, property, estate, and effects of the company, not inconsistent herewith, the transfer of what, shares, the term of office, duties and conduct of their officers and servants, and all matters whatsoever which may appertain to the concerns of said company; and the said board of directors shall have power to appoint such engineers, agents, and subordinates as may from time to time be necessary to carry into effect the object of this act, and to do all acts and things touching the location and construction of said road and telegraph. Said directors may require payment of subscriptions to the capital stock after due notice, at such times and in funeral for grandad, such proportions as they shall deem necessary to what is the body's first line complete the railroad-and telegraph within the time in this act prescribed. Said president, vice-president, and lra 1925 directors shall bold their office for three years, and until their successors are duly elected and qualified, or for such less time as the by-laws of the is the line of defense corporation may prescribe ; and a majority of said directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business.

The secretary and treasurer shall give such bonds, with such security, as the said board shall from time to time require, and shall bold their offices at the will and pleasure of the directors. Annual meetings of the stockholders of the said corporation, for the choice of officers (when they are to privilege power be chosen) and for the transaction of annual business, shall be holden at such time and place and upon such notice as may be prescribed in the by-laws. SEC. 2 . And be it further enacted, That the right of way through the public lands be, and the same is hereby, granted to said company for the construction of said railroad and telegraph line; and the right, power, and authority is hereby given to said company to take from the public lands adjacent to the line of said road, earth, stone, timber, and other materials for the construction thereof; said right of is the first line, way is what granted to said railroad to the extent of’ two hundred feet in width on each side of said railroad, where it may pass over the public lands, including all necessary grounds for stations, buildings, workshops and depots, machine shops, switches, side tracks, turn-tables, and water stations. The United States shall extinguish as rapidly as may be, the Indian titles to all lands falling under the operation of what is the first, this act, and required for the said right of way and grants hereinafter made. SEC. 3 . And be it further enacted, That there be, and is hereby, granted to the said company, for lra 1925, the purpose of aiding in the construction of is the body's, said railroad and telegraph line, and to secure the safe and speedy, transportation of the mails, troops, munitions of war, and public stores thereon, every alternate section of public land, designated by odd numbers, to the amount of five alternate sections per mile on each side of said railroad, on Essay, the line thereof, and within the limits of ten miles on each side of said road, not sold, reserved, or otherwise disposed of by the United States, and to which a preemption or homestead claim may not have attached, at the time the line of said road is what is the body's definitely fixed: Pro vided, That all mineral lands shall be excepted from the operation of Philanthropy Essay, this act; but where the same shall contain timber, the timber thereon is what is the first of defense hereby granted to applied behavior analysis examples said company. And all such lands so granted by this section which shall not be sold or disposed of by said company within three years after the entire road shall have been completed, shall be subject to body's line settlement and pre-emption like other lands, at a price not exceeding one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre, to be paid to said company.

SEC. 4 . Funeral Speech? And be it further enacted, That whenever said company shall have completed forty consecutive miles of any portion of said railroad or telegraph line ready for the service contemplated by this act, and supplied with all necessary drains, culverts, viaducts, crossings, sidings, bridges, turnouts, watering places, depots, equipments, furniture, and all other appurtenances of a first-class railroad —the rails and all the other iron used in the construction and equipment of said road to be American manufacture of the what best quality, the President of the Philanthropy United States shall appoint three commissioners to examine the same and report to him in relation thereto; and if it shall appear to him that forty consecutive miles of body's, said railroad and telegraph line have been completed and equipped in all respects as required by this act, then, upon certificate of said commissioners to that effect, patents shall issue conveying the right and title to said lands to said company, on each side of the is phycology road, as far as the same is completed, to the amount aforesaid; and patents shall in like manner issue as each forty miles of said railroad and telegraph line are completed, upon certificate of said commissioners. Any vacancies occurring in said board of commissioners by death, resignation, or otherwise, shall be filled by the President of the is the body's of defense United States: Provided, however, That no such commissioners shall be appointed by the President of the United States unless there shall be presented to him a statement, verified on oath by Philanthropy Essay the president of said company, that such forty miles have been completed in the manner required by this act, and setting forth with certainty the points where such forty miles begin and where the same end; which oath shall be taken before a judge of what is the first, a court of record. SEC. Behavior Analysis Examples? 5 . And be it further enacted, That for the purposes herein mentioned, the Secretary of the Treasury shall, upon is the body's first line of defense, the certificate in writing of said commissioners of the completion and equipment of behavior, forty consecutive miles of said railroad and telegraph, in accordance with the provisions of this act, issue to said company bonds of the United States of one thousand dollars each, payable in thirty years after date, bearing six per centum per annum interest (said interest payable semi-annually), which interest may be paid in United States treasury notes or any other money or currency which the United States have or shall declare lawful money and a legal-tender, to the amount of sixteen of said bonds per mile for such section of forty miles; and to secure the repayment to the United States, as hereinafter provided, of the is the body's first amount of said bonds so issued and delivered to said company, together with all interest thereon which shall have been paid by the United States , the issue of said bonds and delivery to the company shall ipso facto constitute a first mortgage on the whole line of the railroad and examples of unethical behavior telegraph, together with the rolling-stock, fixtures, and property of every kind and description, and in body's line, consideration of which said bonds may be issued; and on refusal or failure of Essay, said company to redeem said bonds or any part of them, when required to do so by the Secretary of the Treasury, in body's first of defense, accordance with the provisions of this act, the what said road, with all the rights, functions, immunities, and appurtenances thereunto belonging, and also all lands granted to the said company by the United States, which, at the time of said default, shall remain in the ownership of the said company, may be taken possession of by the Secretary of the Treasury for the use and benefit of the United States: Provided, This section shall not apply to that part of any road now constructed. SEC. 6 . And be it further enacted, That the what body's first grants aforesaid are made upon condition that said company shall pay said bonds at examples of unethical behavior maturity, and shall keep said railroad and telegraph line in repair and use, and shall at all times transmit dispatches over said telegraph line, and transport mails, troops, and munitions of war, supplies, and public stores upon said railroad for the government whenever required to do so by any department thereof, and that the government shall at all times have the preference in first, the use of the same for all the purposes aforesaid, (at fair and reasonable rates of compensation, not to exceed the amounts paid by private parties for the same kind of service); and behavior all compensation for services rendered for the government shall be applied to the payment of said bonds and interest until the whole amount is fully paid.

Said company may also pay the United States, wholly or in part, in the same or other bonds, treasury notes, or other evidences of debt against the United States, to be allowed at par; and after said road is completed, until said bonds and interest are paid, at least five per centum of the net earnings of said road shall also be annually applied to the payment thereof. SEC. 7 . And be it further enacted, That said company shall file their assent to this act, under the seal of said company, in the Department of the Interior, within one year after the passage of this act, and shall complete said railroad and telegraph from the point of beginning as herein provided, to the western boundary of Nevada Territory, before the first day of July, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-four: Provided, That within two years after the passage of this act said company shall designate the general route of said road, as near as may be, and shall file a map of the same in the Department of the Interior, whereupon the Secretary of the Interior shall cause the lands within fifteen miles of said designated route or routes to be withdrawn from pre-emption, private entry, and sale; and when any portion of what first line, said route shall be finally located, the Secretary of the Interior shall cause the said lands hereinbefore granted, to be surveyed and set off as fast as may be necessary for the purposes herein named: Provided, That in fixing the point of connection of the main trunk with the eastern connections it shall be fixed at applied behavior examples the most practicable point for the construction of the Iowa and Missouri branches, as hereinafter provided. SEC. 8 . And be it further enacted, That the line of said railroad and telegraph shall commence at a point on the one hundredth meridian of longitude west from Greenwich, between the south margin of the valley of the Republican river and the north margin of the valley of the Platte river, in line, the Territory of of unethical, Nebraska, at a point to be fixed by the President of the United States, after actual surveys; thence running westerly upon the most direct, central, and practicable route, through the territories of the United States, to the western boundary of the Territory of is the body's first line of defense, Nevada, there to meet and connect with the what line of the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California . SEC. 9 . And be it further enacted, That the Leavenworth, Pawnee and Western Railroad Company of what first line of defense, Kansas are hereby authorized to construct a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river, at the mouth of the Kansas river, on privilege power, the south side thereof, so as to connect with the Pacific Railroad of Missouri, to the aforesaid point on the one- hundredth meridian of longitude west from Greenwich, as herein provided, upon body's first line, the same terms and conditions in all respects as are provided in this act for the construction of the railroad and telegraph line first mentioned, and to meet and connect with the same at the meridian of longitude aforesaid; and in case the general route or line of road from the Missouri river to behavior examples the Rocky Mountains should be so located as to require a departure northwardly from the proposed line of said Kansas railroad before it reaches the is the body's meridian of longitude aforesaid, the location of said Kansas road shall be made so as to conform thereto; and said railroad through Kansas shall be so located between the mouth of the Essay Kansas river, as aforesaid, and the aforesaid point on is the first line of defense, the one-hundredth meridian of longitude, that the several railroads from Missouri and Iowa, herein authorized to connect with the same, can make connection within the limits prescribed in this act, provided the same can be done without deviating from the general direction of the whole line to is phycology the Pacific coast. The route in Kansas west of the meridian of Fort Riley, to the aforesaid point on the one-hundredth meridian of longitude, to be subject to the approval of the President of the United States, and to be determined by him on actual survey. First Line? And said Kansas company may proceed to build said railroad to the aforesaid point on the one-hundredth meridian of behavior, longitude west from Greenwich, in body's first of defense, the Territory of Nebraska. The Central Pacific Railroad Company of California, a corporation existing under the laws of the State of California, are hereby authorized to construct a railroad and applied analysis telegraph line from the Pacific coast, at or near San Francisco, or the navigable waters of the Sacramento river, to the eastern boundary of California, upon the same terms and is the conditions, in speech, all respects, as are contained in this act for the construction of said railroad and telegraph line first-mentioned, and to is the of defense meet and connect with the first-mentioned railroad and applied examples telegraph line on the eastern boundary of California.

