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Narmada Bachao Andolan Case study. International Dimensions of Ethics Education in Science and Engineering Case Study Series. Narmada Dams Controversy – Case Summary. MJ Peterson with research assistance from Osman Kiratli and Ilke Ercan Version 1; September 2010. Need essay sample on union carbide, Narmada Bachao Andolan Case study ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. The construction and maintenance of public facilities involves several sets of stakeholders: the political leaders who ultimately decide when, whether, and what to build; the engineers and other government staff who provide or oversee design, construction, and country, maintenance; the private firms supplying design, construction, or maintenance services; the taxpayers whose money will fund the project; the lenders who supply loan funds permitting the project to go ahead in union advance of tax or toll collections; the users of the what is a pardoner, facility; and nearby residents. Bhopal Union. The question of is a which stakeholders should have what role and influence in the design, construction, and maintenance of public facilities has become more contentious as they have become larger and affected more people.
Proposals to construct large dams have inspired considerable contention in the last few decades as political mobilization of nearby residents who will be displaced by the reservoirs they create and of environmentalists concerned with the consequences of large dams for the river basin and nearby forests, wildlife habitat, or farmland have led to carbide, demands for greater public information and participation in project definition and design and greater transparency and accountability in construction, operation, and maintenance. Most dam projects proceed within a single country, meaning that stakeholders have to secure their influence within the and Charting Essay, national political system using whatever processes for citizen mobilization and input that system allows. Bhopal Union Carbide. Yet, some dam projects have transnational dimensions, either because the project itself involves more than one country or because the government hoping to build the dams needs loans from outside. These transnational aspects sometimes allow stakeholders unable to gain much influence in the national political processes to find outside supporters who pressure the government into listening to the previously ignored. This case study looks at what is a one of the more famous instances of bhopal carbide transnational involvement in stakeholder struggles over large dams, the long-running contention over dam construction on the Narmada Rover in India. Most of the pardoner, controversy has addressed the size and construction of the Sardar Sarovar Dam at Navagam in Gujarat, but the carbide, Narmada Project also includes several large dams at pardoner various points in Madhya Pradesh as well as medium and small-size dams on bhopal carbide, the Narmada’s tributaries in Madhya Pradesh and This case was created by the International Dimensions of Ethics Education in Science and Engineering (IDEESE) Project at the University of Massachusetts Amherst with support from the National Science Foundation under grant number 0734887. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in today this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
More information about the IDEESE and copies of its modules can be found at http://www.umass.edu/sts/ethics. This case should be cited as: M.J. Peterson. 2010. “Narmada Dams Controversy.” International Dimensions of Ethics Education in bhopal union carbide Science and Engineering. Available www.umass.edu/sts/ethics. © 2010 IDEESE Project. Maharashtra. Though proposals to build large dams on story, the Narmada inspired political controversy from the bhopal carbide, day the first proposals were made in 1947-48, only in the mid-1980s did the Electronic Records Essay, controversy take on the transnational aspects for which it is now famous as critics took up the bhopal union, cause of those who would be displaced as the reservoirs created by country the dams filled up and raised environmental concerns about the project. Contentions over the planning or construction of large dams in developing countries provide some of the best documented examples of local stakeholders.
using transnational connections to secure greater influence in the domestic decision-making and implementing processes. Bhopal Union Carbide. Dam projects in developing countries create a number of opportunities for stakeholder efforts to gain influence at home by building transnational connections. No government finances a large dam project from current tax collections; these are large physical capital investments with costs beyond the ability of Electronic Records and Charting Essay governments to bhopal union carbide, finance from current taxes given all the is a pardoner, other demands on the budget. The governments of industrial countries can easily borrow the money they need for construction from private investors, but the union carbide, governments of developing countries often find that difficult. The World Bank and other multilateral development banks (MDBs) (sometimes also called international financial institutions or IFIs) were established to help developing countries secure loans by acting as an intermediary. The MDBs are owned by muckrakers the governments of member states, which pay in a certain amount of money (their “quota”) based on their current level of economic prosperity, meaning that the industrial state members pay in more money and hence own more shares – and have more votes on the board – than the developing country members. Union Carbide. The MDB uses the paid-in capital as the reserve against which it borrows money on private investment markets that it then re-lends to the developing country members. Because of the industrial state backing and borrower promises to give the MDB priority in loan repayment, private investors are more willing to into the wild story, buy bonds issued by the MDB than bonds issued by an individual developing country. This allows the MDB to charge borrowing countries lower interest rates than they would be able to secure on bhopal, their own.
The World Bank, the largest and most prominent of the MDBs, initially operated only in in the this fashion. By the late 1950s, however, both development economists and member governments realized that this design was insufficient because the poorest of the developing countries could not afford the interest rates. In response to proposals that the United Nations General Assembly establish a large Capital Development Fund financed through UN budget assessments on member states, the bhopal, World Bank expanded its lending through establishment of the International Development Association (IDA) in Electronic Medical Essay 1960. IDA would not sell bonds to private investors; rather, its industrial country members would provide money for re-lending to the developing members on carbide, terms significantly less costly than prevailed in private bond markets by today charging. approximately 0.5% interest on 30- to 45-year loans rather than a more standard private market rate of 67% and 25-year loans. Like other lenders, MDBs impose certain conditions on borrowers regarding how they use the money. Each MDB has policy guidelines their staffs follow in bhopal union carbide identifying and selecting projects, recommending that the MDB make a loan, and monitoring use and repayment of the loan. As long as the MDB can operate with its existing capital and the income it derives from cry beloved, loan payments, it is somewhat removed from the domestic politics of member states. When, however, an MDB needs a new infusion of money, either to increase the reserve or to union carbide, sustain a loan program financed by grants of Capital Punishment in the United States money from the industrial country members, the question of financing can get caught up in bhopal carbide the domestic politics of the member states providing the money.
This happened to the World Bank, which until 1993 was a major source of the loans supporting construction of the large dams on the Narmada River, because of the need for what periodic replenishment of IDA funds. In the mid-1980s a broad coalition of activists in union the Western industrial countries supporting poor and country, marginalized groups in developing countries (such as urban slum dwellers, landless and union carbide, other poor rural groups, indigenous peoples, disadvantaged ethnic or religious minorities) began a transnational Multilateral Development Banks Campaign intended to pressure the MDBs, particularly the World Bank, into adopting policies that would require paying greater attention to mitigating the negative socioeconomic and environmental impacts of is a projects being funded with MDB loans. By the late 1980s, they had found political allies in the industrial countries where the legislature had to approve contributions to the IDA replenishments. These connections were particularly strong in bhopal union carbide the USA, where the separation of power between the President and Congress allows congressional majorities to adopt policies even over behaviourist psychology presidential opposition, and the political culture was particularly open to private lobbying on behalf of causes as well as for direct material benefits. This.
influence was institutionalized in the International Development and Finance Act of 1989, which included provisions requiring that: a) the US Treasury use US votes and influence in the MDBs to promote adoption of union carbide public access to the pre-lending environmental impact assessments developed by each in the process of considering loans, and b) the behaviourist psychology, US Director to abstain from voting on a proposed loan if the environmental impact assessment relating to the project for which the loan is sought has not been released to the public at least 120 days before the date of the vote.1 The US government also became the source of much current information the activists could not get from the World Bank itself because activists learned how to use the US Freedom of union carbide Information Act to today, secure it from the US Treasury Department, which houses the bhopal carbide, office of the US-appointed member of the World Bank executive board. Campaigners developed a two-part approach: using their connections first to pressure the pardoner, World Bank and other MDBs into adopting stronger social and environmental policies, and then to ensure that the MDBs required borrowing governments to conform to them. Simultaneously, MDB Campaign activists worked to develop a more balanced transnational network by making connections with and providing support to citizen groups in developing countries active in social and environmental causes, an evolution also encouraged as members of the World Bank reacted against pressure from Western-based NGOs and coalitions by requiring that complaints addressed to the Inspection Panel established in 1994 be made by affected people within the territory of the borrowing country.2 The Narmada River. The Narmada River, the fifth longest in India, begins its 1312 km (813 mile) flow to bhopal union, the sea near the village of Amarkantak in Madhya Pradesh state. It flows through a relatively narrow basin defined on the north side by the Vindhaya Hills and on the south side by cry beloved country the Satpura Hills westward through Madhya Pradesh to a point where it becomes part of the boundary between Madhya Pradesh and bhopal, Maharashtra. 35 km later it becomes part of the boundary between Maharashtra and Gujarat, and 39 km after that enters Gujarat for psychology the last segment of its run to the Gulf of Khambat, which connects to bhopal union, the Arabian Sea. Behaviourist Psychology. Its origin point is 1Title. V, International Development and Finance Act of 1989 (Public Law 101-240).
Text available at bhopal http://thomas.loc.gov/cgibin/query/D?c101:6:./temp/ c101PKqVuC: (accessed 12 Aug. 2010). The act followed a fine line: the provision for abstaining rather than voting against was meant as a signal to improve policy; it also avoided debates over whether member governments may tell MDB Directors how to into story, vote on individual loans, an issue discussed in Bertram S. Brown 1992. The United States and carbide, the Politicization of the World Bank: Issues of International Law and Policy (London and New York: K. Paul International), p. 236. David A. Capital United Essay. Wirth. Bhopal Union. 1998. “Partnership Advocacy in World Bank environmental reform,” in Jonathan A. Fox and cry beloved, L. David Brown, eds., The World Bank, NGOs, and Grassroots Movements (Cambridge MA: MIT Press) p. 68. 1051 meters (3447 feet) above sea level. Just west of Jabalpur it enters a deep channel faced by natural marble rocks 30 meters high on both sides, and then drops over bhopal union the Dhaundhar Falls. The river then descends slowly until it reaches the narrow gorge bound by States Essay high rocks lying along the state borders and extending into eastern Gujurat. After leaving this gorge, the waters flow across flat plains to the sea.
Along the bhopal union, way the today, Narmada is augmented by waters from 41 tributaries – 22 on union, its southern side and 19 on its northern side. Together the Narmada and its tributaries drain 98,796 sq km (37, 542 sq miles) of land. Like all of the other rivers in India the Electronic Medical, Narmada is an attractive resource for a country facing serious challenges in maintaining year-round water supply. Most of India lies in a monsoon climate zone where rains fall in concentrated periods. In some areas, half the bhopal, annual rainfall occurs in less than 20 hours; rain is a bit more spread out in Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat, but is still concentrated in four months of the year: Average rainfall in behaviourist psychology Ahmedabad, Gujarat (mm) Average Rainfall in Jabalpur, Madhya Predesh (mm) During the monsoon rains, India’s inhabitants must cope with deluges and heavy runoffs; during the rest of the year they draw their water from union carbide, surface waters like lakes and rivers, from storage tanks, or from behaviourist psychology, groundwater sources augmented by water traps that feed monsoon rains underground. This alternation between flood control and water storage means India has long traditions of union constructing waterworks of all types. The contemporary large dams, capable of holding water sufficient to irrigate more than 10,000 hectares of land, are a modern elaboration of this tradition.
Contemporary dams can also provide hydroelectric power generation by fitting water channels constructed into the dam and at the heads of any irrigation canals with turbines generating electricity as water flows through. This increases the what is a, potential benefits and adds electricity providers and electricity users to the set of union carbide stakeholders. 1947-1979: Determining the Features of the into, Project. Between the first suggestions for dams on the Narmada made in 1947-48 and the Award of the union, Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal in into the wild real story 1979, disputes about what to union, construct where, were arguments among three, and later four, state governments within India. The governments of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashta, later joined by the government of Rajasthan, argued about which. state could build what size dam where, how the waters made available for Records irrigation would be divided among them, and union carbide, what share of electricity generated by hydroelectric power plants built in conjunction with the dams would flow to cry beloved country, each. Though the populations and economic situations of the states along the Narmada have changed over the decades, their primary concerns about the union carbide, locations and sizes of dams and muckrakers today, waterworks on the Narmada have remained constant: primary: secure irrigation and drinking water to compensate for low rainfall secondary: hydroelectric supply. primary: limit amount of water others are allowed to take. secondary: limit displacement of villages by downstream dam construction. primary: secure hydroelectricity for its energy-short industrial districts secondary: limit displacement of villages by downstream dam construction. secure irrigation waters for its dry southwestern districts.
Disputes between the states have been so protracted because of competing ideas about the height of the dam to be built at Navagam. Gujarat favored a. higher dam to union, maximize water supply, but it would flood out a much larger area, extending further into Madhya Pradesh and Maharastha, than the lower dam preferred by the latter two states. When it became involved later, Rajasthan also preferred building a higher dam because that was the is a, only way it would get any Narmada water. The Constitution of India defines construction and maintenance of water development projects as a matter within the authority of the bhopal, state governments. It also provides that the central government can step in to help resolve disputes regarding projects that would affect the is a pardoner, flow of carbide a river crossing state boundaries.3 That was the basis for the central government’s involvement in the lengthy dispute among Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra. Its first intervention was creation of the Narmada Water Resources Development Committee, a committee of eminent hydrological engineers chaired by Dr. A. Muckrakers Today. N. Khosla.
Khosla, then governor of Orissa state and a renowned dam engineer who had been trained at India’s leading engineering school, the University of Roorkee. He and the other engineers on the committee were instructed to help the three states resolve their disputes by developing a master plan for optimum development.4 They were particularly asked to examine the union carbide, siting and height of the what, proposed dam at Navagam in bhopal union relation to alternative projects, mainly hydroelectric dams, that Madhya Pradesh wanted to build because their feasibility depended on the extent of the reservoir created behind any dam at today Navagam. The committee ultimately recommended in favor of the relatively high dam preferred by bhopal Gujarat, in part because it would allow extending irrigation systems into the dryer districts of Rajasthan and Gujarat, areas then prominent in country politicians’ and officials’ minds because Pakistani troops had intruded into India during April 1965 through one of the dryer parts of carbide Gujarat. Though the Electronic Medical and Charting, Khosla Committee’s report was ultimately rejected, it shaped later discussion by bhopal carbide considering the Narmada and its tributaries as one system and arguing for a “national approach” to Medical Records Essay, water resources that would justify extending irrigation canals to areas outside the Narmada basin. Constitution of India, Seventh Schedule, II:7 and I: 56, and Article 262. Government of India, Ministry of Irrigation and Power. 1965. Report of the Narmada Water Resources Development Committee (A.N.
Khosla, chair). Cuttack: Orissa Government Press. A combination of failure to resolve the dispute by direct discussions among the state governments involved and carbide, serious drought in western India caused by failure of the monsoons in 1965-66 and 1968-1969 led Gujarat, where the drought was particularly severe, to ask for central government involvement. It formally invoked the Inter-State Water Disputes Act 1956 and country, asked the central government to form a water disputes tribunal to settle the union carbide, contentions over the wild story Narmada projects. The Act specifies that water disputes tribunals are special three-member panels, consisting of a current member of the carbide, Supreme Court and two other Supreme Court of High Court judges, whose awards are final when the states involved accept them.5 The Narmada tribunal was announced in May 1969; its members – Supreme Court Justice V. Ramaswami (holder of a master’s degree in chemistry as well as a law degree), Allahabad High Court Justice G.C. Mathur and retired chief justice of Kerala V.P. Gopalan – were aided by a staff of 50 technical advisers and civil servants. Cry Beloved Country. The need to address various procedural challenges, mostly from carbide, Madhya Pradesh, meant it did not start considering the cry beloved country, substantive issues until February 1972. After another delay inspired by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s efforts to mediate the union, dispute, the Tribunal resumed work in August 1974. Between 1974 and December 1979 when it issued its report, the Tribunal held no public hearings or other consultations with any stakeholders (including politicians from the disputing states); such procedures were not the cry beloved country, norm in India at the time and no one raised the issue. Rather, it operated like court, with the states presenting their arguments through lawyers, examination and bhopal carbide, cross-examination of expert witnesses, and visits to various sites along the Narmada in the company of their technical experts.
The Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal Award (NWDT Award) set out a. plan for today construction of 30 major dams, 125 medium dams, and 3000 small dams at various locations on bhopal union carbide, the Narmada or its 41 tributary rivers plus a 532 km (329 mile) canal from the reservoir that would be created by the dam at Navagam through Gujarat and into Rajasthan. It accepted construction of a high large dam at Navargam, as Gujarat proposed, but determined that it should be 455 feet (138.7 meters) high rather than the real story, 530 feet (162 meters) urged by Gujarat. Other terms of the Tribunal’s Award reflected efforts to balance benefits and costs among the four participating states. Of the 28 million acre feet (maf) of available water flow estimated to be created by the dam construction, Madhya Pradesh would receive 18.25 maf (65.2%); Gujarat, 9 maf (32.2%); Rajasthan, 0.5 maf (1.7%); and Maharashtra, 0.25 maf (0.9%). The estimated hydroelectric production would be divided on the formula of 57% to Madhya Pradesh, 27% to carbide, Maharashtra, and 16% to Gujarat.
Though on hydrological calculations four fifths of the Narmada’s flow is within Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat was allocated a somewhat larger than proportional share of real story water on grounds that it needed water much more than Madhya Pradesh or Maharasthra because they can also draw on other rivers whereas Gujarat only had the Narmada. Rajasthan, though not along the river, was allocated water on the basis of great need; everyone in India acknowledged that it receives very little rain. Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra were given larger shares of electricity than their current populations might suggest to make up for the fact that the bhopal union, height of the dam at today Navargam would prevent them from building their proposed Jalsindhi hydroelectric dam because the area would be flooded by the reservoir created by the Navagam dam.6. Inter State Water Disputes Act 1956, Section 6 (Publication of Decision of Tribunal) subsection 1 (subsection 2 incorporates the bhopal union, 2002 amendment). Text available at Capital United States http://mowr.gov.in/index3.asp?sslid=385subsublinkid=377langid=1 (accessed 11 August 2010).
6Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal. 1979. Report of the Narmada Water Disputes. Tribunal with its Decision. 5 vols. New Delhi: Controller of Publications. The shorter terms of the union, Award, dated 7 December 1979, and published in the Official Gazette on 12 December 1979 are available at http://nca.gov.in/forms_pdf/nwdt_finalorder.pdf (accessed 29 July 2010) and reproduced in Appendix 2. To address the uncertainties involved in allocating shares of water, the tribunal included a provision that the water apportionment would be subject to review in 2025. This would be 45 years after 1980—a baseline picked because the muckrakers, tribunal expected that construction of the 3 largest dams of Madhya Pradesh’s portion of the Narmada Project (Indira Sagar, a combined irrigation and hydroelectric dam 319 km or 198 miles upstream from Navagam; Omkareshwar, with a smaller irrigation reservoir plus hydroelectric capacity; and Maheswar, a hydroelectric flow-through dam) to begin before the bhopal carbide, end of Capital Punishment in the United that year. The review would permit addressing any changes in river flow caused by the climate or the hydrology of the basin and in bhopal union user needs stemming from demographic changes in the four states. Into. The 45 years would also provide time to assess the performance of the whole interconnected system of bhopal union dams and in the, canals and take that into account as well.
Detailed design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the Narmada River system would be undertaken by the state governments, each on its own stretch of the river. Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh established public corporations for this purpose: Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Limited (SSNNL) in Gujarat and the Narmada Valley Development Authority (NVDA) in Madhya Pradesh. The fact the river flows between states provided the legal basis for bhopal the tribunal’s decision to set up the Essay, Narmada Control Authority, employing both government of India and state engineers and civil servants to coordinate and monitor finance, construction, and resettlement of people whose homes would be flooded by the reservoirs (“oustees”). The central government also had some control over the details of the projects through the bhopal union, Central Water and Power Commission, the Planning Commission, and the. Ministry of Environment and Forests, each of which had authority to grant or withhold clearance for proceeding with various aspects of project construction. The NWDT Award did not end all the argument – Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh continued to disagree about the height of the dam to what is a, be built at Navagam, now named the Sardar Sarovar Dam, and hence the size of the reservoir to union carbide, be created. However, those arguments were soon overshadowed by the wild story controversies over carbide treatment of the oustees and psychology, environmental impacts of the whole Narmada River project.
1980-2000 Resettlement and Rehabilitation. The environmental issues were fought out under the terms of the Forest Conservation Act 1980, which gave the central government’s Department of Environment (later the bhopal union carbide, Ministry of is a Environment and Forests) uthority to require environmental impact assessment of development projects and bhopal carbide, withhold clearance to begin construction until the terms of the Forest Conservation Act were satisfied. The Department used its authority to order both Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh to do four things before they could begin their respective dam projects on the Narmada: 1) prepare alternate forest sites to compensate for forests that would be submerged behind the dams, 2) improve the today, terms of resettlement aid offered to people who would be displaced from their homes, 3) create wildlife sanctuaries, and 4) prepare both the union, catchment and command areas of Capital in the States Essay each dam for that dam’s environmental effects.7 In 1983, when Gujarat submitted the Sardar Sarovar Dam plans and Madhya Pradesh submitted the bhopal, Narmada Sagar Dam plans the ministry decided that neither state had met the requirements and refused to give clearance. The ministry did not budge until 1987, after several years of drought in Electronic Medical Records Gujarat had created extremely strong pressure to let construction of Sardar Sarovar begin. Bhopal Union. By then, however, private nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) 7 The catchment area is in the States all the union carbide, land where rainfall and other surface waters are drained by a river or stream; the command area is all the land irrigated by waters from reservoir, tank, or canal. working with and advocating for the rural poor were well organized. They immediately recognized that the central government’s concern about environment and displacement would give them leverage to confront the state governments.
The state governments were perceived, with good reason, as more concerned to get the projects built than with what happened to the oustees, many of who were poor and illiterate adivasi (members of behaviourist Scheduled Tribes still living by their traditional culture). While the environmental issues were fought out within the terms of India’s environmental legislation and bhopal, permitting processes, issues relating to “rehabilitation and resettlement” of oustees were fought out on terms deriving from the NWDT Award. It made a significant break with previous Indian state and national government policy towards resettlement. Prior to the NWDT Award, the central and state governments followed rules first established in the Land Acquisition Act 1894 (adopted during British rule) that the people who lose their homes in the course of dam construction are to today, be given cash compensation. In fact, oustees were often simply expelled and many of those who received a payment ended up becoming landless rural laborers or urban slum dwellers because they were illiterate or unsophisticated; many were fleeced in bhopal carbide phony land deals and other spent the Punishment in the United Essay, money foolishly. Though Indian public opinion was not yet mobilized on the issue of how oustees were treated in 1974-79 when the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal was pursuing its inquiries and preparing its findings, its three members were aware of union earlier problems. They acknowledged that oustees would bear a heavy burden for today the project and deserved decent recompense. The NWDT Award sought to avert earlier problems by stipulating explicitly that compensation should be “land for land” rather than money: each displaced family is to receive land of its choice within the bhopal carbide, command area of the dam displacing them equivalent in area to what they were losing, or at minimum 2 hectares (4.94 acres). Each male 18 years or older is to cry beloved country, be treated as the head of a separate family and allocated land.
The initial terms of the carbide, Award suggested that compensation would be provided only for into story those who held legal title to their land; activists later pressured the Gujarat state government into extending the program to landless people and to “encroachers” (people who had simply set up their houses on government-owned land). The tribunal award required each of the. participating states to prepare its own package of bhopal carbide resettlement and rehabilitation benefits, but Gujarat was also required to offer the same benefits to oustees of the Sardar Sarovar from Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra if they opted to move to muckrakers today, Gujarat as the Tribunal balanced the burden of providing for resettlement with the benefit of the greater water supply Gujarat would secure from the high Sardar Sarovar dam. The NWDT Award specified that each resettled family should get a housing plot as well as farmland, and monetary grants in aid to cover the cost of moving, buying farm implements and draft animals, and insurance. It also specified that resettlement villages should be provided with a primary school, a panchayat (village government council) meeting hall, a medical dispensary, a seed store, a children’s playground, a drinking water well, a village pond, and a link road. The Tribunal was clearly anticipating that oustees would remain or become rural farmers and seeking to provide them with basic improvements in their material surroundings. The Award did not make any distinction between adivasis and bhopal union carbide, others among the oustees, even though several Indian laws do treat adivasis as a distinct category and provide them with certain legal protections for maintenance of their traditional communal ways of life.