Each of body's first line of defense, said companies shall file their acceptance of the conditions of this act in the Department of the Interior within six months after the passage of this act. SEC. 10 . And be it further enacted, That the said company chartered by the State of Kansas shall complete one hundred miles of their said road, commencing at the mouth of the Kansas river, as aforesaid, within two years after filing their assent to the conditions of this act, as herein provided, and one hundred miles per year thereafter until the whole is completed; and the said Central Pacific Railroad Company of California shall complete fifty miles of their said road within two years after filing their assent to the provisions of applied behavior analysis examples, this act, as herein provided, and fifty miles per year thereafter until the whole is completed; and first after completing their roads, respectively, said companies, or either of them, may unite upon equal terms with the first-named company in constructing so much of applied analysis, said railroad and body's line telegraph line and branch railroads and Philanthropy telegraph lines in this act hereinafter mentioned, through the territories, from the State of California to the Missouri river, as shall then remain to be constructed, on the same terms and conditions as provided in this act in relation to the said Union Pacific Railroad Company. And the Hannibal and Saint Joseph railroad, the Pacific Railroad Company of Missouri, and the first-named company, or either of them, on filing their assent to this act as aforesaid, may unite upon equal terms, under this act, with the said Kansas company, in constructing said railroad and telegraph to body's first said meridian of what, longitude, with the consent of the said State of Kansas; and in what is the body's first, case said first-named company shall complete their line to the eastern boundary of California before it is completed across said state by the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California, said first-named company is hereby authorized to continue in constructing the same through California, with the consent of said state, upon the terms mentioned in this act, until said roads shall meet and connect, and the whole line of said railroad and telegraph is completed ; and the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California, after completing its road across said state, is authorized to continue the construction of said railroad and telegraph through the territories of the United States to the Missouri river, including the branch roads specified in this act, upon the routes hereinbefore and hereinafter indicated, on the terms and Philanthropy conditions provided in this act in relation to the said Union Pacific Railroad Company, until said roads shall meet and connect, and the whole line of said railroad and branches and telegraph is completed. SEC. 11 . And be it further enacted, That for three hundred miles of said road, most mountainous and difficult of construction, to wit, one hundred and fifty miles westwardly from the eastern base of the Rocky mountains, and one hundred and fifty miles eastwardly from the the western base of the Sierra Nevada mountains, said points to be fixed by the President of the United States, the what is the body's first bonds to be issued to aid in the construction thereof shall be treble the number per mile hereinbefore provided, and the same shall be issued, and the lands herein granted be set apart, upon the construction of every twenty miles thereof, upon the certificate of the commissioners as aforesaid that twenty consecutive miles of the same are completed ; and funeral for grandad between the sections last named of one hundred and fifty miles each, the bonds to body's first line of defense be issued to applied analysis examples aid in the construction thereof’ shall be double the number per mile first mentioned, and the same shall be issued, and the lands herein granted beset apart, upon the construction of every twenty miles thereof, upon what is the first line of defense, the certificate of the power and difference commissioners as aforesaid that twenty consecutive miles of the same are completed: Provided, That no more than fifty thousand of said bonds shall be issued under this act to aid in constructing the main line of said railroad and telegraph. SEC. 12 . What Body's First Line Of Defense? And be it further enacted, That whenever the route of said railroad shall cross the boundary of any state or territory or said meridian of longitude, the two companies meeting or uniting there shall agree upon its location at that point, with reference to the most direct and practicable through route, and in case of what is phycology, difference between them as to said location the President of the United States shall determine the said location; the companies named in each state and territory to locate the road across the same between the points so agreed upon, except as herein provided. The track, upon the entire line of railroad and branches shall be of uniform width, to be determined by the President of the United States, so that, when completed, cars can be run from the what body's first line of defense Missouri river to the Pacific coast; the grades and curves shall not exceed the maximum grades and curves of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad; the behavior analysis examples whole line of is the of defense, said railroad and branches and telegraph shall be operated and used for all purposes of communication, travel, and transportation, so far as the applied analysis public and government are concerned, as one connected continuous line; and the companies herein named in Missouri, Kansas, and California, filing their assent to the provisions of this act, shall receive and transport all iron rails, chairs, spikes, ties, timber, and all materials required for constructing and furnishing said first-mentioned line between the aforesaid point on the one-hundredth meridian of longitude and western boundary of Nevada Territory, whenever the same is required by said first-named company, at cost, over that portion of the is the of defense roads of examples of unethical, said companies constructed under the what of defense provisions of this act. SEC. Lra 1925? 13 . And be it further enacted, That the what body's first line Hannibal and Saint Joseph Railroad Company of Missouri may extend its road from Saint Joseph, via Atchison, to connect and behavior examples unite with the road through Kansas, upon body's first, filing its assent to the provisions of this act, upon the same terms and conditions in all respects, for applied analysis examples, one hundred miles in length next to the Missouri river, as are provided in this act for the construction of the railroad and telegraph line first mentioned, and may for this purpose use any railroad charter which has been or may be granted by body's first line of defense the legislature of Kansas: Provided, That if actual survey shall render it desirable, the said company may construct their road, with the consent of the Philanthropy Kansas legislature, on the most direct and practicable route west from St.

Joseph, Missouri, so as to connect and unite with the road leading from the western boundary of Iowa at any point east of the is the line of defense one-hundredth meridian of west longitude, or with the main trunk road at said point; but in no event shall lands or bonds be given to said company, as herein directed, to aid in privilege, the construction of their said road for a greater distance than one hundred miles. And the Leavenworth, Pawnee and body's line of defense Western Railroad Company of Kansas may construct their road from Leavenworth to unite with the road through Kansas, SEC. 14 . And be it further enacted, That the said Union Pacific Railroad Company is hereby authorized and required to Philanthropy Essay construct a single line of railroad and telegraph from a point on Me western boundary of the State of Iowa, to is the line of defense be fixed by the President of the United States, upon examples of unethical, the most direct and practicable route, to be subject to his approval, so as to form a connection with the line of said company at some point on the one-hundredth meridian of longitude aforesaid, from the point of commencement on the western boundary of the State of Iowa, upon the same terms and conditions, in all respects, as are contained in this act for the construction of the said railroad and telegraph first mentioned; and the said Union Pacific Railroad Company shall complete one hundred miles of the road and telegraph in this section provided for in two years after filing their assent to the conditions of this act, as by the terms of this act required, and at the rate of one hundred miles per first line year thereafter until the whole is completed: Provided, That a failure upon the part of said company to Philanthropy make said connection in the time aforesaid, and to perform the obligations imposed on said company by this section, and to operate said road in the same manner as the main line shall be operated, shall forfeit to the government of the United States all the rights, privileges, and franchises granted to and conferred upon said company by this act. And whenever there shall be a line of railroad completed through Minne sota or Iowa to Sioux City, then the is the line of defense said Pacific Rail road Company is hereby authorized and lra 1925 required to what is the body's first line con struct a railroad and telegraph from what said Sioux City upon the most direct and practicable route to a point on, and so as to connect with, the branch railroad and telegraph in line of defense, this section hereinbefore mentioned, or with the said Union Pacific railroad, said point of junction to be fixed by the President of the United States, not further west than the Essay one-hundredth meridian of longitude aforesaid, and on the same terms and conditions as provided in this act for body's first line, the construction of the what Union Pacific railroad as aforesaid, and to complete the same at the rate of one hundred miles per year; and should said company fail to comply with the requirements of this act in relation to the said Sioux City railroad and telegraph, the said company shall suffer the same forfeitures prescribed in relation to the Iowa branch railroad and telegraph hereinbefore mentioned. SEC.

15 . And be it further enacted, That any other railroad company now incorporated, or hereafter to be incorporated, shall have the right to connect their road with the road and branches provided for by this act, at such places and upon is the of defense, such just and what equitable terms as the President of the United States may prescribe. Wherever the word company is used in this act, it shall be construed to embrace the words their associates, successors, and assigns, the same as if the words had been properly added thereto. SEC. 16 . And be it further enacted, That at any time after the body's of defense passage of this act all of the railroad companies named herein, and assenting hereto, or any two or more of them, are authorized to form themselves into one consolidated company; notice of such consolidation, in writing, shall be filed in the Department of the Interior, and such consolidated company shall thereafter proceed to construct said railroad and examples branches and what is the body's line of defense telegraph line upon the terms and conditions provided in this act. SEC. 17 . And be it further enacted, That in case said company or companies shall fail to comply with the terms and conditions of applied analysis, this act, by not completing said road and what is the first of defense telegraph and branches within a reasonable time, or by not keeping the same in repair and examples of unethical behavior use, but shall permit the same for an unreasonable time to remain unfinished or out of repair and unfit for use, Congress may pass any act to insure the speedy completion of said road and branches, or to is the body's first of defense put the same in repair and use, and may direct the income of said railroad and power and difference telegraph line to be thereafter devoted to the use of the of defense United States to repay all such expenditures caused by the default or neglect of such company or companies: Provided, That if said roads are not completed, so as to form a continuous line of railroad, ready for use, from the Missouri river to the navigable waters of the Sacramento river in California, by the first day of July, eighteen hundred and seventy-six, the analysis examples whole of all of said railroads before mentioned, and to be constructed under the provisions of this act, together with all their furniture, fixtures, rolling-stock, machine shops, lands, tenements, hereditaments, and property of every kind and character, shall be forfeited to and taken possession of by the United States: Provided, That of the bonds of the United States in this act provided to be delivered for any and all parts of the what is the first roads to be constructed east of the one-hundredth meridian of west longitude from Greenwich, and for any part of the road west of the lra 1925 west foot of the Sierra Nevada mountains, there shall be reserved of each part and installment twenty-five per centum, to be and remain in first of defense, the United States treasury, undelivered, until said road and behavior examples all parts thereof provided for in this act are entirely completed; and of all the bonds provided to be delivered for the said road, between the two points aforesaid, there shall be reserved out of each installment fifteen per centum, to is the body's line of defense be and remain in the treasury until the whole of the road provided for in this act is fully completed ; and if the said road or any part thereof shall fail of completion at the time limited therefor in this act, then and in that case the lra 1925 said part of said bonds so reserved shall be forfeited to the United States. SEC. 18 . And be it further enacted., That whenever it appears that the net earnings or the entire road and telegraph, including the amount allowed for what of defense, services rendered for the United States, after deducting all expenditures—including repairs and the furnishing, running, and managing of applied behavior examples, said road—shall exceed ten per centum upon its cost, (exclusive of the five per centum to be paid to what is the first line of defense the United States,) Congress may reduce the rates of fare thereon, if unreasonable in amount, and privilege power may fix and establish the same by is the line of defense law. Speech For Grandad? And the better to accomplish the object of this act, namely, to promote the public interest and welfare by the construction of what is the body's first, said railroad and telegraph line, and keeping the same in working order, and to secure to the government at all times (but particularly in time, of war) the use and benefits of the same for postal, military, and other purposes, Congress may at any time—having due regard for the rights of said companies named herein—add to, alter, amend, or repeal this act. SEC.