Some two thirds of the oustees from the Sardar Sarovar Dam were adivasis, and they became the centerpiece of the controversy over cry beloved oustee resettlement. The NWDT Award was published in December 1979, at the very end of the “Janata interlude” in Indian politics, a short period between two long eras of Congress Party rule. The Congress Party, which had been in union carbide power continuously since independence in 1947, lost the spring 1977 parliamentary elections in a popular rebuke of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s suspension of many civil liberties during Emergency Rule. in 1975-77. Capital Punishment United States. However, the coalition that supplanted it was wracked by bhopal union internal disagreements and psychology, soon faced strikes and other civil strife. This enabled the Congress factions forming Indira Gandhi’s new Congress (I) party to win. the next election and return to power in January 1980.
A significant number of younger Indians who had become alienated from conventional politics during and bhopal union, after Emergency Rule began to cry beloved, channel their idealism into volunteer activism and work with NGOs. Union. This new generation did not have any direct experience of the muckrakers today, pre-1947 nationalist movement, but draw on the same extensive Indian repertoire of civil disobedience actions though adopting ideological stances ranging across socialism, the Gandhian tradition of nonviolence, humanist ideals, and feminism. Yet, whatever their disagreements all of the activists were committed to bhopal union, fighting for social justice through grassroots organization, public education, and organized political protest. Much of their discussion was framed in terms of rights: rights to equality, rights to dignity, rights to be consulted, rights to be free from exploitation, and rights of both future and real, present generations to an undamaged environment. All of these claims are resonated with those of other groups in bhopal union other countries who were also seeking alternatives to the existing political, economic, and social order.
This convergence made it easy for Indian NGOs concerned with the plight of the Narmada project oustees to recruit transnational allies. By the late 1980s, India was home to one of the most vibrant collection of local civil society organizations and grassroots activism in the world. As John R. Wood observed: It is a matter of considerable debate as to whether the proliferation of NGOs in the 1980s, and into the 1990s and beyond, reflected a failure of India’s political system, or rather its success. On the one hand, NGOs were taking up responsibilities that were originally thought to belong to the government and which the muckrakers, latter, for reasons of sloth, corruption or unwillingness to bhopal carbide, disturb the status quo, had clearly failed to fulfill. On the other hand, the vigorous voluntarism, outspokenness and self-sacrifice of many NGO activists could only have emerged in an open political system that encouraged democratic participation and valued rights and freedoms. Of course, the response of governments to NGO activism in different parts of India varied greatly. In some states they were encouraged, and others ignored, and in still others are repressed.
Among and within the NGOs also there was considerable disagreement — between those activists who wanted to cooperate with government officials, enlist their support and convert them to new thinking, versus those who saw government officials as the main enemy, whose policies and projects calls the injustices that NGOs must fight.8. All of these features of cry beloved country Indian politics and the NGO and voluntary association scene were prominent in the long campaigns waged against either the Narmada Project in union carbide general or the Sardar Sarovar Dam in particular. The voluntary associations, NGOs, and community action groups took up the cause of the oustees first became active in Gujarat. Real. Initial organizing was assisted by activists in Lokayan, an organization founded by social scientists at the Center for bhopal union the Study of Developing Societies in New Delhi seeking to link researchers with activists policy makers and ordinary citizens affected by development projects. The Lokayan branch in Ahmedabad, Gujarat was particularly active and other Ahmedabad activists began criticizing the resettlement provisions of the NWDT Award soon after its publication. The Center for Social John R. Wood. 2007. The Politics of cry beloved country Water Resource Development in India: The Narmada Dams Controversy (Los Angeles: Sage Publications), 132-133.
Knowledge and Action (SETU in bhopal carbide its Gujarati acronym), intended to build leadership within marginalized communities so they could carry out their own struggles, was founded in 1982 and soon began working on oustee issues. The Center for Social Studies in Surat got involved in 1981 when the Gujarat government gave it a contract to monitor the condition of 19 Gujarati villages whose inhabitants would be displaced by the Sardar Sarovar reservoir. Cry Beloved Country. The contract was expanded in 1984 to cover all resettlement and rehabilitation for all Gujarati oustees. The surveys done by bhopal union carbide Center sociologists revealed that the social problems caused by relocation were much larger than anticipated. It was Center researchers who discovered that. many of the oustees were encroachers lacking title to the land they occupied. They also realized that a majority of the Gujarati oustees were adivasi familiar only Punishment States, with sustaining themselves by fishing, hunting, and gathering plant foods in a forest environment. Union Carbide. The Center researchers wondered how they would manage to convert from their largely non-monetized economy in the hills to the modern agriculture envisioned for resettlement. They were also concerned about in the United States Essay finding enough land to permit the adivasi oustees to move as a village unit so that hamlets of kin groups could be kept intact. By then several organizations were involved in bhopal providing services to adivasi villages so were very familiar with conditions on the ground. More NGO activity was galvanized by construction of Kevadia, a town of offices and residences built near the Sardar Sarovar site for engineers and workers involved in its construction.
Six villages were affected by this construction but since none were in the reservoir area and cry beloved, had not been listed in the NWDT Award, they did not qualify for resettlement benefits. The contractors building the town sometimes paid compensation to villagers but more often pressured them into union carbide, accepting token compensation through agreements they could not read. Their cause was taken up by Lok Adhikar Sangh (Association for People’s Authority) a civic organization specializing in legal assistance to the poor. It was able to get the Indian Supreme Court to issue a stay order stopping construction while court-appointed investigators determined how the oustees were being treated. This inquiry revealed massive irregularities and prodded the into the wild story, Gujarat government into realizing that it needed to follow proper expropriation procedures in all projectrelated construction activity. Carbide. Two other organizations, Action Research in Community Health and in the United, Development (ARCH) and Vahini (short for Chhatra Yuva Sangharsh Vahini or Student Your Struggle Force), already engaged in providing social services in adivasi communities, combined their efforts to campaign on the villagers’ and dam oustees’ behalf. A third, the Centre for Social Knowledge and Action (known by its Gujarati acronym as SETU), was formed in 1982 to bhopal union carbide, provide marginalized groups with training and the wild, assistance for self-mobilization. Though the carbide, NGOs and behaviourist psychology, other activists were often in bhopal conflict with Gujarat government officials, the conflict did not get too intense for several reasons. First, many of the NGOs followed the Gandhian approach to social service and employed only nonviolent opposition methods. And Charting. This gave them and their cause legitimacy in Gujarat politics and the government was careful to avoid actions that would make it look bad.
The longer-established NGOs had political and bureaucratic contacts in the government, and several senior government officials were sympathetic to the demands they were putting forward. These officials realized fairly soon that they did not have the administrative capacity needed for relocating thousands of people and bhopal union carbide, needed the NGOs’ assistance to avert a social disaster. Finally, the NGOs realized that securing water supply was so important to everyone in Gujarat that all-out opposition to Sardar Sarovar would weaken support for the oustees. These early interactions meant that Gujarat was far more prepared to resettle people of the 19 villages it was required to move under the NWDT Award then Madhya Pradesh was to move the people of its 33 listed villages or Maharashtra to move the people of its 193. NGOs were not active in either state and the. governments did not appear to be getting ready to into, deal with the problem. This inspired considerable concern within the Gujarati NGOs who understood the dimensions of the problem and union, SETU in particular began to expand its activity into Madhya Pradesh. The politics of resettlement intensified in Gujarat in March 1984 when massive rallies of villagers from the psychology, 19 affected villages got enough publicity to come to the attention not only of the government but also of bhopal union carbide international aid groups including Oxfam and muckrakers today, the World Bank. Oxfam was already funding ARCH’s health programs, and this connection gave it considerable information about the local situation.
The protests also attracted notice of World Bank officials who were then negotiating the terms. of $450 million a startup loan for the Sardar Sarovar Dam. During the project assessment phase of considering the loan, the World Bank sent Professor Thayer Scudder, an anthropologist at the California Technical Institute (Caltech) with considerable expertise on involuntary resettlement, to assess the resettlement provisions. Scudder’s report confirmed most of the Gujarati NGOs’ complaints about the bhopal, inadequacies of the tribunal resettlement provisions and became an important weapon in is a ARCH-Vahini’s battle with the Gujarat government. Union. Officials at SSNNL quickly realized that ARCH-Vahini and Punishment in the Essay, the oustees could cause a delay in securing the World Bank loan and thereby slow the union carbide, project. After several years of oustee organizing and demonstrations, the Government of States Essay Gujarat gave in. In 1987 it offered a revised resettlement package that improved the terms and also included landless and encroachers among the beneficiaries.
Meanwhile the NGO coalition was splitting. ARCH-Vahini was following a pragmatic strategy of combining constant pressure, implied threats of mass unrest, and willingness to cooperate with the government if it made significant concessions. Its leaders regarded this as the only strategy that made sense in Gujarat where the urgent demand for water meant there was broad popular support for completing the dam as quickly as possible. The 1987 revised resettlement agreement looked very good on paper; now according to ARCH-Vahini, the task was to make sure that it was fully implemented. Others rejected the bhopal union carbide, ARCHVahini approach as too timid. The differences became greater after Medha Patkar, who was affiliated with SETU but somewhat on the sidelines in Gujarat, had begun working with adivasi oustees in Maharashtra. Organizers from the Communist Party of India (Marxist) were already in the villages, and competing effectively with them required her to advance more radical views than prevailed among the psychology, Gujarati groups. Union Carbide. She attributed her decision to oppose the muckrakers today, entire project to a combination of greater awareness of the environmental problems it was causing, belief that the Forest Conservation Act 1980 would restrict the ability to resettle oustee adivasi on forest land, and belief that the union, project should not have gone forward until after full public consultation with those who would be affected. She became the central figure in the Narmada Bachao Andolan (Save the Narmada Movement), which was formed in Maharashtra in 1989 and cry beloved country, later spread to include 150 affiliates in other parts of India and organizations of supporters abroad. Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) organized village committees in the areas of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra that would be affected by Sardar Sarovar and other dams on the Narmada, and succeeded in maintaining a coalition between adivasis in Maharasthra and western Madhya Pradesh and bhopal union, members of the landowning Patidar caste in the plains.
It registered its opposition to the Narmada Project on human rights and environmental grounds and staged a series of demonstrations, road blockades, and sit-ins against its continuation. The NBA’s success at Medical getting Prime Minister V.P. Singh to agree to reconsider the Narmada Project in March 1990 sparked a fierce counter-reaction in bhopal carbide Gujarat, where state government officials and newly formed pro-Project civic organizations mobilized to support construction. January 1991 was marked by is a pardoner a 21-day confrontation between some 5000 NBA activists and supporters on one side and Gujarat police plus thousands of pro-dam demonstrators on the other at Ferkuva on the Gujarat-Madhya Pradesh border, where the NBA group had been stopped before they could reach the bhopal union, Sardar Sarovar site. Baba Amte, a. Gandhian social worker greatly respected everywhere in country India for his longtime work with lepers, set the stage for an extended confrontation by announcing a “dharna (fasting sit-in) unto death” on the 5th.
Medha Patkar and six other NBA activists started their own fasts on the 7th. Union. Standoff ensued until NBA leaders called off their protest and left the area 21 days later. NBA then began a noncooperation campaign in cry beloved the Narmada Valley involving refusal to pay taxes and blocking entry to all government officials except teachers and bhopal union carbide, doctors. As Narmada waters backed up behind the partly constructed Sardar Sarovar Dam and threatened Manibeli village in behaviourist psychology Maharashtra, NBA also organized a confrontation between villagers who did not want to move and police sent to clear the village. NBA initially refused to accept foreign funding, because doing so would open it to one of the most common charges in Indian politics: that it is the agent of outside powers.9 However, it did garner international media. attention, an invitation to testify at a US Congressional hearing,10 and the Right Livelihood Award from the Swedish Right Livelihood Foundation. In the early 1990s, it also had tacit support from the bhopal carbide, Madhya Pradesh and Maharasthra governments because its opposition to dam construction dovetailed with their concerns about the ultimate height of the Sardar Sarovar Dam and succeeded in triggering debate all around India about the social and environmental impacts of the Narmada River Project and large dams more generally. The broader transnational struggle over dams forming part of the MDB campaign began focusing on the Narmada in the late 1980s. Behaviourist Psychology. By 1989, campaigners were demanding that the World Bank, which was considering additional loans for union carbide the Sardar Sarovar Project — $350 million for canal construction and $90 million for environmental measures – either force modification of muckrakers today or refuse to support the project.
Transnational environmentalist and human rights NGO campaigning led several Western governments to indicate doubts about the loans. In response, the World Bank commissioned an Independent Review of Indian and state government implementation of the resettlement and bhopal, environmental mitigation aspects of the Sardar Sarovar Project. To placate the NGOs, it consulted them about composition of the review team, a decision that later inspired additional negative reaction from the Indian government and Sardar Sarovar supporters. The review team was led by cry beloved Bradford Morse, a former US Congressman and UN Development Programme Administrator, and Thomas Berger, a Canadian lawyer who had chaired the Canadian inquiry into the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Project and given strong support to indigenous peoples’ rights, and included a group of bhopal carbide mainly Canadian engineers, environmental planners and indigenous rights experts. In June 1992 after 10 months of behaviourist psychology inquiry, it issued a 363-page report criticizing the project for failure to: a) include adequate assessment of the human impact of Sardar Sarovar Dam, involve any consultation with those who would be affected, consider the character of adivasi culture in working out resettlement plans, provide adequate additional resettlement when the height of the dam was increased, pay sufficient attention to union carbide, environmental factors in the initial project design, and comply with the stipulations included in Electronic Medical Records the conditional clearance issued by the Indian Ministry of Environment and Forests in bhopal carbide 1987.11. Such charges are frequently raised against others in a debate, regardless of their place on the left-right ideological spectrum, as exemplified below in discussion of the controversy over World Bank funding. 9. US House of behaviourist psychology Representatives Committee on carbide, Science, Space, and Technology. 1989.
Sardar Sarovar Dam Project: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Natural Resources, Agricultural Research, and the Environment. 101st Congress, 1st Session. Sardar Sarovar: Report of the the wild real, Independent Review. 1992. Ottawa: Resource Futures International. The Independent Review Report recommended that the bhopal union, World Bank suspend the loans until the Governments of India and of the states involved complied with the standards for Capital Punishment in the United resettlement and environmental protection that they had themselves adopted or accepted. However, it did not offer any recommendations regarding how the project could be fixed or how the governments of India and the states should proceed. The Independent Review’s report was shaped by the terms of reference given to the review team.
It was asked to assess resettlement and bhopal, environmental issues, not to cry beloved, offer alternative project designs. However, lack of comment about bhopal how the project might be modified intensified the political controversy that arose in behaviourist India after the report was released. The Gujarat and Indian governments both reacted angrily to what they regarded as a “partisan” and unfair report, and were additionally perturbed that NGO activists were able to get copies faxed to them by carbide foreign supporters before the cry beloved country, government received its copy from the World Bank.12 Some project supporters even suggested that the Independent Review was part of a conspiracy to block India’s development.13 Official government remarks were more restrained, but did criticize the Report for an incomplete survey of the situation, ignoring several Indian studies, and failing to take account of conditions in India rather than subconsciously applying North American standards. ARCH-Vahini, which regarded the report as too heavily influenced by NBA views, produced a point-by-point critique and lamented that Review Commission had not provided an objective review but had been biased against the project.14 The report simultaneously buoyed the anti-dam campaign in India and around the world. NBA increased its pressure against the whole Narmada Project by demanding that the World Bank withhold the loans and that India stop construction of Sardar Sarovar, calling on supporters to undertake “direct action” if the Bank did not announce a withholding by July 15th, and condemning the World Bank for promoting neocolonialism through its financing of the Project.15 The World Bank Initially reacted by indicating continued support for the loans and carbide, sending a staff team to India to reappraise the resettlement program and environmental concerns and report directly to the World Bank’s Executive Board. Its report, released by the Bank in September, rejected several of the Independent Review’s conclusions but did agree with the Independent Review on the need to improve resettlement provisions and and Charting, said that Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra should offer the same resettlement aid as Gujarat.16. The World Bank faced strong pressures on both sides. There were several reasons to approve the loans: the project was underway, it was clear that the governments of India and the states involved wanted it to happen, and.
some Gujarat officials were saying openly that the bhopal, loans amounted to only 10% of the total. See “Morse Commission Report Condemned,” Times of India (Ahmedabad), 20 June 1992. “Morse Commission report condemned,” Hindustan Times, 24 June 1992. Anil Patel and Ambrish Mehta. What Is A. 1997.
The Independent Review: Was it a search for truth?” in bhopal carbide William Fisher, ed., Toward Sustainable Development: Struggling over the Narmada River (Jaipur and New Delhi: Rawat Publications), 381-417. 14. by NBA leader Mehda Patkar, as reported in “3 CMs to meet on Narmada,” Times of India (Ahmedabad) 2 July 1992. 16Terms summarized in World Bank. 1995. Project Completion Report P009829, India – Narmada River Development – Gujarat, pars. 6.11 (p. 27) and 7.39 (p.
45). Available at what pardoner http://wwwwds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1995/03/29/000009265_3980625173028/Rendered/PDF/multi _page.pdf (accessed 11 August 2010). cost and the state would proceed with construction no matter what the World Bank did. In addition, Bank management realized that refusing the loans would mean losing all leverage India or the states. Yet, there were reasons. to deny.
Local groups were campaigning stridently for the World Bank to withdraw the loans and appeared to have considerable local as well as transnational support. Union. Bank management was aware that the Bank’s own record on the project was fodder for NGO efforts to cast it as a proponent and encourager of projects violating human rights and harming the environment, and that these campaigns were intensifying because of the upcoming replenishment of IDA funds. European campaigners persuaded the Swedish and European Parliaments to recommend that European Community (now European Union) member governments use their votes in the Bank Executive Board to stop the loans. Japanese groups organized an International Narmada Symposium in Tokyo, which inspired 20 members of the Japanese Diet (parliament) to demand the World Bank and the Japanese government (which was a co-financier) to cancel their loans.17 27 transnational NGOs organized a “Stop Sardar Sarovar” campaign in the USA18 and threatened to muckrakers today, campaign actively against the 10th IDA replenishment. World Bank President Lewis Preston told the bhopal union carbide, Executive Board that most of the Independent Review objections were being addressed and the project should continue. Morse and what pardoner, Berger countered with a letter to Board members saying Preston was ignoring most of the Independent Review findings. Bhopal Union Carbide. The Board split along industrial country-developing country lines, then patched up a compromise giving India six months to comply with certain conditions. Muckrakers. However, this was not much of union carbide a compromise because it would have been very difficult to meet them all within six months. The political embarrassment of having to accept such publicly stated and detailed outside conditions was more than the Indian government was willing to muckrakers, accept. It was also aware that the loans were a small part of the finance needed and that only $250 million was coming on the IDA terms of 0.5% a year with repayment over 45 years; the other $170 million would carry more standard terms of 7 percent with repayment over union 25 years.19 The governments of India and what pardoner, of the bhopal union, three states resolved to move ahead without World Bank loans.20 This affected the country, political balance in a number of union carbide ways.
ARCH-Vahini lost influence among adivasi, now fired up by NBA. It also lost leverage over the government of pardoner Gujarat because it would not be able to use the union, World Bank as a prod. NBA built on the prestige gained by country having “chased away” the bhopal union, World Bank to expand its work and found a new organization, National Alliance of People’s Movements, to amalgamate all opponents of the. project into one group. It also upped its political demands by what pardoner calling for complete removal of the existing 61- meter high Sardar Sarovar Dam and urging all supporters to engage in jal samarpan (“self-sacrifice by bhopal water”) by into the wild real refusing to move as flood waters covered their dwellings during the monsoon season already underway. Indian Prime Minister Narashima Rao, leading a factionalized Congress Party (I) after Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated during the 1991 election campaign, was facing greater opposition from the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), which was actively stoking Hindu nationalism. Union. This helped Gujarat, Wirth 1998, p. 63. See full page ads in the New York Times, 21 September 1992, the Financial Times 21 September 1992, p. 6, and the Washington Post, 21 September 1992,. terms noted in Electronic Records “World Bank and Narmada Project,” India Abroad, 16 April 1993.
20 Stefan Wagstyl 1993. “India to drop World Bank Dam Loans: Government refuses to meet Stiff Conditions on $3 billion Project,” Financial Times, 20 March 1993, p. 6. where the BJP mobilization was threatening to bhopal carbide, cut into Congress Party support. Electronic Medical. The Indian government ignored BNA demands and assured Gujarat of funding while looking for a way to address anti-dam opinion by convening another review, by what became known as the Five Member Group. However, its terms of reference were limited to “reappraising the project, and the state government of bhopal union carbide Gujarat further limited its activities by refusing to allow it. to visit sites within the state. Continued disagreements, including a call by the new first minister in behaviourist psychology Madhya Pradesh for bhopal carbide lowering the final dam height from 455 to 463 feet to psychology, exclude 67 villages and 38,000 people from the reservoir area,21 created further uncertainty. In May 1994, Narmada Bachao Andolan sued in the Indian Supreme Court to prevent further construction, technically by asking the question of whether the terms of the NWDT Award and related agreements regarding resettlement were being carried out.22 It responded in January 1995 with a stay order restricting construction of the Sardar Sarovar Dam to the already-attained 80.5 meter (263.3 feet) height for five years to provide additional time for resettling oustees. During this period work did continue on the hydroelectric powerhouse, located – meters downstream of the dam, and the irrigation canal that would supply water to dry parts of Gujarat and Rajasthan.
At the bhopal union carbide, same time, discussions about dam projects in India and around the world were redefining the muckrakers, contention. Debates about Technology Choice. As political instability swept the center, and politics in the states was also affected by union the strong CongressBJP competition that led to 4 parliamentary elections between 1996 and 1999 when a BJP-led coalition was able to secure a comfortable majority. Indian courts, particularly the Supreme Court, became more active on muckrakers, social and economic justice by encouraging class action suits on bhopal union carbide, social and economic questions. In the 1980s, the today, Supreme Court’s rulings on union carbide, social issues were admired by social and economic justice advocates tired of Capital Punishment in the United States seeing the politicians ignore them but criticized by others who thought the courts were being overambitious, litigation delays lengthening, and some courts losing the reputation for impartiality and bhopal, integrity on which their authority rested. Globally, the concerns about dams were reframed by adoption of the notion of “sustainable development.” Though vague and attracting detractors, the concept was used to muckrakers today, organize discussions where proponents and carbide, opponents of large infrastructure projects found ways to is a pardoner, talk despite their often diametrically opposed preferences.
The most notable change at the international level was expressed in the meetings and bhopal union carbide, report of the behaviourist psychology, World Commission on Dams. It originated at an April 1997 workshop on Large Dams in Switzerland organized by the World Bank and the International Union or the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) where participants drawn from carbide, 18 countries and having opinions across the spectrum attempted to develop consensus on “whether dams have a role to play in land, water, and energy development and how particular dams should be designed, constructed, and operated.”23 The workshop led to appointment of a World Commission on. The Madhya Pradesh government acknowledged that this would lower the hydroelectric potential, and agreed to forego its share of the Electronic Medical and Charting Essay, electric power, while arguing that Gujarat could still meet its water needs with the lower dam. Carbide. 21. Narmada Bachao Andolan v. Union of India and Others, Writ Petition (C) No. 319 of 1994. IUCN-The World Conservation Union and into real, the World Bank Group. 1997. Large Dams: Learning from the Past, Looking to the Future: Workshop Proceedings.
Gland Switzerland: IUCN and bhopal carbide, Washington: The World Bank Group. 22. Dams, which produced a report circulated on the Internet and on CD-ROM.24 Indian participants were prominently involved. NBA leader Medha Patkar and in the United, former India Planning Commission member L.C. Jain were 2 of the 12 members of the Commission, and the government of India was invited to contribute a country report about its experiences with large dam projects. The Commission concluded that many large dam projects undertaken in bhopal the past were not viable but that dam building could be improved to cause less suffering by people living in river valleys and minimize negative environmental impacts.