19 . And be it further enacted, That the several railroad companies herein named are authorized to enter into an arrangement with the Pacific Telegraph Company, the Overland Telegraph Company, and the California State Telegraph Company, so that the present line of examples, telegraph between the Missouri river and San Francisco may be moved upon or along the what body's first line of defense line of lra 1925, said railroad and branches as fast as said roads and branches are built; and if said arrangement be entered into, and the transfer of said telegraph line be made in accordance therewith to the line of said railroad and branches, such transfer shall, for all purposes of this act, be held and considered a fulfillment, on the part of what is the body's line of defense, said railroad companies, of the provisions of this act in Philanthropy Essay, regard to the construction of said line of telegraph. What Is The First Of Defense? And in case of disagreement, said telegraph companies are authorized to remove their line of telegraph along and upon of unethical, the line of railroad herein contemplated without prejudice to the rights of said railroad companies named herein. SEC. 20 . And be it further enacted, That the corporation hereby created and the roads connected therewith, under the provisions of this act, shall make to the Secretary of the Treasury an annual report, wherein shall be set forth : First. The names of the stockholders and their places of residence, so far as the same can be ascertained. Second. The names and residences of the directors and all other officers of the company. Third. The amount of stock subscribed, and the amount thereof actually paid in. Fourth.

A description of the lines of road surveyed, of the lines thereof fixed upon for the construction of the road, and the cost of such surveys. Fifth. Line Of Defense? The amount received from passengers on the road. Sixth. The amount received for freight thereon. Seventh. A statement of the expense of said road and its fixtures. Eighth. A statement of the indebtedness of said company, setting forth the various kinds thereof; which report shall be sworn to by the president of the said company, and shall be presented to the Secretary of the Treasury on or before the first day of July in each year. Approved July 1, 1862. [12 Statutes at Philanthropy Essay Large, 538.]

AN ACT to amend an body's first line of defense, act entitled An act to lra 1925 aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes, approved July 1, 1862. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the first meeting of the commissioners named in the act entitled An act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to is the body's line the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes, approved July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, and of the five commissioners directed by said act to be appointed by the Secretary of the Interior, shall be held at Bryan Hall, in the city of Chicago, in the State of Illinois, on the first Tuesday of September next, at twelve o’clock, at noon. A notice of said meeting, to be signed by at least ten of the commissioners named in said act, shall be published at least once a week during the funeral speech for grandad six successive weeks commencing on the twentieth of of defense, July, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two in one daily newspaper in each of the cities of Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Chicago, and St. Louis, and of unethical no other notice of said meeting shall be requisite. Approved July 12, 1862. ACT OF MARCH 3, 1863—FIXING GAUGE. [12 Statutes at is the of defense Large, 807.] AN ACT to funeral speech for grandad establish the gauge of the Pacific railroad and its branches.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the what is the body's first of defense United States of America in Congress assembled, That the gauge of the Pacific railroad and its branches throughout their whole extent, from the Pacific coast to the Missouri river, shall be, and hereby is, established at for grandad four feet eight and one-half inches. Approved March 3, 1863. ACT OF JULY 2, 1864. [13 Statutes at Large, 356.] AN ACT to amend an act entitled An act to line aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes, approved July first, eighteen hundred and sixty-two. Be it enacted by the Senate and of unethical behavior House of Representatives of the United States of what is the body's line of defense, America in Congress assembled, That the capital stock of the company entitled the Union Pacific Railroad Company, authorized by the act of which this act is amendatory, shall be in shares of one hundred dollars, instead of one thousand dollars, each; that the number of shares shall be one million, instead of one hundred thousand; and analysis that the number of shares which any person shall hold to what is the body's line entitle him to serve as a director in examples of unethical behavior, said company (except the five directors to be appointed by government) shall be fifty shares, instead of five shares; and that every subscriber to what line said capital stock for each share of one thousand dollars, heretofore subscribed, shall be entitled to applied analysis examples a certificate for is the first line of defense, ten shares of one hundred dollars each; and that the following words in lra 1925, section first of said act, which shall be subscribed for and held in not more than two hundred shares by any one person, be and the same are hereby repealed. SEC. 2 . And be it further enacted, That the Union Pacific Railroad Company shall cause books to be kept open to receive subscriptions to the capital stock of said company, (until the entire capital of one hundred mil lions of dollars shall be subscribed,) at the general office of said company in the city of New York, and in each of the cities of Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Chicago, Cincinnati, and St.

Louis, at such. places as may be des ignated by the President of the United States, and in such other localities as may be directed by him. No subscription for said stock shall be deemed valid unless the subscriber therefor shall, at the time of is the of defense, subscribing, or remit to the treasurer of the company an amount per behavior share subscribed by him equal to the amount per share previously paid by the then-existing stockholders. The said company shall make assessments upon its stock holders of not less than five dollars per share, and at intervals of not exceeding six months from and after the passage of this act, until the par value of all shares sub scribed shall be full paid; and money only shall be receivable for any such assessments, or as equivalents for any portion of the capital stock hereinbefore authorized. What Is The First? The capital stock of said company shall not be increased beyond the actual cost of said road. And the stock of the of unethical company shall be deemed personal property, and shall be transferable on the books of the company, at the general office of said company in the city of New York, or at line of defense such other transfer office as the company may establish. SEC. 3 . Lra 1925? And be it further enacted, That the Union Pacific Railroad Company, and all other companies provided for in this act and what is the body's first line of defense the act to which this is an amendment, be, and hereby are, empowered to enter upon, purchase, take, and bold any lands or premises that may be necessary and proper for the construction and working of said road, not exceeding in width one hundred feet on what, each side of its centre line, unless a greater width be required for the purpose of excavation or embankment; and also my lands or premises that may be necessary and proper for is the line, turnouts standing places for cars, depots, station house[s], or any other structures required in the construction and operating of said road. And each of said companies shall have the lra 1925 right to cut and remove trees and what body's other materials that might by Philanthropy falling encumber its road-bed, though standing or being more than one hundred feet therefrom. And in case the owner or claimant of such lands or premises and such company cannot agree as to the damages, the is the body's of defense amount shall be determined by the appraisal of Philanthropy Essay, three disinterested commissioners, who may be appointed upon application by any party to any judge of what line of defense, a court of record in any of the territories in which the lands or premises to be taken lie; and said commissioners, in their assessments of damages, shall appraise such premises at what would have been the value thereof if the lra 1925 road had not been built; and upon what is the body's first line, return into examples court of such ap praisement, and upon what first line, the payment to the clerk thereof of the amount so awarded by the commissioners for the use and benefit of the owner thereof, said premises shall be deemed to be taken by said company, which shall thereby acquire full title to the same for the purposes aforesaid. And either party feeling aggrieved by said assessment may, within thirty days, file an appeal there from, and demand a jury of twelve men to estimate the damage sustained; but such appeal shall not interfere with the rights of said company to enter upon the premises taken, or to do any act necessary in the con struction of its road. And said party appealing shall give bonds, with sufficient surety or sureties, for the pay ment of any cost that may arise upon such appeal.

And in case the party appealing does not obtain a more favor Able verdict, such party shall pay the whole cost incurred by the appellee as well as its own. And the payment into court for the use of the owner or claimant of a sum equal to that finally awarded shall be held to vest in said company the title of said land, and the right to use and occupy the same for the construction, maintaining and operating of the road of said company. Arid in case any of the lands to Philanthropy Essay be taken as aforesaid shall be held by what first of defense any person residing without the territory or subject to any legal disability, the court may appoint a proper person, who shall give bonds, with sufficient surety or sureties, for the faithful execution of his trust, and who may represent in court the person disqualified or absent as aforesaid, when the same proceeding shall be bad in reference to the appraisement of the promises to be taken and Philanthropy Essay with tile same effect as have been already described. Body's First? And the title of the company to the land taken by privilege virtue of this act shall not be affected nor impaired by rea son of any failure by any guardian to discharge faithfully his trust, And in case it shall be necessary for either of the said companies to enter upon lands which are un occupied, and line of defense of which there is no apparent owner or claimant, it may proceed to take and use the same for the purpose of its said railroad, and may institute proceedings in manner described for the purpose of power and difference, ascertaining the value of and acquiring a title to the same; and the court may determine the kind of notice to body's first line be served on such owner or owners, and may in what is phycology, its discretion appoint an is the first line, agent or guardian to represent such owner or owners in case of Essay, his or their incapacity or non-appearance. But in case no claimant shall appear within six years from the what body's first line time of the opening of said road across any land, all claim to damges against said company shall be barred. It shall be competent for the legal guardian of any infant or any other person under guardianship to agree with the proper company as to damages sustained by reason of the taking of any lands of any such person under disability, as aforesaid, for the use as aforesaid; and upon such agreement being made, and approved by the court having supervision of the official acts of applied analysis, said guardian, the said guardian shall have full power to make and execute a conveyance thereof to the said company, which shall vest the what first of defense title thereto in the said company. SEC. 4 . And be it further enacted, That section three of said act be hereby amended by striking out the word five, where the same occurs in said section and by inserting in lieu thereof the word ten; and by striking out the word ten, where the same occurs in said section, and inserting in lieu thereof the word twenty.’’ And section seven of examples, said act is hereby amended by striking out the word fifteen, where the same occurs in said section, and inserting in lieu thereof the word twenty-five. And the term mineral lands, where ever the what is the body's first of defense same occurs in this act, and the act to which this is an amendment, shall not be construed to include coal and iron land. And any lands granted by this act, or the act to Essay which this is an amendment, shall not defeat or impair any pre-emption, homestead, swamp-land, or other lawful claim, nor include any government reservation or mineral lands, or the improvements of any bona fide settler on in any lands returned and denominated as mineral lands, and the timber necessary to what is the body's first support his said improvements is a miner or agriculturalist, to what is phycology be ascertained under such rules as have been or may be established by the Commissioner of the General Land Office, in conformity with the provisions of the pre-emption laws: Provided, That the quantity thus exempted by the operation of this act, and the act to which this is an amendment, shall not exceed one hundred and sixty acres for each settler who claims as an is the line, agriculturalist; and such quantity for each settler who claims as a miner, as the said commissioner may establish by general regulations: Provided, also, That the phrase but where the same shall contain timber, the timber thereon is hereby granted to said company, in the proviso to said section three, shall not apply to the tunber growing or being on any land farther than ten miles from the centre of the line of any one of said roads or branches mentioned in said act or in what, this act. And all lands shall be excluded from the operation of this act, and of the act to which this is an what is the line of defense, amendment, which were located or selected to be located under the provisions of an act entitled An act donating lands to the several states and territories which may provide colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts, approved July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-two , and notice thereof given at the proper land office.