Thus, the Commission came into cry beloved, line with emerging development thinking placing greater stress on sustainability, choice of bhopal union carbide technology attuned to. local conditions, and the need for greater consultation and reliance on Medical Records, “bottom-up” processes of bhopal union project definition. Contentions over dams spread to is a pardoner, Madhya Pradesh in 1997 when that state began work on the dams at Bargi, Mann, and Maheshwar. When the private Indian firm S. Kumars Ltd. began work on the dam at Maheshwar, local residents opposing the dam and NBA activists pressured the Madhra Pradesh government into suspending construction and undertaking an additional investigation of the dam’s likely impact. In early 1998, before the investigating team could report, Kumars indicated that some “safety work” needed to be done to protect the already-built portion of the foundation. Bhopal. The government accepted the argument and today, allowed Kumars to go ahead. The NBA saw the move as a way to re-start construction and bhopal carbide, mobilized members to demonstrate at into the wild real the site. The Madhya Pradesh government invoked Section 144 of the Indian Penal Code to issue orders banning assembly of more than four persons at any place and begin arresting the protesters. NBA believed that 76% of the project costs would be covered by foreign investors in the project and bhopal union, was able to use its transnational supporters to deter a number of foreign corporations from muckrakers, becoming involved. However, NBA’s continuing resistance to any dam construction was beginning to get out of union phase with Indian opinion.
This became more obvious in the summer of 1999 when novelist Arundhati Roy, well known after her The God of Small Things won the Booker Prize in the UK, wrote a series of essays on the Sardar Sarovar Project. These emphasized the suffering of the oustees in eloquent terms but paid no attention to the water management issues. Their publication coincided with the second year of failed monsoons and severe drought in Gujarat, and they became the target of criticism by others – and even of public burning during pro-dam demonstrations in Ahmedabad.25 Opinion shifted even more as the state governments involved improved services for oustees. Gujarat offered to Capital Punishment States Essay, provide the bhopal union, same financial aid to Sardar Sarovar oustees in Electronic Medical and Charting Madhya Pradesh and bhopal union carbide, Maharashtra who wanted to settle near their original homes rather than move to Gujarat. Gujarat also established a special Grievance Redressal Authority (GRA) for Sardar Sarovar Affected Persons giving oustees who had moved to new homes in Gujarat a place to go. to get complaints resolved as the resettlement process moved forward. Into Real Story. Its head, former High Court Judge P.D. Desai, secured strong guarantees of autonomy from the Gujarat government and instituted processes through which the GRA simplified procedures and worked mainly through roving investigation teams who went to the oustee’s new villages.
NBA praised its work, and Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra created their own Grievance Redressal Authorities modeled on it in carbide 2000. World Commission on Dams. 2000. Dams and today, Development: A New Framework for Decision-Making (London: Earthscan. 25 Wood. 2007, p. 175. This inspired an additional commentary from her.
See “My argument is not anti-Gujarat: Roy,” The Indian Express 31 July 1999. The impact of all these changes was foreshadowed in the Indian Supreme Court’s February 1999 decision to permit raising the Sardar Sarovar Dam from union, 80.3 to 85 meters (278.8 feet). NBA was unhappy to see the project given new life, pro-dam opinion was unhappy to see that the height was short of the what, 110 meters (360.8 feet) needed to create a reservoir high enough to fill the canal. It became clearer in October 2000 when a three-member bench26 of the Indian Supreme Court ruled on bhopal carbide, the case Narmada Bachao Andolan v. Union of India and Others. 27 In a two-to-one decision, it invoked the common law doctrine of latches to rule that the NBA had failed to raise its objections in a timely manner, that the Court was not going to review issues related to design of the muckrakers, dam itself but only the fundamental rights of the union carbide, oustees guaranteed by Article 21 of the Constitution, and reminded the parties that the decision of a Water Disputes Tribunal could not be challenged by private parties once it became binding on the states involved. The decision rejected NBA claims that the Ministry of Environment and Forests decision to grant conditional clearance of the project in 1987 was itself a violation of. Article 21 because it was taken on political grounds rather than after taking full account of the environmental impacts. Rather, the the wild story, establishment of a Narmada Management Authority with an environmental sub-group having authority to recommend stopping work to union, address negative environmental impacts and imposition of the pari passu condition that resettlement must precede successive raisings of the Punishment in the States, dam height, indicated to the majority that the decision was based on serious consideration of the bhopal carbide, environmental and social impacts.
The majority made extensive reference to the need to balance benefits and burdens and to India’s growing need for reliable water supplies in concluding that Sardar Sarovar and other dams in the Narmada Project should be built. The minority dissent argued that the 1987 clearance had been contrary to then-existing Indian law because it was based on a woefully inadequate set of data about environmental impact. It suggested that the pardoner, Government of India should be required to do a full environmental impact assessment before further work on the Sardar Sarovar Dam.28. The majority decision left the control institutions established by the NWDT – the bhopal carbide, Narmada Control Authority and Electronic Essay, the 6-member NCA Review Committee consisting of the union, chief ministers of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan plus the India ministers of Water Resources and of Environment and Forests – in place. It concluded the ruling with these directions: 1) Construction of the Medical and Charting, dam will continue as per the Award of the Tribunal. 2) As the Relief and Rehabilitation Sub-group have cleared the construction up to 90 meters, the bhopal union, same can be undertaken immediately. Further raising of the height will be only country, pari passu with the bhopal carbide, implementation of the relief and rehabilitation and on the clearance by the Relief and Rehabilitation Sub-group.
The Relief and Rehabilitation Sub-Group will give clearance of further construction after consulting the three Grievances Redressal Authorities. 26 The Indian Supreme Court consists of a Chief Justice and 26 Justices; particular cases are heard by Benches of three, five, seven, nine, or eleven Justices depending on the subject matter. See Supreme Court of India. 2010. Behaviourist Psychology. Practice and Procedure: A Handbook of Information.
3rd ed. New Delhi: Supreme Court of union carbide India. Available at http://www.supremecourtofindia.nic.in/handbook3rdedition.pdf (accessed 28 July 2010). 272000 AIR 3751; 2000(4) Suppl.SCR 94. Also available through the Supreme Court website using the search utility at what is a http://judis.nic.in/supremecourt/chejudis.asp (accessed 28 July 2010). Union Carbide. 28. The dissent does not appear on the Supreme Court website. Its terms are summarized from Wood 2007 187-188. 3) The Environment Sub-group under the Secretary, Ministry of Environment Forests, Government of India will consider and give, at each stage of the construction of the dam, environment clearance before further construction beyond 90 meters can be undertaken. Cry Beloved. 4) The permission to raise the dam height beyond 90 meters will be given by the Narmada Control Authority, from time to time, after it obtains the bhopal union carbide, above-mentioned clearances from the Relief and Rehabilitation Sub-group and the Environment Sub-group.
5) The reports of the Grievances Redressal Authorities, and of Madhya Pradesh in particular, shows that there is a considerable slackness in the work of identification of land, acquisition of pardoner suitable land and the consequent steps necessary to be taken to rehabilitate the project oustees. We direct the States of bhopal union Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat to implement the Award and give relief and Punishment United States, rehabilitation to bhopal, the oustees in terms of the packages offered by behaviourist them and these States shall comply with any direction in this regard which is given either by the NCA or the Review Committee or the Grievances Redressal Authorities. 6) Even though there has been substantial compliance with the conditions imposed under the environment clearance the bhopal union carbide, NCA and the Environment Sub-group will continue to monitor and ensure that all steps are taken not only to protect but to restore and improve the environment. 7) The NCA will within four weeks from today draw up an Action Plan in relation to further. construction and muckrakers, the relief and rehabilitation work to be undertaken. Such an Action Plan will fix a time frame so as to ensure relief and rehabilitation pari passu with the increase in the height of the dam. Bhopal Carbide. Each State shall abide by the terms of the action plan so prepared by the NCA and in the event of any dispute or difficulty arising, representation may be made to the Review Committee. However, each State shall be bound to comply with the directions of the NCA with regard to the acquisition of land for the purpose of relief and rehabilitation to the extent and within the period specified by Records and Charting the NCA.
8) The Review Committee shall meet whenever required to carbide, do so in the event of there being any unresolved dispute on an issue which is before the NCA. Essay. In any event the Review Committee shall meet at least once in three months so as to oversee the union, progress of construction of the dam and implementation of the cry beloved, RR programmes. If for any reason serious differences in implementation of the Award arise and union, the same cannot be resolved in the Review Committee, the Committee may refer the muckrakers, same to union, the Prime Minister whose decision, in Records and Charting respect thereof, shall be final and binding on all concerned. 9) The Grievances Redressal Authorities will be at liberty, in case the union carbide, need arises, to issue appropriate directions to the respective States for due implementation of the RR programmes and in case of nonimplementation of its directions, the GRAs will be at liberty to what pardoner, approach the Review Committee for appropriate orders. 10) Every endeavor shall be made to see that the project is bhopal carbide completed as expeditiously as possible.29.
As the dam builders resumed work, the value of such large projects had come. under intense scrutiny in India and elsewhere. Reevaluation had begun before the World Commission on Dams first met, but was strongly reinforced by its report and by the growing global interest in finding more ecologically sensitive ways of building physical infrastructure. Behaviourist. In India, reconsideration was greatly advanced by advocates of “human scale” development who looked to both traditional Indian practices and new ideas from around the world.30 The Centre for Science and Environment, an “alternative development” think tank, issued a very comprehensive study of traditional technologies in different parts of India that highlighted their small-scale, relatively low cost, and reliance on local management.31 Growing awareness that the groundwater resources being tapped by union drilled wells were declining revived interest in finding ways to conserve water, improve capturing of monsoon water, and increase recharging of groundwaters. The Government of India issued a new National Water Policy in 2002, and combined two preexisting programs – the National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas and the Watershed Development Project – plus other water-related projects into one set of water development activities under a common set of Hariyali (“Greening”) Guidelines in 2003. These replaced the previous practice of Capital in the States Essay promoting water project work in villages through central government programs providing food in bhopal union carbide return for is a pardoner work, which quite important in the 1960s when frequent drought meant India often depended on food imports including large amount of food aid from the USA under its Public Law 480 program. The Guidelines specified that village water projects would be run by the Panchayati Raj (council rule) institutions of local government, which had been given new, more open, rules and expanded tasks in 1992.32 The village, block, or district panchayat (council) would serve as the coordinating body, and initiate projects after the people in the village, block, or district had been consulted about and agreed to bhopal, the proposed project. This put project design, management, and maintenance at the local level. This ran across longstanding efforts by many Indian NGOs using a participatory development approach emphasizing the promotion of local leadership and activity that had been working on into real, rural water projects.33 Feared that the change would inhibit their ability to run truly bottom-up projects even though the bhopal carbide, Guidelines do allow a local council to select an NGO as the “Project Implementation Agency” coordinating.
construction and maintenance of the the wild story, particular flood control and water retention facilities the villagers select. In parallel with the new projects to construct water-control and bhopal, storage facilities in into the wild real villages, there was also a significant revision to management of irrigation systems in India. Bhopal Union. By the mid-1990s, both the Punishment United Essay, Union government in carbide New Delhi and muckrakers today, most state governments recognized that many of the state-run irrigation systems were failing. Farmers were complaining that many of them were inefficient, poorly maintained, and often failed to union, deliver expected water to farms at any distance from the canal because farmers closer to the canal would tap the pipes to get extra. At the country, same time, water management officials complained that water rates were too low to cover the costs of managing and maintaining current irrigation systems, much 30 Such as Vandana Shiva.
1990. Ecology and the Politics of bhopal union Survival: Conflicts over Natural Resources in India. New Delhi: Sage Publications and Tokyo: United Nations University Press or Alka Srivastava and Janaki Chundi. 1999. Watershed Management: Key to Sustainable Development. New Delhi: Indian Social Institute.
Anil Agarwal and Sunita Narain. Pardoner. 1997. Dying Wisdom: Rise, Fall, and Potential of India’s Traditional Water Harvesting Systems. New Delhi: Centre for union carbide Science and Environment. Constitution of is a pardoner India, Amendment 73. 33 A significant literature on participatory development indicating best practices existed by the mid 1990s. E.g., Robert Chambers.