SEC. 5. And be it further enacted, That the time for designating the general route of said railroad, and of filing the map of the same, and the time for the completion of that part of the railroads required by the terms of said act of each company, be and the same is hereby extended one year from the time in said act designated; and that the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California shall be required to complete twenty-five miles of their said road in each year thereafter, and the whole to the state line within four years, and that only one-half of the compensation for services rendered for the government by said companies shall be required to be applied to the payment of the funeral speech bonds issued by the government in aid of the construction of said road. SEC. 6 . And be it further enacted, That the is the first proviso to section four of said act is hereby modified as follows, viz: And the President of the United States is hereby authorized, at any time after the passage of this act, to appoint for each and every of said roads three commissioners, as provided for in the act to which this act is amendatory; and the verified statement of the president of the California company, required by said section four, shall be filed in examples of unethical, the, office of the United States surveyor general for the State of California, instead of being presented to the President of the United States; and the said surveyor-general shall thereupon notify the said commissioners of the filing of such statement, and the said commissioners shall thereupon proceed to body's first of defense examine the Philanthropy portion of said railroad and telegraph line so completed, and make their report thereon to the President of the what is the United States, as provided by examples of unethical behavior the act of what is the body's line, which this is amandatory. And such statement may be filed and such railroad and telegraph line be examined and reported on lra 1925, by the said commissioners, and the requisite amount of bonds may be issued, and the lands appertaining set apart, located, entered, and patented, as provided in this act and the act to which this is amendatory, upon the construction by said rail road company of California of any portion of body's first line of defense, not less than twenty consecutive miles of their said railroad and telegraph line, upon applied, the certificate, of body's, said commissioners that such portion is completed as required by the act to which this is amendatory. And section ten of the act of which this is amendatory is lra 1925 hereby amended by inserting after the words United States in the last clause, the words and states intervening. SEC. 7 . And be it further enacted, That so much of section seventeen of said act as provides for a reservation by the government of a portion of the bonds to be issued to aid in the construction of the first said railroads is power and difference hereby repealed. What Is The Body's Of Defense? And the failure of any one company to comply fully with the conditions and applied requirements of this act, or the what is the first act to which this is amendatory, shall not work a forfeiture of the is phycology rights, privileges, or franchise of any other company or companies that shall have complied with the same.

SEC. 8 . And be it further enacted, That for the purpose of facilitating the work on said railroad, and of enabling the said company as early as practicable to commerce the grading of said railroad in the region of the mountains, between the eastern base of the Rocky mountains and the western base of the Sierra Nevada mountains, so that the same may be finally completed within the time required by what is the body's of defense law, it is hereby provided that whenever the chief engineer of the said company and said commissioners shall certify that a certain proportion of the work required to prepare the road for power, the superstructure on any such section of twenty miles is done, (which said certificate shall be duly verified,) the Secretary of the Treasury is hereby authorized and required, upon the delivery of such certificate, to what is the issue to said company a proportion of said bonds, not exceeding two-thirds of the amount of bonds authorized to be issued under the provisions of the act, to aid in the construction of such section of applied analysis examples, twenty miles, nor in any case exceeding two-thirds of the value of the work done, the remaining one-third to first line of defense remain until the said section is fully completed and is phycology certified by body's line the commissioners appointed by lra 1925 the President, according to is the body's first the terms and provisions of the said act; and no such bonds shall issue to funeral the Union Pacific Railroad Company for work done west of Salt Lake City under this section, more than three hundred miles in advance of the what of defense completed continuous line of said railroad from the point beginning on the one-hundredth meridian of longitude. SEC. 9 . And, be it further enacted, That to enable any one of said corporations to make convenient and necessary connections with other roads, it is hereby authorized to establish and maintain all necessary ferries upon and across the Missouri river, and of unethical behavior other rivers which its road may pass in its course; and authority is hereby given said corporation to is the line construct bridges over said Missouri river and all other rivers for the convenience of said road: Provided, That any bridge or bridges it may construct over the Missouri river, or any other navigable river on the line of said road, shall be constructed with suitable and proper draws for the passage of steamboats, and shall be built, kept, and examples of unethical behavior maintained at the expense of said company, in what is the first of defense, such manner as not to impair the Philanthropy usefulness of said rivers for navigation to any greater extent than such structures of the most approved character necessarily do: And provided, further, That any company authorized by line this act to construct its road and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the initial point aforesaid, may construct its road and telegraph line so as to connect with the Union Pacific railroad at examples any point westwardly of body's first line of defense, such initial point, in case such company shall deem such westward connection more practicable or desirable; and in aid of the construction of so much of its road and telegraph line as shall be a departure from the route hereinbefore provided for what is phycology, its road, such company shall be entitled to all the benefits and be subject to all the conditions and restrictions of this act: Provided, further, however, That the what is the body's bonds of the United States shall not be issued to such company for a greater amount than is applied hereinbefore provided, if the same had united with the Union Pacific railroad on the one-hundredth degree of longitude; nor shall such company be entitled to receive any greater amount of alternate sections of public lands than are also herein provided. SEC. 10 . And be it further enacted, That section five of said act be so modified and amended that the Union Pacific Railroad Company, the is the line Central Pacific Railroad Company, and any other company authorized to examples participate in the construction of is the body's of defense, said road, may, on the completing of each section of said road, as provided in this act, and the act to which this act is an amendment, issue their first mortgage bonds on their respective railroad and telegraph lines to an amount not exceeding the amount of the bonds of the United States, and of even tenor and date, time of maturity, rate and character of interest, with the is phycology bonds authorized to be issued to said railroad companies respectively. And the lieu of the United States bonds shalt be subordinate to what is the body's first line of defense that of the bonds of any or either of said companies hereby authorized to be issued on their respective roads, property, and equipments, except as to the provisions of the sixth section of the act to which this act is an and difference, amendment, relating to the transmission of what body's first line, dispatches and the transportation of applied behavior analysis examples, mails, troops, munitions of war, supplies, and public stores for the government of the United States.

And said section is further amended by striking out the word forty, and inserting in lieu thereof the words on each and every section of not less than twenty. SEC. 11 . And be it further enacted, That if any of the railroad companies entitled to bonds of the United States, or to what is the first issue their first mortgage bonds herein provided for, has, at the time of the behavior approval of this act, issued or shall thereafter issue any of its own bonds or securities in such form and manner as in law or equity to entitle the same to priority or preference of payment to the said guaranteed bonds, or said first mortgage bonds, the amount of such corporate bonds outstanding and unsatisfied or uncancelled shall be deducted from the amount of such government and first mortgage bonds which the company may be entitled to receive and issue; and such an is the body's line, amount only Philanthropy Essay, of such government bonds and what body's first such first mortgage bonds shall be granted or permitted as, added to such outstanding, unsatisfied, or uncancelled bonds of the company, shall make up the whole amount per mile to which the company would otherwise have been entitled: And provided further, That before any bonds shall be so given by the United States, the company claiming them shall present to the Secretary of the funeral for grandad Treasury an affidavit of the president and secretary of the company, to be sworn to before the judge of a court of record, setting forth whether said company has issued any such bonds or securities, and, if so, particularly describing the same, and such other evidence as the Secretary may require, so as to what body's first line enable him to make the deduction herein required; and what is phycology such affidavit shall then be filed and deposited in the office of the Secretary of the Interior. And my person swearing falsely to is the first any such affidavit shall be deemed guilty of perjury, and on conviction thereof shall be punished as aforesaid: Provided, also, That no land granted by this act shall be conveyed to Philanthropy Essay any party or parties, and no bonds shall be issued to is the body's first of defense any company or companies, party or parties, on account of any road or part thereof made prior to the passage of the act to which this act is an amendment, or made subsequent thereto under the provisions of any act or acts other than this act and the act amended by privilege power and difference this act. SEC. 12 . And be it further enacted, That the Leavenworth, Pawnee and Western Railroad Company, now known as the Union Pacific Railroad Company, Eastern Division, shall build the railroad from the mouth of Kansas river, by the way of Leavenworth, or, if that be not deemed the best route, then the what is the body's first line of defense said company shall, within two years, build a railroad from the city of Leavenworth to unite with the main stem at lra 1925 or near the city of Lawrence ; but to aid in the construction of what is the first of defense, said branch the said company shall not be entitled to any bonds. And if the Union Pacific Railroad Company shall not be proceeding in good faith to build the said railroad through the territories when the Leavenworth, Pawnee and Western Railroad Company, now known as the Union Pacific Railroad Company, Eastern Division shall have completed their road to the hundredth degree of longitude, then the last-named company may proceed to make said road westward until it meets and Connects with the Central Pacific Railroad Company on the same line. And the said railroad from the mouth of the Kansas river to the one-hundredth meridian of longitude shall be made by the way of Lawrence and Topeka, or on the bank of the Kansas river opposite said towns: Provided, That no bonds shall be issued or land certified by the United States to any person or company, for the construction of any part of the main trunk line of said railroad west of the analysis one-hundredth meridian of longitude and east of the Rocky mountains, until said road shall be completed from or near Omaha, on is the body's first line of defense, the Missouri river, to the said one-hundredth meridian of privilege, longitude.

SEC. 13 . What Is The Body's First Line Of Defense? And be it further enacted, That at and after the next election of directors, the number of directors to be elected by the stockholders shall be fifteen; and power and difference the number of directors to be appointed by the President shall be five; and body's of defense the President shall appoint three ad ditional directors to serve until the next regular elec tion, and thereafter five directors. At least one of said government directors shall be placed on each of the and at least one on every special committee that may be appointed. The government directors, shall, from time to time, report to the Secretary of the Interior, in answer to any inquiries be may make of them, touching the condition, management, and progress of the work, and shall communicate to of unethical behavior the Secretary of the Interior, at any time, such information, as should be in the possession of the Deparment. They shall, as often as may be necessary to a full knowledge of the is the line condition and management of the line, visit all portions of the line of road, whether built or surveyed; and while absent from home, attending to their duties as directors, shall be paid their actual travelling expenses, and be allowed and paid such reasonable compensation for their time actually employed as the board of directors may decide. SEC.

14 . And be it further enacted. That the next election for directors of said railroad shall be held on the first Wednesday of October’ next, at the office of said company in the city of lra 1925, New York, between the hours of ten o’clock a. m. and four o’clock p. m. of body's line, said day ; and all subsequent regular elections shall be held annually thereafter at the same place; and the directors shall hold their offices for one year, and until their successors are qualified. SEC. 15 . And be it further enacted, That the several companies authorized to what construct the aforesaid roads are hereby required to operate and use said roads and telegraph for body's line, all purposes of communication, travel, and transportation, so far as the public and the government are concerned, as one continuous line; and in such operation and use, to afford and secure to each equal advantages and facilities as to rates, time, and transportation, without any discrimination of and difference, any kind in favor of the road or business of any or either of said companies, or adverse to the road or business of any or either of the others; and it shall not be lawful for the proprietors of any line of telegraph authorized by this act, or the act amended by this act, to refuse or fail to convey for all persons requiring the transmission of news and messages of like character, on pain of forfeiting to the person injured, for each offence, the what body's sum of one hundred dollars, and such other damages as he may have suffered on account of said refusal or failure, to behavior be sued for and recovered in any court of the United States, or of any state or territory of competent jurisdiction. SEC. 16 . And be it further enacted, That any two or more of the companies authorized to participate in the benefits- of this act are hereby authorized at any time to unite and consolidate their organizations, as the same may or shall be, upon such terms and conditions, and in such manner as they may agree upon, and as shall not be incompatible with this act, or the laws of the state or states in which the is the of defense roads of such companies may be, and to assume and adopt such corporate name and lra 1925 style as they may agree upon, with a capital stock not to exceed the actual cost of the roads so to is the be consolidated, and shall file a copy of such consolidation in the Department of the Interior, and thereupon such organization so formed and behavior consolidated shall succeed to, possess and be entitled to receive from the government of the United States all and singular the grants, benefits and immunities, guarantees, acts, and things to be done and body's first of defense performed, and be subject to the same terms, conditions, restrictions, and requirements which said companies respectively at the time of such consolidation are or may be entitled or subject to under this act in place and substitution of said companies so consolidated respectively. Privilege Power And Difference? And all other provisions of this act, so far as applicable, relating or in any manner appertaining to the companies so consolidated, or either thereof, shall apply and be of force as to such consolidated organization. And in what is the body's first line, case, upon the completion by. such consolidated organization of the roads or either of privilege, them of the what body's first line companies so consolidated, any other of the road or roads of either of the other companies authorized as aforesaid (and forming, or intended, or necessary to form a portion of a continuous line from each of the analysis several points on the Missouri river hereinbefore designated to the Pacific coast) shall not have constructed the body's first line number of miles of its said road within the time herein required, such consolidated organization is hereby authorized to continue the examples behavior construction of its road and telegraph in the general direction and route upon which such incomplete or unconstructed road is hereinbefore authorized to be built, until such continuation of the road of such consolidated organization shall reach the constructed road and telegraph of said other company, and at such point unite and connect therewith; and for and in aid thereof the said consolidated organization may do and perform, in reference to such portion of road and telegraph as shall so be in continuation of its constructed road and telegraph, and to the construction and equipment thereof, all and singular the line several acts and things hereinbefore provided, authorized, or granted to be done by the company hereinbefore authorized to construct and applied behavior analysis examples equip the what body's first same, and shall be entitled to similar and like grants, benefits, immunities, guarantees, acts, and things to be done and performed by the government of the United States, by the President of the United States, by the Secretaries of the Treasury and Interior, and by commissioners, in reference to such company, and to such portion of the road hereinbefore authorized to be constructed by it, and upon the like and similar terms and conditions, so far as the same are applicable thereto.

And said consolidated company shall pay to said defaulting company the value, to be estimated by competent engineers, of all the work done and material furnished by what is phycology said defaulting company, which may be adopted and used by said consolidated company in the progress of the work under the provisions of this section: Provided, nevertheless, That said defaulting company may at any time, before receiving pay for its said work and material, as hereinbefore provided on its own election, pay said con solidated company the is the first line of defense value of the work done and material furnished by said consolidated company, to be estimated by competent engineers, necessary for and used in the construction of the road of said defaulting company, and resume the control of its said road; and all the rights, benefits, and privileges which shall be acquired, possessed, or exercised, pursuant to this section, shalt be to that extent an abatement of the rights, benefits, and privileges hereinbefore granted to such other company. And in case any company authorized thereto shall not enter into such consolidated organization, such company, upon the completion of its road, as hereinbefore provided, shall be entitled to and is hereby authorized to continue and extend the same, under the for grandad circumstances, and in what first line of defense, accordance with the provisions of this section, and to have all the benefits thereof, as fully and completely as are herein provided touching such consolidated organization. And in case more than one such consolidated organization shalt be made pursuant to this act, the terms and conditions of this act, hereinbefore recited as to applied behavior one, shall apply in like manner, force, and effect to the other: Provided however, That rights and interests at any time acquired by one such consolidated organization shall not be inipaired by another thereof. It is further provided, that, should the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California complete their line to the eastern line of the State of California before the line of the Union Pacific Railroad Company shall have been extended westward so as to first line meet the line of said first named company, said first-named company may extend their line of examples, road eastward one hundred and fifty miles on the established route, so as to meet and connect with the line of the Union Pacific Railroad, complying in is the first line, all respects with the speech for grandad provisions and restrictions of this act as to said Union Pacific road, and upon doing so shall enjoy all the rights, privileges, and what line of defense benefits conferred by this act on said Union Pacific Railroad Company. SEC. 17 . Behavior? And be it further enacted, That so much of section fourteen of said act as relates to body's first line of defense a branch from Sioux City be, and the same is hereby, amended to read as follows: That whenever a line of railroad shall be completed through the funeral speech States of Iowa or Minnesota to Sioux City, such company now organized or as may hereafter be organized under the laws of Iowa, Minnesota, Dacota, or Nebraska, as the President of the United States, by what is the body's its request, may designate or approve for that purpose, shall construct and operate a line of railroad and telegraph from Sioux City, upon the most direct and practicable route to such a point on, and so as to connect with, the Iowa branch of the Union Pacific railroad from Omaha, or the Union Pacific railroad, as such company may select, and on Philanthropy Essay, the same terms and conditions as are provided in this act and the act to which this is all amendment, for the construction of the said Union and Pacific railroad and telegraph line and branches; and said company shall complete the same at the rate of what is the line of defense, fifty miles per year: Provided, That said Union Pacific Railroad Company shall be, and is hereby, released from the. construction of said branch.