1997. Whose Reality? Putting the First Last (London: Intermediate Technology Publications); less add to them. In some parts of the country, including Gujarat, the. farmers poorly served by irrigation systems were so desperate to get water in time to grow their crops that private suppliers emerged to fill the demand. An individual farmer with his own tube well could sell surplus water to bhopal union, neighbors, supplying it through plastic tubes extending as far as 5 km (3.1 miles) away from the well. Pardoner. Though the private water sellers tend to charge high rates, and some farmers had to pay for their irrigation water before they received any,34 farmers, worried that their whole investment in union a crop may be lost because they will not get the irrigation water in time, will pay extra for the certainty of behaviourist supply from the well. Gujarat was heavily affected by these problems. The extent of the situation is indicated by a study done in union Gujarat that determined that water rates were covering about 8% of the Punishment United States, cost of actually delivering water to union carbide, farmers.35 The government realized, however, that increasing water prices would be very difficult. Senior officials in the Gujarat Water Resources Department decided in 1995 to address the into the wild story, problem with a new program of Participatory Irrigation and Management. Bhopal Union. Water Users Associations consisting of farmers using a particular set of irrigation pipes were given responsibility for planning, managing, and maintaining them.
The canals and muckrakers today, water distribution pipes would continue to be owned by the government, which would also continue to provide technical and financial assistance. Participatory Irrigation Management was extended to all parts of India after 2002, though it had been suggested in bhopal the 1987 National Water Policy references to involving farmers in managing and maintaining irrigation systems. What Pardoner. Because water is a state level responsibility, each state has discretion to develop its own version of Participatory Irrigation Management; the Ministry of Water Resources in New Delhi has been active in encouraging the sharing of best practices and comparing actual progress in union carbide the various systems. Medical Records And Charting. The World Bank and the Ford Foundation have also provided the bhopal carbide, Government of India with money to send state irrigation officials and staff from NGOs working on water works or other village programs to other countries where participatory irrigation is more established, including the Philippines, Mexico, Sri Lanka, and Turkey, to learn about projects there.36 The resulting state Participatory Irrigation Management schemes vary considerably. In 1997 the government of Andhra Pradesh introduced a version of PIM in all parts of the state simultaneously. Other states have used more. incremental approaches, starting pilot projects in a few villages and then extending the more successful schemes to others. John R. Wood, a Canadian water expert, suggests that these efforts to establish participatory irrigation project design and management have had mixed success. In most areas they have led to better maintenance of the system, but their impact on social relations and distribution of resources within villages has often been small. He does note, however, that the requirement to establish a Water Users Association means that farmers with large landholdings have to work together with their less-prosperous neighbors having small landholdings, and that all farmers are moved towards thinking on a village rather than an individual scale. However, the Capital in the States, overall social effects of participatory irrigation depend on the extent to which the poor and traditionally marginalized groups like dalits (untouchables; “scheduled castes” in the language.
Wood 2007, p. 205 notes that pre-payment was the rule in Gujarat except in drought years. Ecotech Services. 1996. The Policy Review of the Land and Water Sector in bhopal carbide Gujarat (New Delhi: Royal Netherlands Embassy), p. Country. 32. 36 For instance, Nirmal Sengupta. 1991. Managing Common Property: Irrigation in India and carbide, the Philippines. Indo-Dutch Studies on Development Alternatives. And Charting Essay. New Delhi: Sage Publications. of Indian law) are included in village activity.
In areas where traditional hierarchies remain strong, they remain outside.37. The small-scale technologies being used in the projects will allow villages receiving enough rain during the monsoons to bhopal, move towards self-sufficiency in water. However, those solutions do not address all the needs of drier areas of the country, of cities, or of industry. Into Real Story. Thus, the small-scale village water projects will always coexist in national water plans with larger-scale projects. This is foreseen in the Narmada River Project, with its connected network of small, medium, and large dams coordinated by bhopal carbide computer to provide both hydroelectric generation and water supply. Electronic And Charting. These local projects will coexist with large projects supplying water and hydroelectric power to India’s urban and industrial areas simply because those areas are growing. As India’s economy has developed, there is union greater appreciation of the multiple purposes to which large dams can be put.
The lesson came to Madhya Pradesh in a different way, when it lost a considerable portion of its potential electricity supply as 16 districts in the southeast, where much of Madhya Pradesh’s coal and thermal power generation capacity was located, were split off to form the behaviourist, new state of Chhattisgarh. With power blackouts increasing in Bhopal, its largest city, the state government began to regard building Sardar Sarovar Dam to carbide, the full height of 138.68 meters (455 feet) as essential to meeting electricity demand. Madhya Pradesh also became more anxious to speed up construction of the dams and hydroelectric power houses along its stretch of the Narmada, so anxious that it agreed to have construction work taken over by the central government’s National Hydro-electric Power Corporation when the private contractors hired initially ran into financial difficulties. Speeding up a dam construction also required speeding up the what, process of resettling people. This was complicated in some places by the seasonal pattern of river flow. Bhopal. Significant additional areas of “drawdown” land — land that is underwater for part of the year but reemerges in pardoner the dry season as the bhopal carbide, reservoir empties and can be used to grow a vegetable or watermelon crop in that season – made it harder to define who should be counted as an oustee because owners of that land often wanted to hold on to it.38 The continuing severity of demand for water in Gujarat meant that as soon as the Supreme Court handed down its judgment in 2000 construction of the Sardar Sarovar Dam resumed. It quickly reached the authorized 90 meters; and permission was sought to raise it further. It stood 95m high by the end of 2002 and 100. meters high in 2003.
The 100-meter height created a reservoir high and long enough to fill the irrigation canal. By the end of 2005 that canal was complete almost to the Gujarat border, with construction of the extension into Rajasthan under way. As construction of Sardar Sarovar’s additional height and of upriver dams in muckrakers Madhya Pradesh proceeded, more disputes broke out about treatment of oustees from bhopal, those projects arose. United Essay. Allegations that Madhya Pradesh was failing to provide “land for bhopal carbide land” were rife; the state government claimed that many oustees preferred money to land. Into Story. Villagers from Jalsindhi petitioned the union carbide, Supreme Court for a review, and its March. Wood 2007, Chapter 9. The question of how many people are affected has been controversial from the start, with BNA and others citing higher numbers and the state governments lower ones. Even the World Bank acknowledged numbers varying from 67,340 to 127,446 for Sardar Sarovar alone between 1985 and 1994. Jonathan A. Fox.
1998. “When does reform policy influence practice?” in into real story Jonathan A. Fox and L. David Brown, eds., The World Bank, NGOs, and union carbide, Grassroots Movements (Cambridge MA: MIT Press), Table 9.1, p. 324. 2005 ruling reaffirmed the “land for land” requirement.39 However, later reports suggested that the state was still offering monetary compensation.40 In 2006, NBA complained that Madhya Pradesh was persisting in ignoring the land for land principle and failing to provide resettlement in advance of construction. Madhya Pradesh officials contended in return that most of the oustees wanted money rather than land. Punishment States Essay. The same issue that had triggered the. initial NBA activism — fair treatment for those whose homes would be lost to rising waters — was still very much alive despite all the changes in Indian politics and in Indian policy regarding water management over the more than 20 years of contention. Similar contentions swirl around construction of the bhopal, other large Narmada dams.41.
Lessons for scientists and engineers. The Narmada Dams controversy provides apt demonstration of the ways that large physical infrastructure projects can generate strong contentions among their many stakeholders. It also demonstrates how changing political culture can have severe impacts on project design and execution. The idea of building a dam at Navagam on the Narmada River inspired controversy from the beginning, even when the only stakeholders included in the discussions were the governments of the three states through which the river flows: Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra. All three wanted to tap the river’s potential as a source of drinking and irrigation water and pardoner, of hydroelectric power, but they disagreed about the most effective way to harness the union, river with dams. Though India is a federal country in which states’ governments rather than the Union government deal with water-related infrastructure, the fact the river was shared allowed the central government ministries, agencies, and ultimately the Indian Prime Minister to what is a pardoner, play roles in defining the project.
In 1947-65, when early versions of the Narmada Project were being considered, it was commonplace in its ambitions though Gujarat’s proposals would make the union, Sardar Sarovar Dam one of the largest concrete gravity dams in the world.42 The project was designed to into the wild real, rely on centralized, large-scale infrastructure to meet the challenges of supplying water and electricity to carbide, a large area of a country with facing stiff challenges in water management because it receives its annual rainfall in what pardoner two highly concentrated periods and possessing few fossil fuel resources. The procedures for defining and designing the project followed the usual path of such projects in democratic countries: elected officials defined the broad parameters of the union, project; civil servants and government-employed experts in hydrology, dam design, canal design, and construction of such projects worked out the details. The. broad needs of Electronic Records and Charting users were considered, as were Narmada Bachao Andolan v. Union of India and union, Ors, Writ Petition (Civil) 328 of 2002, decided March 2003. 2005 AIR 2994, 2005(2) SCR 840. Cry Beloved Country. Also available through the Supreme Court website using the search utility at http://judis.nic.in/supremecourt/chejudis.asp (accessed 28 July 2010). 39. “Cash not land on offer for oustees,” The Hindu 1 December 2005. E.g., Eric Yep, “The Maheshwar Dam – A short-lived victory?” India Real Time, Wall Street Journal Digital Network, 10 May 2010 at bhopal carbide http://blogs.wsj.com/indiarealtime/2010/05/10/the-maheshwar-dam-a-short-lived-victory/ (accessed 4 August 2010); Suchandana Gupta, “Maheshwar Dam: PMO lifts ban on work,” Times of India, 9 May 2010 at http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/5908453.cms (accessed 4 Ag. Muckrakers. 2010).
41. 42 Central Water Commission. 2004. Water and carbide, Related Statistics. (New Delhi: Central Water Commission, May 2004), p. Country. 60 says that Sardar Sarovar is the third largest such dam, after the Soufengyng Dam in China and the Grand Coulee Dam in the USA. those of persons whose homes would be flooded in union carbide the course of the project were considered. Records And Charting Essay. That those whose homes would be flooded received brief consideration is not surprising. They were politically immobilized populations having relatively small numbers (in a country the size of India or in comparison to the number who would benefit from the union, water and electricity to be supplied) of low social status living in remote areas. Before the 1980s, they had no influential advocates whereas the people who would benefit from the water and pardoner, the electricity did have such advocates. Yet, it is important to union, remember that the oustees were not entirely ignored.
The basic notion of monetary compensation for land had been institutionalized in 1894 under British rule and carried forward at independence. Individual project managers, civil servants, and members of the political elite did realize that the system of Capital Essay payment for land often failed oustees, particularly unsophisticated and union carbide, often illiterate rural dwellers. The judges named to the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal were cognizant of that history, and psychology, determined to do better by ordering that oustees be compensated with land somewhere else in the area to be irrigated by union waters of the reservoir that would inundate their original homes. Yet, unlike later advocates of indigenous peoples, who would take up the into the wild real, cause of adivasi oustees in the 1980s, members of the tribunal made no provision for adivasi to move as villages and re-create their traditional modes of living; they believed that everyone displaced would be better off in the modern farming villages to bhopal union, be created. Though the environmental and behaviourist, social impact criticisms of the Sardar Sarovar Dam, and the Narmada Project as a whole were raised simultaneously in the late 1980s, resettlement was the primary basis of local challenge and transnational advocacy coalition activity. The most active Indian advocates for the oustees, the Narmada Bachao Andolan, raised three issues: compliance with the NWDT Award requirement of “land for land,” making provision for adivasi to continue their traditional ways, and lack of consultation with all stakeholders, including those who would be displaced, during initial consideration of the project. Union. The first was a demand that government authorities do as they had been ordered by a special tribunal.
It refers to the Indian government’s own standards and failure of the governments involved to today, follow through in union carbide ways the advocacy groups desire has inspired continued mobilization and contention. The second and and Charting, third issues involved demands to apply newly emerged standards to an already begun activity. Here, the advocacy groups encounter greater opposition because a lot of money has been spent and bhopal carbide, the larger numbers of what pardoner stakeholders anticipating benefits from water use and/or hydropower generation are growing impatient with the bhopal union carbide, long delays stemming from the controversies. The term “indigenous peoples” denoting distinct populations living in traditional ways who should have. their right to maintain those ways protected was initially applied to native peoples living in an area colonized by behaviourist psychology Europeans – like Aboriginals in Australia, Maoris in New Zealand, and union carbide, the many groups variously called “Indians,” “First Nations,” and “Native Americans” in the Western Hemisphere. What Pardoner. In the 1990s, it was expanded to include any relatively isolated group, somehow ethnically distinct from the rest of the population of a country that continues to bhopal, live in its traditional ways. This expanded definition included the adivasi and muckrakers, similar groups in Africa and other parts of Asia.43 Though Indian legislation has provided certain legal protections for bhopal union adivasi, the into the wild, Government of India has resisted the notion that they should be regarded as “indigenous” and covered by union UN definitions of distinct indigenous rights. There is less opposition to the demand that discussions broaden to muckrakers, include all stakeholders.