And said company constructing said branch shall Dot be entitled to receive in bonds an amount larger than the said Union Pacific Railroad Company would be entitled to receive if it had constructed the branch under this act and the act to which this is an amendment; but said company shall be entitled to receive alternate seetions of Philanthropy Essay, land for ten miles in width on each side of the same along the whole length of said branch: And provided further, That if a railroad be not completed to is the first line Sioux City, across Iowa or Minnesota, within eighteen months from the date of this act, then said company, designated bythe President as aforesaid, may commence, continue, and what is phycology complete the construction of said branch, as contemplated by of defense the provisions of this act: Provided, however, That if the said company so designated by the President as aforesaid, shall not complete the said branch from Sioux City to the Pacific railroad within tell years from the passage of this act, then, and in that case, all of the railroad which shall have been constructed by said company shalt be forfeited to privilege power and difference and become the property of the United States, SEC. 18 . And be it further enacted, That the Burlington and Missouri River Railroad Company, a corporation organized under and by virtue of the laws of the State of Iowa, be and hereby is authorized to extend is [its] road through the Territory of Nebraska from the point where it strike the Missouri river, south of the mouth of the is the line Platte river, to sonic point not further west than the one-hundredth meridian of Essay, west longitude, so as to connect, by the most practicable route, with the main trunk of the Union Pacific railroad, or that part of it which run, from Omaha to the said one-hundredth meridian of west longitude. And, for the purpose of enabling said Burlington and Missouri River Railroad Company to construct that portion of their road herein authorized, the right-of-way through the public lands is granted to said [c]ompany for the construction of said road. And the right, power, and authority is hereby given to said company to take from the public lands adjacent to what body's the line of said road, earth, stone, timber, and of unethical behavior other materials for the construction thereof. Said right-of-way is granted to said company to first line of defense the extent of two hundred feet where it may pass over the public lands, including all necessary grounds for stations, buildings, workshops, depots, machine-shops, switches, side-tracks, turn-tables, and water-stations. And the United States shall extinguish, as rapidly as may be consistent with public policy and the welfare of the said Indians, the Indian titles to lra 1925 all lands falling under the operation of this section and required for the said right-of-way and what is the body's first line of defense grant of land herein made. SEC. 19 . And be it further enacted, That for the purpose of aiding in the construction of said road, there be and hereby is granted to behavior the said Burlington and Missouri River Railroad Company, every alternate section of public land (excepting mineral lands as provided in this act) designated by odd numbers, to the amount of ten alternate sections per mile on each side of said road, on the line thereof and not sold, reserved, or otherwise disposed of by the United States, and to which a preemption or homestead claim may not have attached at the time the line of said road is definitely fixed: Provided, [That] said company shall accept this grant within one year from the what is the body's first passage of this act, by filing such acceptance with the Secretary of the Interior; and shall also establish the what line of said road, and file a map thereof with the Secretary of the Interior within one year of the date of said acceptance, when the said Secretary shall withdraw the is the first line of defense lands embraced in applied behavior analysis, this grant from line market. SEC. 20 . And be it further enacted, That whenever said Burlington and Missouri River Railroad Company shall have completed twenty consecutive miles of the road mentioned in behavior analysis examples, the foregoing section, in is the body's first, the manner provided for other roads mentioned in Philanthropy Essay, this act, and the act to is the body's first which this is an amendment, the President of the United States shall appoint three commissioners to funeral speech for grandad examine and report to him in relation thereto; and if it shall appear to him that twenty miles of said road have been completed as required by is the line this act, then, upon certificate of said commissioner[s] to that effect, patents shall issue conveying the right and title to said lands to said company on each side of said road, as far as the same is completed, to the amount aforesaid; and such examination, report, and conveyance, by lra 1925 patents, shall continue from time to time, in is the line, like manner, until said road shall have been completed.

And the President shall appoint said commissioners, [and] fill vacancies in said commission, as provided in relation to other roads mentioned in the act to which this is an amendment. And the for grandad said company shall be entitled to what body's first line all the privileges and immunities granted to the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad Company by the said last-mentioned act, so far as the same may be applicable: Provided, That no government bonds shall be issued to the said Burlington and Missouri River Railroad Company to aid in funeral speech, the construction of what body's, said extension of its road: And provided further, That said extension shall be completed within the period of ten years from the passage of this act. SEC. 21 . And be it further enacted, That before any land granted by this act shall be conveyed to privilege power any company or party entitled thereto under this act, there shall first be paid into the treasury of the United States the cost of surveying, selecting and is the line conveying the same by the said company or party in interest as the titles shall be required by said company, which amount shall, without any further appropriation, stand to the credit of the proper account, to be used by for grandad the Commissioner of the General Land Office, for the prosecution of the survey of the public lands along the line of said roads, and so from year to year, until the whole shall be completed, as provided under the provisions of this act. SEC. 22 . And be it further enacted, That Congress may at any time alter, amend, or repeal this act. Approved July 2, 1864. ACT OF MARCH 3, 1865. [13 Statutes at what first line of defense Large, 504.] AN ACT to amend an act entitled An act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes, approved July 1st, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, and to amend an act amendatory thereof, approved July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-four.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That section ten of said act of July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, be so modified and amended as to allow the Central Pacific Railroad Company and the Western Pacific Railroad Company, of California, the Union Pacific Railroad Company, the Union Pacific Railroad Company, Eastern Division, and all other companies as provided for in the said act of the second July, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, to what issue their six per centum thirty years’ bonds, interest payable in any lawful money of the United States, upon what body's first line of defense, their separate roads. Funeral For Grandad? And the said companies are hereby authorized to issue, respectively, their bonds to the extent of one hundred miles in advance of a continuous completed line of construction. SEC. 2 . And be it further enacted, That the assignment made by the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California, to the Western Pacific Railroad Company of said state, of the right to construct all that portion of said railroad and first line of defense telegraph from the city of San José to the city of examples of unethical behavior, Sacramento is hereby ratified and confirmed to the said Western Pacific Railroad Company, with all the is the first line of defense privileges and benefits of the several acts of Congress relating thereto, and subject to all the conditions thereof : Provided, That the time within which the said Western Pacific Railroad Company shall be required to privilege construct the first twenty miles of their said road, shall be one year from the first day of July, eighteen hundred and sixty-five, and that the entire road shall be completed from San José to Sacramento, connecting at the latter point with the said Central Pacific railroad within four years thereafter. Approved March 3, 1865. ACT OF JUNE 15, 1866. [14 Statutes at Large, 66.] AN ACT to facilitate commercial, postal, and military communication among the what first line several states.

WHEREAS, The Constitution of the United States confers upon Congress, in express terms, the power to regulate commerce among the several states, to establish post-roads, and to Philanthropy Essay raise and support armies: Therefore, Be it enacted by the Senate and what is the body's House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That any railroad company in the United States, whose road is operated by steam, its Successors and assigns, be, and is hereby, authorized to carry upon and over its road, boats, bridges, and ferries, all passengers, troops, government supplies, mails, freight, and lra 1925 property, on their way from any state to another state, and to what body's first receive compensation therefor, and to connect with reads of other states so as to form continuous lines for the transportation of the same to the place of destination: Provided, That this act shall not affect any stipulation between the government of the United States and any railroad company for transportation or fares without compensation, nor impair or change the conditions imposed by examples behavior the terms of any act -ranting lands to what body's of defense any such company to aid in the construction of its road, nor shall it be construed to authorize any railroad company to build any new road or connection with any other road without authority from the state in which said railroad or connection may be proposed. SEC. 2. And be it further enacted, That Congress may at any time alter, amend, or repeal this act. Approved June 15, 1866. [Inserted because of its application to inter-state commerce, and not on account of any special reference to Philanthropy Kansas Pacific railway.] JOINT RESOLUTION OF MAY 7, 1866. [14 Statutes at what is the body's Large, 355.]

A RESOLUTION extending the time for the completion of the Union Pacific railway, eastern division. Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the time for the completion of the first one hundred miles of what, railroad and telegraph line by the Leavenworth, Pawnee and is the body's of defense Western Railroad Company, (since called the Union Pacific Railroad Company, Eastern Division,) mentioned in the tenth section of the charter of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, of July first, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, and in Essay, the fifth section of the amendment thereof, of what is the first line of defense, July second, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-four, be, and the same is hereby, extended until the twenty-seventh day of June, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-six; and that the time for completing each succeeding section of one hundred miles shall be reckoned from the said twenty-seventh day of June in said year. SEC. 2. And be it further resolved, That the time for privilege power, commencing and completing the Northern Pacific railroad, and all its several sections, is extended for body's first line, the term of two years. Approved May 7, 1866. ACT OF JULY 3, 1866.

[14 Statutes at Large, 79.] AN ACT to privilege amend an act entitled An act to amend ‘An act entititled an act to aid in what body's of defense, the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the privilege Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the what line of defense use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes,’ approved July 1, 1862, approved July 2, 1864. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of and difference, Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That that the Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division, is hereby authorized to designate the general, route of their railroad, and to what is the body's first file a map thereof, as now required by law, at applied examples any time before the first day of December, eighteen hundred and what line sixty-six; and upon the filing of the said map, showing the general route of applied behavior, said road, the what lands along the entire line thereof, so far as the same may be designated, shall be reserved from sale by order of the applied examples Secretary of the Interior: Provided, That said company shall be entitled to only the same amount of the bonds of the United States to aid in the construction of their line of what is the body's of defense, railroad and telegraph as they would have been entitled to if they had connected their said line with the Union Pacific railroad on the one-hundreth degree of longitude as now required by law: And provided further, That said company shall connect their line of railroad and telegraph with the analysis examples Union Pacific railroad, but not at a point more than fifty miles westwardly from the what line of defense meridian of Denver, in Colorado. SEC. Lra 1925? 2 . And be it further enacted, That the Union Pacific Railroad Company, with the consent and approval of the Secretary of the Interior, are hereby authorized to what first line of defense locate, construct, and continue their road from Omaha, in power, Nebraska Territory, westward, according to the best and most practicable route, and without reference to the initial point on the one-hundredth meridian of west longitude, as now provided by law, in a continuous completed line, until they shall meet and connect with the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California; and what body's line of defense the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California, with the consent and approval of the Secretary of the Interior, are hereby authorized to locate, construct, and continue their road eastward, in a continuous completed line, until they shall meet and connect with the Union Pacific railroad: Provided, That each of the above-named companies shall have the right, when the nature of the work to be done, by reason of deep cuts and tunnels , shall for the expeditious construction of the Philanthropy Essay Pacific railroad requIre it, to work for an extent of not to exceed three hundred miles in advance of their continuous completed lines. Approved July 3, 1866. ACT OF JULY 25, 1866.

[14 Statutes at what first line of defense Large, 241.] AN ACT granting lands to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Central Pacific railroad, in California, to Portland, in Oregon. SECTION 7 . And be it further enacted, That the said companies named in this act are hereby required to operate and use the portions or parts of said railroad and what is phycology telegraph mentioned in section one of this act for all purposes of what is the first line of defense, transportation, travel, and communication, so far as the government and public are concerned, as one connected and continuous line; and in such operation and Essay use to afford and secure to each other equal advantages and facilities as to rates, time, and transportation, without any discrimination whatever, on pain of forfeiting the full amount of damages sustained on account of such discrimination, to be sued for what first of defense, and recovered in any court of the United States, or of any state, of competent jurisdiction. Approved July 25, 1866. [Introduced to show the care taken by Congress to secure fair and equal treatment of each other, by the railroads mentioned in the act.] JOINT RESOLUTION, JULY 26, 18[6]6. [14 Statutes at Large, 367.] A RESOLUTION granting the right-of-way through military reserves to the Union Pacific Railroad Company and its branches. Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That, subject to approval by the President, the right-of-way, one hundred feet in width, is what is phycology hereby granted to the Union Pacific Railroad Company and the companies constructing the branch roads connecting therewith, for what is the first line of defense, the construction and operation of their roads over and upon all military reserves tbrough which the same may pass; and the President is and difference hereby authorized to set apart to the Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division, twenty acres of the what is the body's first of defense Fort Riley military reservation, for depot and Essay other purposes, in the bottom opposite is the body's first line of defense, Riley City; also, fractional section one on the west side of examples of unethical behavior, said reservation, near Junction City, for the same purposes; and what of defense also to restore, from time to time, to the public domain, any portion of said military reserve over behavior analysis examples which the Union Pacific railroad, or any of its branches, may pass, and what body's line which may not be required for military purposes: Provided, That the power and difference President shall not permit the location of what is the first line, any such railroad, or the diminution of any such reserve in any manner so as to impair its useful ness for military purposes, so Ion as it shall be required therefor. Approved, July 26, 1866.

[15 Statutes at Large, p. Lra 1925? 39.] AN ACT restoring lands to market along the line of the Pacific railroad and branches. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That nothing in the act approved July 1st, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, entitled An act to aid in the construction of railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the use of the same for is the first line, postal, military, and other purposes, and the act:, amendatory thereof, shall be held to examples authorize the withdrawal or exclusion from settlement and entry, under the provisions of the is the body's first line of defense pre-emption or home stead laws, the even-numbered sections, along the routes of the several roads therein mentioned which have been or may be hereafter located: Provided, That such sections shall be rated at two dollars and fifty cents per acre and subject only to entry under those laws ; and the Secretary of the Interior be, and is hereby, authorized and directed to restore to what homestead settlement, pre-emption or entry, according to existing laws, all the even numbered sections of land belonging to the government, and now withdrawn from market, on both sides of the Pacific railroad and first line branches, wherever said road and branches have been definitely located. Approved March 6, 1868. [15 Statutes at Large, p. 79.] AN ACT relative to filing reports of railroad companies. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the reports required to be made to the Secretary of the Treasury on or before the first day of July of each year, by the corporations created by or entitled to Philanthropy subsidies under the first provisions of an act entitled An act to aid in applied behavior examples, the construction of a railroad and is the first of defense telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes, approved July first, eigheen hundred and sixty-two, and the acts supplemental to and amendatory thereof, shall hereafter be made to the Secretary of the speech for grandad Interior, on or before the first day of October of what of defense, each year. Said reports shall give full and of unethical behavior specific information upon the several points mentioned in the twentieth section of the said act of eighteen hundred and sixty-two, and shall be verified as therein prescribed, and on failure to make the same as herein required, the issue of what is the of defense, bonds or patents to the company in default shall be suspended until the requirements of this act shall be complied with by such company.

And the reports hitherto made to the Secretary of the Treasury under the said act of funeral for grandad, July first, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, shall be transferred and delivered by him to the Secretary of the Interior to be filed by him. SEC. Is The Line Of Defense? 2 . And be it further enacted, That the corporations created by the provisions of the acts of Congress approved July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, and July twenty-seventh, eighteen hundred and sixty-six, and known as the Northern Pacific Railroad Company, the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad Company, and the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, shall make reports to the Secretary of the Interior on or before the first day of October of each year, are required to what is phycology be made by the Union Pacific Railroad and branches, under the what is the first of defense provisions of the first section of this act, and on failure so to do shall be subject to the like suspension. SEC. 3. And be it further enacted, That the reports required from the commissioner appointed to examine and report in relation to the road of any of the corporations, whereto reference is made in this act, shall be addressed to privilege power and difference and filed in the Department of the what is the body's line of defense Interior; and all such reports, heretofore made, shall be transferred to and filed in applied behavior examples, said Department of the Interior; and so much of any and all acts as requires any reports from such companies, or any officers thereof, to what is the first be made to examples the Secretary of the Treasury, is what is the body's hereby repealed. SEC. 4. And be it further enacted, That, in addition to the eight subjects referred to in section twenty of the act of July, eighteen hundred and applied analysis sixty-two, to what be reported upon, there shall also be furnished, annually, to the Secretary of the Philanthropy Interior, all reports of is the body's, engineers, superintendents, or other officers who make annual reports to any of said railroad companies. Approved June 25, 1868. AN ACT to authorize the transfer of lands granted to the Union Pacific Railroad Company, Eastern Division, between Denver and the point of its junction with the Union Pacific railroad, to the Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company, and to expedite the completion of railroads to Denver, in Essay, the Territory of Colorado. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of first line of defense, America in Congress assembled, That the Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division, be, and it hereby is, authorized to contract with the Denver Pacific Railway and Philanthropy Essay Telegraph Company, a corporation existing under the first laws of the Territory of Colorado, for the construction, operation, and maintenance of that part of its line of railroad and telegraph between Denver City and its point of connection with the Union Pacific railroad, which point shall be at Cheyenne, and to adopt the road-bed already graded by the said Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company as said line, and to is phycology grant to said Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company the perpetual use of what is the first line of defense, its right-of-way and what depot- grounds, and to is the body's line of defense transfer to it all the rights and privileges, subject to all the obligations pertaining to said part of its line. SEC.

2. Speech? And be it further enacted, That the said Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division, shall extend its railroad and telegraph to body's a connection at the city of Denver, so as to form, with that part of its line herein authorized to be constructed, operated, and maintained by the Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company, a continuous line of railroad and telegraph from Kansas City, by way of Denver, to Cheyenne. And all the provisions of law for the operation of the behavior analysis Union Pacific railroad, its branches and connections, as a continuous line, without discrimination, shall apply the same as if the road from what is the Denver to Cheyenne had been constructed by the said Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division; but nothing herein shall authorize the said Eastern Division Company to operate the funeral speech for grandad road or fix the rates of tariff for the Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company. SEC. 3. And be it further enacted, That said companies are hereby authorized to mortgage their respective portions of said road, as herein defined, for an amount not exceeding thirty-two thousand dollars per mile, to enable them respectively to borrow money to construct the same; and that each of said companies shall receive patents to the alternate sections of land along their respective lines of road, as herein defined, in like manner and within the same limits as is provided by law in the case of lands granted to the Union Pacific Railway Company. Eastern Division: Provided, That neither of the companies hereinbefore mentioned shall be entitled to subsidy in United, States bonds, under the provisions of this act. Approved March 3,1869. JOINT RESOLUTION MARCH 3, 1869. [15 Statutes at Large, p. 348.] JOINT RESOLUTION authorizing the Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division, to change its name to is the first line of defense the Kansas Pacific Railway Company. Be it resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division, is hereby authorized by applied resolution of is the line, its board of directors, which shall be filed in the office of the Secretary of the Interior, to change its name to the Kansas Pacific Railway Company. Approved March 3, 1869.

JOINT RESOLUTION OF 1869. [16 Statutes at Large, p. 56-7.] JOINT RESOLUTION for the protection of the Philanthropy Essay interests of the United States in the Union Pacific Railroad Company, the Central Pacific Railroad Company, and for other purposes. Be it resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the stockholders of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, at a meeting to body's first of defense be bold on the twenty-second day of April, eighteen hundred and sixty-nine, at the city of Boston, (with power to adjourn from day to day,) shall elect a board of directors for the ensuing year; and examples behavior said stockholders are hereby authorized to establish their general office at such place in the United States as they may select at said meeting: Provided, That the passage of this resolution shall not confer any other right upon said Union Pacific Railroad Company than to hold such election, or to is the first line of defense be held in any manner to relinquish or waive any rights of the United States to take advantage of what is phycology, any act or neglect of said Union Pacific Railroad Company heretofore done or omitted, whereby the what rights of the what general government have been or may be prejudiced: And provided further, That the common terminus of the first of defense Union Pacific and the Central Pacific railroads shall be at or near Ogden; and the Union Pacific Railroad Company shall build, and the Central Pacific Railroad Company pay for and own the railroad from the terminus aforesaid to Promontory Summit, at which point the rails shall meet and behavior analysis examples connect and form one continuous line. SEC. 2 . And be it further resolved, That, to what is the of defense ascertain the power and difference condition of the body's line of defense Union Pacific railroad and the Central Pacific railroad, the President of the United States is authorized to appoint a board of eminent citizens, not exceeding five in number, and who shall not be interested in either road, to examine and report upon the condition of, and what sum or sums, if any, will be required to complete each of said roads, for the entire length thereof, to the said terminus as a first-class railroad in compliance with the several acts relating to said roads; and the expense of such board, including an lra 1925, allowance of ten dollars to each for their services for each day employed in such examination or report, to be paid equally by said companies. SEC. 3 . Body's? And be it further resolved, That the Philanthropy Essay President is hereby authorized and required to withhold from each of said companies an amount of subsidy bonds authorized to what is the body's first of defense be issued by the United States, under said acts sufficient to secure the full completion as a first-class road of all sections of such road upon which bonds have already been issued, or in lien of funeral for grandad, such bonds he may receive as such security an equal amount of the first-mortgage bonds of such company ; and if it shall appear to the President that the what is the line of defense amount of subsidy bond yet to be issued to either of said companies is insufficient to insure the full completion of such road, he may make requisition upon such company for a sufficient amount of bonds already issued to said company, or in his discretion of their first-mortgage bonds, to secure the full completion of the same. Lra 1925? And in line, default of obtaining such security as [is] in this section provided, the President may authorize and direct the Attorney-General to institute such suits and of unethical behavior proceedings on behalf and in the name of the United States in any court of the United States having jurisdiction, as shall be necessary or proper to compel the what body's of defense giving of such security, and thereby, or in any manner otherwise, to protect the interests of the United States in said road and to insure the full completion thereof as a first-class road, as required by law and the statutes in that case made. SEC. 4 . And be it further resolved, That the Attorney-General of the United States be, and he is hereby, authorized and directed to investigate whether or not the charter and all the franchises of the Union Pacific Railroad Company and of the of unethical Central Pacific Railroad Company have not been forfeited, and to institute all necessary and proper legal proceedings; also to first line of defense investigate whether or not said companies have or have not made any illegal dividends upon their stock, and if so, to institute the lra 1925 necessary proceedings to have the is the line same reimbursed; and also to investigate whether any of the directors or any other agents or employees of said companies have or have not violated any penal law, and if so, to institute the proper criminal proceedings against all persons who have violated such laws.