Since the union, efflorescence of NGOs and advocacy groups in the 1980s, the Capital Punishment in the United, notion of “bottom up” project planning emerging in development and public policy literatures and 43Notd. in J. K. Das. 2001. Human Rights and Indigenous Peoples (New Delhi: APH). practice around the world has won a wider following in India. Yet, this sentiment often coexists with support for carbide large projects when it can be shown that operating only at behaviourist a small local scale will not fully address some particular need. The environmental challenges to Sardar Sarovar and the whole Narmada Project were strengthened in the 1990s as concepts of ecological sustainability and sustainable development became more widely accepted. The World Commission on Dams marked the transition from old to bhopal carbide, new visions of water management at the international level, but its work drew on pardoner, and helped reinforce reconsiderations already underway in many countries, including India. These challenges did not affect the bhopal union, basic design of Capital United Essay Sardar Sarovar Dam, which was set by 1980, or the basic parameters of the Narmada project. However, they did inform project management techniques, and the organization of the.
irrigation systems tied to bhopal union, the canal supplying Narmada waters to Gujarat and Rajasthan. Transnational advocacy had three intertwined but distinct effects on the Narmada Dams: adding to the weight of oustee advocates in India, encouraging new visions of water management in all of India, and persuading major shareholders of the World Bank to stop Bank involvement in lending for Sardar Sarovar Dam. The broad coalition of oustee advocates ranging from the moderate ARCH-Vahini to the increasingly radical SETU, were able to use transnational contacts with development organizations like Oxfam and into the wild real, with environmentalist groups to union, mount a transnational challenge. Rather than focus on the Indian government or the state governments involved, this coalition focused on what it thought was a weak point in the project: dependence on World Bank financing. The World Bank and other MDBs were already being criticized for Capital in the Essay failure to pay sufficient attention to the social and ecological impacts of their projects; it was easy to add the bhopal, Narmada Project as another example. This transnational advocacy did raise the issue internationally and helped build support for the wild real story the oustees, but was not enough to carbide, settle the issue in Punishment in the States India. The pari passu requirement that oustees must be resettled before the next increment of height is added to Sardar Sarovar had several effects: 1) it spread the project costs over bhopal a longer period, 2) it gave mostly unprepared state governments longer to muster their capacities or join efforts with NGOs already working in villages, and 3) kept the issue alive longer. Narmada Bachao Andolan is still campaigning, using the full repertoire of Gandhian civil resistance techniques, on oustees’ behalf. It still has a network of strong supporters at home and psychology, abroad, but does not command as wide respect today as it did in the early 1990s.44 Its continuing campaigns for bhopal union carbide the oustees, the most recent in spring 2010,45 have held the Indian and state governments more closely to the terms of the cry beloved, NWDT Award, but have not realized the bhopal union, greater ambition of stopping the project altogether. Even if elites were inclined to give in to NBA’s continuing sit-ins and fasting protests, the the wild real, user groups are too large for the project to be abandoned.
They are more numerous, have more votes, and at various. times have mounted effective counter-mobilizations. Today, the agricultural and urban users are confident that the union, whole Narmada Project will be built, but are now worrying that a new set. comments in, e.g., Tavleen Singh, “Luddite sisters.” India Today, 22 June 1998; Kirk Leech, “The Narmada Dambusters are Wrong” The Guardian 3 March 2009. Bachao Abndolan protests against resettlement program failures regarding Maheshwar Dam in Madhya Pradesh,” available at Medical Essay http://blog.taragana.com/law/2010/02/16/environment-ministry-promises-action-against-narmada-dam-builder-20233/ (accessed 2 Aug. 2010).
of users – industry – now wants a share of Narmada waters. Farmers and households are mobilizing to limit allocations to union, industry on grounds the NWDT Award gave priority to irrigation and drinking water.46 Transnational networking on issues of water management, dam design, and sustainable development provided opportunities for professionals concerned with the environment to advocate new models of Electronic Medical Records water infrastructure – smaller in scale, lower in cost, more attuned to natural cycles. The World Commission on Dams made these discussions more visible to the general public, but they would have proceeded as new generations of technical experts trained to pay more attention to the environmental and social impacts of projects rose in their professions. How these new ideas play out depends very much on conditions in each area: small projects can help villages, individual farms, and households with enough land to build their own storage tanks. Cities and industrial complexes will still need larger-scale water infrastructure, though both can do more to use water more efficiently and lose less of it to leaky pipes, contamination by human or animal wastes, or pollution from. Pressuring major member governments to block World Bank loans in 1992 did not work out quite as the transnational advocacy coalition hoped. Union. The campaign did call attention to severe problems with World Bank lending and lead to changes in its policies and practices.
It did not lead to stopping or significantly scaling back Sardar Sarovar Dam or the larger Narmada Project. The Indian and state governments remained sufficiently committed to fund the project out of their own resources, resources that have become more plentiful as the pace of India’s economic development picked up in the 1990s and muckrakers, 2000s. Bhopal Union. The broader effort to country, limit MDB lending for large dam projects has not stopped all of carbide them. Countries able to what, finance them through their own resources or by bhopal securing loans from private lenders are still going ahead. Contemporary dam projects can benefit from lessons provided by the Narmada Project experience, but the extent they do will depend primarily on the orientations of the national actors involved.
Transnational contacts can help spread new ideas, but will only have effect on the politics of dam projects in countries where national institutions permit a wide range of stakeholders to participate effectively in into the wild decisions.
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Cosmetic Surgery Essay Essays and Research Papers. Cosmetic Surgery Com150 Effective Essay Writing April 28, 2009 Cosmetic . Surgery is a widely accepted practice among men and women. You can have anything done to yourself as long as you have the bhopal union carbide money. With the behaviourist advancement in today's technology, more men and women are flocking to have expensive cosmetic procedures done. The percentage of men and women getting some type of surgery done to themselves are drastically different. Union Carbide. Women have the behaviourist psychology highest number on carbide the chart for having cosmetic. Breast implant , General surgery , Microsurgery 1597 Words | 5 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery Effective Essay Writing/COM/150 Cosmetic Surgery “She got . Country. her good looks from her father. He’s a plastic surgeon.” Groucho Marx. “I definitely believe in plastic surgery . I don’t want to be an old hag. There’s no fun in that.” Scarlett Johansson. “I wish I had a twin, so I could know what I’d look like without plastic surgery .” Joan Rivers.
These are quotes from famous people about cosmetic surgery . Some have had cosmetic surgery and some have not. Union Carbide. This essay. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1942 Words | 6 Pages. Should cosmetic surgery be encouraged to the general public? Cosmetic surgery is defined as “any . Electronic. medical operation which is intended to improve a person’s appearance rather than their health” (Cambridge Dictionary, 2003, p.275). By definition, cosmetic surgery is a common practice used to bhopal union carbide, modify the physical outlook of people, especially for women. This is definitely a luxury, which is not necessary to the public. Capital Punishment United States. Starting from the 20th century, however, cosmetic surgery is no longer a luxury. Adolescence , Aesthetics , Beauty 1516 Words | 4 Pages.
had a twin, so I could know what I'd look like without plastic surgery ” a quote by Joan Rivers taken from www.allgreatquotes.com (2008). . Bhopal Union. Today’s society puts so much emphasis on what is a pardoner what the media considers beauty that even Hollywood stars are unfortunately going to extremes to keep their appearances to bhopal carbide, what is into the wild, considered beautiful. Even though forms of cosmetic surgery are medically necessary such as reconstructive surgery , cosmetic surgery has become a large issue in today’s society because some believe. Breast implant , General surgery , Liposuction 946 Words | 3 Pages. ? Catastrophe of Cosmetic Surgery : Effects of Cosmetic Surgery on Health and carbide, Financial . Status Proposal Catastrophe of Cosmetic Surgery : Effects of Records and Charting Cosmetic Surgery on Health and Financial Status Today, for both males and carbide, females, physical beauty is an what is a important aspect of their life. Actually, nobody is perfect, but many people want their beauty enhanced to be more perfect. As a result, they are ready to undergo hurt to get that perfect look. With “cutting edge technology”. Breast implant , Breast reconstruction , Hand surgery 2723 Words | 3 Pages. Expository Essay on Cosmetic Surgery Nicole Lynne Simko University of Phoenix COM150: Effective . Bhopal Union Carbide. Essay Writing November 4th, 2011 High school for many teenagers can be a very difficult time, trying to fit in and becoming part of the popular crowd. Many teenagers experience low self esteem issues, what is the solution to a young adult’s self esteem problems?
Cosmetic Surgery has been known to help older adults feel confident again, so why not provide teenagers with the same solution. Breast implant , Breast reconstruction , Hospital 1817 Words | 5 Pages. PLASTIC SURGERY : a way to Capital Punishment in the States, become beautiful or someone’s unhealthy idea? With passing time, the urge to become beautiful is increasing in . everyone’s life. Is the requirement just in our heads or is bhopal carbide, it truly needed. Psychology. Does everyone have a right to be beautiful and look more attractive? Most of us would say yes. Everyone wants to be good-looking and pretty. Bhopal. Nowadays looks and appearances seem to be the basic requirement in country every person and hold much more importance compared to bhopal, a person’s abilities and. General surgery , Hand surgery , Hospital 2029 Words | 5 Pages.
Cosmetic surgery is very popular and not because people need surgery , but because society has made the perfect . person and muckrakers, everyone is trying to union, be that. Cosmetic surgery is the new hip thing going around and it isn’t always a good thing. In my essay I’m going to discuss the history of cosmetic surgery . I will discuss how it came about and real story, how it has grew over the years. Carbide. We will discuss how popular it has become with reality TV shows and muckrakers today, Hollywood stars. And last talk about the pros and carbide, cons of getting. Breast implant , General surgery , Hospital 1041 Words | 3 Pages.
development of plastic surgery in recent years has opened larger opportunities for behaviourist psychology health care professionals to offer a wide range of services . to its customers, while the growing popularity and high demand on the services of plastic surgeons stimulated the rapid development of this field of bhopal carbide medicine worldwide. according to Thompson (2011). In fact, he continued nowadays, plastic surgery becomes accessible to a larger number of people and, instead of the elitist surgery available to only a limited. General surgery , Hand surgery , Hospital 640 Words | 3 Pages. There is Electronic Records, various form of carbide cosmetic surgery that can range from minor surgery that is non- invasive treatment- which . could be anything from fat injection, collagen or even Botox. Then there are major surgeries that consists of muckrakers today body contouring- which can be anything from liposuction, breast lifts or even breast reduction. Union. No matter how minor or major the surgery is Capital in the United States, there can be risks or complications involved. Even though all surgery has risks, proper research of cosmetic surgery can lower the risks and.
Breast , Breast reconstruction , Breast reduction 1115 Words | 3 Pages. un-realistic body ideals, and they turn to cosmetic surgery to bhopal union, seek ‘perfection’. I wanted to research why so many women want to . under go the knife, what dangers are involved, and why cosmetic surgery receives bad publicity. Muckrakers Today. I also wanted to carbide, see weather cosmetic surgery is Electronic Records Essay, used for union any other reasons than vanity. Above all I wanted to see if the pardoner negatives out bhopal union, weighed the positives and cry beloved country, if cosmetic surgery should be banned or not. Why do so many women want cosmetic surgery ? According to Louisa Peacock, the. Breast , Breast implant , General surgery 832 Words | 3 Pages. The Negative and Positive Effects of Cosmetic Surgery Are you considering cosmetic surgery ? . The numbers of bhopal union carbide individuals electing these surgeries are growing rapidly each year. Much of this rapid growth is because of advances in technology that have made plastic surgery techniques both safer and more affordable, as well as cutting down on recovery time. Cosmetic surgery improves body image and muckrakers today, self-esteem and reconstructive surgery fixes irregularities such as hereditary disorders, birth. General surgery , Hospital , Microsurgery 1258 Words | 4 Pages.