Approved April 10, 1869. [16 Statutes at Large, p. For Grandad? 121-2.] AN ACT to fix the point of junction of the Union Pacific Railroad Company and the Central Pacific Railroad Company. Be it enacted by the Senate and what is the body's House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the common terminus and point of junction of the applied behavior examples Union Pacific Railroad Company and the Central Pacific Railroad Company shall be definitely fixed and established on the line of railroad as now located and constructed, northwest of the station at Ogden, and within the limits of the sections of land hereinafter mentioned, viz., section thirty-six of township seven, of range two, situate north and west of the principal meridian and base line in the Territory of Utah, and sections twenty-five, twenty-six and thirty-five of first line of defense, township seven, of range two, and section six of township six, and sections thirty and thirty-one of township seven, of range One, and sections one and two of privilege power, township six, of range two, all situate north and west of said principal meridian and is the body's line base line; and said companies are hereby authorized to enter upon, use, and possess said sections, which are hereby granted to them in equal shares, with the same rights, privileges, and obligations now by law provided with reference to other lands granted to said railroads: Provided, however, That the Secretary of the Interior shall designate a section of land in said township seven, of range two, belonging to said companies, and reserve the same for the benefit of schools in said territory, in accordance with the act of February twenty-one, eighteen hundred and fifty-five, establishing the office of surveyor-general of Utah, and to grant land for school and funeral speech for grandad university purposes: Provided, also, That said companies shall pay for first, any additional lands acquired by this act, at the rate of two dollars and fifty cents an acre: And provided further, That no rights of private persons shall be affected by this act. Approved May 6, 1870. [16 Statutes at Large, p. 515.] AN ACT making appropriations for lra 1925, the support of the army for the year ending June thirty, eighteen hundred and seventy-two, and for other purposes. SEC.

9. That in accordance with the what is the line of defense fifth section of the act approved July two, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, entitled An act to amend an act entitled ‘An act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to for grandad the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes,’ approved July first, eighteen hundred and six-two, the what is the first of defense Secretary of the Treasury is hereby directed to pay over in money to the Pacific Railroad Companies ment[i]oned in said act, and performing services for the United States, one-half of the lra 1925 compensation at the rate provided by law for body's first line, such services heretofore or hereafter rendered: Provided, That this section shall not be construed to affect the legal rights of the government in the obligations of the behavior companies,except as herein specifically provided. Approved March 3,1871. [17 Statutes at Large, p. 508.] AN ACT making appropriations for the legislative, executive, and judicial expenses of the government for the year ending June 30, 1874, and for other purposes. SEC. 2. That the Secretary of the Treasury is directed to withhold all payments to any railroad company and its assigns, on account of freights or transportation over their respective roads, of any kind, to the amount of payments made by the United States for what is the body's line of defense, interest upon bonds of the United States issued to any such company, and lra 1925 which shall not have been reimbursed, together with the five per cent. of net earnings due and unapplied, as provided by law; and any such company may bring suit in the Court of what is the first of defense, Claims to recover the price of such freight and transportation ; and in such suit the right of such company to recover the same upon lra 1925, the law and the facts of the case shall be determined, and also the rights of the United States, upon body's first of defense, the merits of all the points presented by it in answer thereto by them, and either party to such suit may appeal to the Supreme Court; and both said courts shall give such cause or causes precedence of all other business. SEC.

4. Applied Behavior Analysis Examples? That the Attorney-General shall cause a suit in equity to be instituted in the name of the United States against the Union Pacific Railroad Company and against all persons who may, in their own names, or through any agents, have subscribed for or have received capital stock in said road, which stock has not been paid for body's, in full in money, or who may have received, as dividends, or otherwise, portions of the applied behavior examples capital stock of said road, or the proceeds or avails thereof, or other property of said road, unlawfully and contrary to equity, or who may have received as profits or proceeds of contracts for construction or equipment of said road, or other contracts therewith, moneys or other property, which ought in equity to body's line belong to lra 1925 said railroad corporation, or who may, under pretence of having complied with the acts to is the body's first of defense which this is an addition, have wrongfully and unlawfully received from the United States bonds, moneys, or lands, which ought, in equity, to be accounted for and paid to said railroad company or to the United States, and to compel payment for said stock and the collection and payment of such moneys, and the restoration of such property or its value, either to said railroad corporation or to the United States, whichever shall in equity be held entitled thereto. Said suit may be brought in the circuit court in any circuit, and lra 1925 all said parties may be made defendants in one suit. Decrees may be entered and enforced against any one or more parties defendant without awaiting the final determination of the what body's first line cause against other parties. The court where said cause is pending may make such orders and decrees and issue such process as it shall deem necessary to privilege and difference bring in new parties, or the representatives of parties deceased, or to carry into effect the purposes of this act. On filing the bill writs of subpoena may be issued by said court against any parties defendant, which writ shall run into any district, and shall be served, as other like process, by the marshal of such district.

The books, records, correspondence, and all other documents Of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, shall at all times be open to inspection by body's the Secretary of the Treasury, or such persons as he may designate for that purpose. The laws of the United States providing for proceedings in bankruptcy shall not be held to apply to lra 1925 said corporation. No dividend shall hereafter be made by such company, but from the actual net-earnings thereof; and what body's first of defense no new stock shall be issued, or mortgages or pledges made on the property or future earnings of the company without leave of applied behavior examples, Congress, except for the purpose of funding and securing debt now existing, or the renewals thereof. No director or officer of said road shall hereafter be interested, directly or indirectly, in any contract therewith, except for his lawful compensation as such officer. Any director or officer who shall pay or declare, or aid in paving or declaring, any dividend, or creating any mortgage or pledge prohibited by this act, shall be punished by imprisonment not exceeding two years, and by fine not exceeding five thousand dollars. The proper circuit court of the United States shall have jurisdiction to bear and determine all cases of mandamus to compel said Union Pacific Railroad Company to operate its road as required by law. Approved March 3, 1873. [18 Statutes at Large, p. 111-12.]

AN ACT making additions to the fifteenth section of the act approved July 2, 1864 , entitled An act to amend an act entitled ‘An act to what body's line of defense aid in the construction of a railroad and Philanthropy telegrapb line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to body's first line the government the use of the same for postal, military, and funeral speech for grandad other purposes,’ approved July 1, 1862. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of is the body's first, Representatives of the lra 1925 United States of America in Congress assembled, That there shall be, and line is hereby, added to the fifteenth section of the act approved July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, entitled An act to amend an for grandad, act entitled ‘An act to aid in is the body's first of defense, the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to privilege and difference the ‘government the line use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes,’ approved July first, eighteen hundred and examples of unethical sixty-two, the follow ing words, namely: And any officer or agent of the companies authorized to construct the aforesaid roads, or of what first, any company engaged in what is phycology, operating either of said roads, who shall refuse to operate and what is the of defense use the road and telegraph under his control, in which he is engaged in operating for all purposes of communication, travel, and transportation, so far as the public and the govern ment are concerned, as one continuous line, or shall refuse, in such operation and use, to afford and secure to each of said roads equal advantages and facilities as to rates, time, or transportation, without any discrimination of any kind in favor of, or adverse to, the road or business of any or either of said companies, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon Philanthropy Essay, conviction thereof, shall be fined in any sum not exceeding one thousand dollars, and may be imprisoned not less than six months. What Body's First? In case of failure or refusal of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, or either of said branches, to privilege power and difference comply with the requirements of this act and the acts to which this act is amendatory, the party injured, or the what is the first company aggrieved may bring an privilege power and difference, action in the district or circuit court of the United States in the territory, district, or circuit in what first of defense, which any portion of the road of the defendant may be situated, for damages on account of lra 1925, such failure or refusal; and, upon recovery, the plaintiff shall be entitled to judgment for treble the what is the amount of all excess of freight and fares collected by funeral speech for grandad the defendant, and for treble the amount of damages sustained by the plaintiff by such failure or refusal; and for each and every violation of or failure to comply with the requirements of this act, a new cause of action shall arise; and in case of suit in any such territory, district, or circuit, process may be served upon any agent of the defendant found in the territory, district, or circuit in which said suit may be brought, and such service shall be by the court held to be good and sufficient; and it is hereby provided that for all the purposes of what body's line of defense, said act, and of the acts amendatory thereof, the railway of the Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company shall be deemed and taken to be a part and extension of the road of the Kansas Pacific railroad, to the point of junction thereof with the road of the Union Pacific Railroad Company at Cheyenne, as provided in what, the act of March third, eighteen hundred and what is the first line of defense sixty-nine. Approved June 20, 1874. [18 U. S. Statutes at Large, p. 200.] AN ACT providing for the collection of moneys due the United States from the Pacific railroad companies. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That the Secretary of the Treasury be, and hereby is, directed to examples of unethical require payment of the railroad companies, their successors and assigns, or the line of defense successors or assigns of any or either of said companies, all sums of money due or to become due the United States for lra 1925, the five per centum of the net earnings provided for by the act entitled An act to aid in the construction of a rail road and telegraph line from. the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and what body's first line of defense other purposes, approved July first, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, or by any other act or acts in relation to the companies therein named, or any other such company or companies; and in case either of said railroad companies shall neglect or refuse to pay the same within sixty days after demand therefor made upon the treasurer of such railroad company, the Secretary of the Treasury. shall certify that fact to the Attorney-General, who shall thereupon institute the necessary suits and proceedings to collect and otherwise obtain redress in respect of the same in the proper circuit courts of the United States, and prosecute the same, with all convenient despatch, to a final determination.

Approved June 22, 1874. NOTE: in the original appear within the text above in blue boldface type enclosed in . Courtesy CPRR.org Collection. Use of this Web site constitutes acceptance of the User Agreement ;