Cosmetic Surgery on Teenagers Shirrena E. Union Carbide. Perkins Course: COM/150 February 28, 2010 . Grace Clausing Table of Contents • Introduction • Body and Mind Still Developing During Teenage Years • Is It All Right To Seek Surgery With Unrealistic Expectations • Regrets • Legal or Illegal • Conclusion Introduction A desire among teenagers to undergo cosmetic surgery has been on cry beloved country a rapid rise. This can mostly be contributed. Adolescence , Breast implant , Hospital 1851 Words | 6 Pages. Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Most people want to be more beautiful than other people. They are always seeking the “beauty”, which . makes them believe that they will be happier. That is why there is more and union carbide, more people using plastic surgery as a solution. Those patients have a variety of the wild real story ages and bhopal union carbide, sexes. It can be ranged from twenty to fifty-five or over. It is included both sexual: males and females.
There are thousands of reasons for them to see a plastic surgery doctor. They may want to look younger. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1568 Words | 4 Pages. The Hidden Dangers Of Cosmetic Surgery “I wish I had a twin, so I could know what I'd look like without cosmetic . surgery ” a quote by Joan Rivers. Behaviourist Psychology. She is an American famous person who has done so many cosmetic surgeries . Rivers most likely said this quote because she regretted about all of the cosmetic surgeries that she had. Cosmetic Surgery is carbide, a phenomenon that has increased over the past few years and became popular in Records everywhere on the world. Moreover, many people have been thinking of doing. Addiction , Anesthesia , Emotion 1245 Words | 4 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery All types of cosmetic surgeries are on the rise. Young people and old people around . the world are having all types of bhopal cosmetic procedure done at muckrakers, some point in their lives. The media portrays beauty in a certain way, which causes people to feel pressured to bhopal carbide, look a certain way.
Why else would a person decide to go under the knife? Even people with medical conditions or some type of disfiguration want to be accepted in behaviourist society and be normal without being judged because of their physical. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1958 Words | 5 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery – a blessing or a curse? When you have a look at union carbide, the women on Essay the streets, and it is so hard to find no one . Union. with heavy make-up; when you are watching through the newspaper, and you will never stop to see large number of advertisements on cosmetics surgery , none of psychology them focus on natural beauty. As we all know, chasing beauty is the natural instinct of women, and the advancement in technology allows the bhopal union women to have a different change in behaviourist psychology their appearance through cosmetic surgery.
Aesthetics , Beauty , Human physical appearance 1044 Words | 3 Pages. While cosmetic surgery has been happening since ancient times, it has only recently become accepted by most. Union Carbide. Television . programs that promote cosmetic surgery as a positive industry; “I Want a Famous Face” on Electronic MTV,“Nip/ Tuck” on FX, and “Dr. 90210” on Hulu, to expose the bhopal union carbide public to Capital Punishment States Essay, a business once kept on the down low. Reality television embraces these due to its shock value and entertainment to the audience, in result the public is becoming more and more relaxed to the idea of bhopal carbide plastic surgery . The Wild Story. A. Chin augmentation , General surgery , Hospital 1489 Words | 4 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery The way a woman handles herself is bhopal, important, according to most Americans. Furthermore, the way a woman looks . on the outside surpasses all other qualities. Most women do not realize this, but this is the way in Electronic Medical and Charting Essay which they place their importance. In a world filled with superficiality, it is union carbide, not astonishing to think that most women are un-satisfied with their outward appearance. Unhappiness with one’s outward appearance has lead to cosmetic surgery being the only solution.
Cosmetic. Craniofacial surgery , General surgery , Hospital 1095 Words | 3 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery Have you ever thought about how much cosmetic surgery has progressed and . all the into different types of surgeries ? Cosmetic surgery is the practice of bhopal union reshaping body tissues. It is also known as plastic surgery . Plastic is derived from the Greek word Plastikos meaning “to mold.” Plastic surgery dates all the way back 3000 years ago, to the Ancient Egyptians, Indians, and Greeks. We may not recognize that people back then used a form of plastic surgery , but they did. Centuries. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1323 Words | 4 Pages. Cosmetic surgery is not solving the problem at route.
The problem is the perception that the mind has on what is behaviourist psychology, important. All . cosmetic surgery is doing is changing the appearance but not the mental state. Someone who has such a mental disposition to these illnesses will have their offending extremity changed, but they will ultimately always find something they are not happy with. Instead of cosmetic surgery , these people should be offered psychological help. Cosmetic surgery only union masks the behaviourist psychology inner. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1789 Words | 5 Pages. Pros and Cons of Cosmetic Surgery. In a society focused on looks one may hastily consider cosmetic surgery to fix an abnormal nose or shed a few unwanted pounds. . Bhopal. Is it worth it?
What are the risks versus rewards? In this essay I will explore the pros as well as the cons of cosmetic surgery because as with many choices in life, there are many risks as well as rewards. Cosmetic surgery originated in Electronic Records Essay ancient India, but became more prominent starting with the First World War. Medical professionals started exploring new techniques. General surgery , Hospital , Liposuction 1049 Words | 3 Pages. The Growing Popularity of Cosmetic Surgery. can cosmetic surgeons always guarantee you a successful result? Are you prepared to bear the risk of any surgical failure?
Over the past few . decades, cosmetic surgery has already gained mainstream acceptance, particularly in well-developed countries, such as the United States, Japan and bhopal carbide, South Korea. It is thought to be a miracle to fulfill perfection. Such fallacies have overlooked the negative impacts of today cosmetic surgery have on patients. This paper aims to explore the phenomenon of cosmetic surgery. General surgery , Hand surgery , Hospital 1101 Words | 4 Pages. History of carbide Cosmetic /Plastic Surgery COM150 Plastic surgery is into the wild, a medical specialty dealing with on the . correction or restoring of bhopal external damage to the body. The word plastic comes from the Greek plastikos meaning to psychology, mold or to shape (Answers, 2010). Cosmetic surgery involves techniques to enhance the appearance through surgical and medical techniques.
I will also investigate the most popular surgery procedures of the bhopal last couple years. Into Story. Do you wonder how this type of surgery went from. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1667 Words | 6 Pages. The huge success of the cosmetic surgery business, it gets me to think if anti-aging actually means anti-human. It is true . that mostly every woman would prefer not to get any type of carbide surgery done to the wild story, their bodies, but feel it is the only way of union carbide erasing their age from the country outside. While there is nothing wrong with using a lotion to keep skin smooth and hydrated, how far are some women willing to go in order to look younger than they actually are? Cosmetic surgery in bhopal carbide North America continues. Ageing , Craniofacial surgery , Gerontology 2594 Words | 7 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery Be Informed Everyone has looked in the mirror and found something they want to States Essay, fix. Union. . Cosmetic surgery can boost self esteem, and give confidence it seems the pain associated is secondary. Many people are willing to take the involved risks even though complications can arise.
Cosmetic surgery changes the appearance by altering parts of the body that function normally but do not look the Punishment in the United States Essay desired way. Bhopal. Cosmetic surgery has been laden with unrealistic demands and sometimes legal. Breast implant , Breast reconstruction , Hospital 1516 Words | 5 Pages. ?Marketing In Terms of behaviourist psychology Cosmetic Surgery Should Be Avoided Introduction Marketing is a vital part of business operation to bhopal, . maximize benefits, especially for service providing business. However, in into the wild story spite of the bhopal extremely large profits marketing brings, is it always so positive a function that it should never be avoided, or even banned? A certain amount of research on the nature of marketing and how it works to affect individuals and businesses has been conducted. However, whether it is always a best. Business , General surgery , Marketing 1725 Words | 7 Pages. Critique Essay: Cosmetic Surgery and Individual Identity. the Modern Face: Cosmetic Surgery , Social Research, Spring 2000.
The American culture that produced cosmetic . surgery is the increasingly visual, psychologically influenced culture of the twentieth century United States. Behaviourist. For those surgeons who perform cosmetic surgery , the relationship between the physical face and union carbide, the construction of the wild real story individual identity has always been and continues to carbide, be central. Cry Beloved. In our modern twentieth century United States, our attitudes toward cosmetic surgery have been based. General surgery , Hospital , Microsurgery 1380 Words | 4 Pages. changing when the humankind are under the pressure of one addiction. There are many causes of cosmetic surgeries addiction . Bhopal. leading to negative effects and compose appropriate solutions. In the specific case of the Capital Punishment in the Essay cosmetic surgery addiction, different factors as social status, idea of beauty, self-steem, and, even, social pressure are its most definitive causes. According to Berrios and Kan (1996), cosmetic surgery addiction is a type of psychological disease, which makes people concerned a lot with body.
Addiction , Anxiety , Avoidant personality disorder 1714 Words | 5 Pages. ? Cosmetic Surgery among women: Cause and Effect Table of Contents: Introduction . Page 2 Causes of bhopal union Cosmetic Surgery (by Hilda) Page 3 Physical Damage after Cosmetic Surgery (by Bonnie) Page 4 Psychological Effects of Electronic Records and Charting Cosmetic Surgery (by Ashley) Page 5 Conclusion Page 6 Works Cited . Body dysmorphic disorder , Breast implant , Causality 1283 Words | 7 Pages. Effects of Cosmetic Surgery In today’s society the way we look is everything. There are specific standards for someone to union, be . considered as beautiful. These standards include being young, tall and thin or curvy with perfect hair, flawless skin, voluptuous lips, and pearly white teeth.
Society is highly influenced by States, magazines such as Vogue and union carbide, Cosmopolitan, which are well known for featuring top fashion models with pretty faces and country, slim waists. Many people are turning to bhopal carbide, cosmetic surgery to fit in. Abdominoplasty , Barbie , Hospital 1270 Words | 4 Pages. Review of the Literature Of the 223,000 cosmetic surgeries in 2003 on patients who were 18 years old or younger, 39,000 of them . were breast augmentation, nose reshaping, and liposuction. Many parents are giving their teenage daughters breast implants for gifts. However, parents and teens do not take into muckrakers today, consideration that teens' bodies are still developing (Zuckerman, 2005). As the adolescent's body grows, body parts that seem to large or too small can become proportionate (Izenberg, 2004). Adolescence , Breast , Breast implant 857 Words | 3 Pages. Teen Cosmetic Surgery Cosmetic Surgery is often done to improve physical flaws or to bhopal union, achieve . an ideality in society. In the real United States, cosmetic surgery is an important concern. Nearly 219,000 procedures were performed as of 2010 (“Plastic Surgery ” 1).
The risks involved with cosmetic surgery can sometimes lead to death. Many scientists believe that cosmetic surgery is dangerous for developing teenagers. However, others say that teens can gain confidence from cosmetic surgery and it can. Breast , Microsurgery , Otoplasty 999 Words | 3 Pages. Should Cosmetic Surgery Be Banned? Should Cosmetic Surgery Be Banned? Introduction Nowadays, cosmetic surgery has become more popular . for modern people. Some people believe that it is a science to improve the beauty of bhopal union carbide a person. Real. On the other hand, there are some people disagree with it.
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There are many types of union surgeries performed today that are used to pardoner, boost self-confidence such as, breast augmentation, rhinoplasty, liposuction, Botox, and other implants. There is a wide variety of surgeries out there that can change anything you want modified about yourself. As people get. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1673 Words | 5 Pages. The Side Effects of Cosmetic Surgery. The Side Effects of bhopal union Cosmetic Surgery Reading and behaviourist, Writing Level 4 Kirsten Ringstrom April 14, 2009 Table of Contents 1 . Introduction 2 The History of Cosmetic Surgery 3 The Trends of Cosmetic Surgeries 4 The Risks of bhopal union Cosmetic Surgery 5 Conclusion References Throughout recorded history, a pale complexion has nearly always been more fashionable than a tan complexion because pale skin represents a woman who does not have to labour outdoors. So, most non-white women probably wanted. Breast implant , General surgery , Hospital 1317 Words | 5 Pages. Risks and Benefits of Cosmetic Surgery.
Risks and Capital, Benefits of Cosmetic Surgery Nichole Johns University of Phoenix Axia College Risks and Benefits of . Cosmetic Surgery What is bhopal union, cosmetic surgery ? Cosmetic surgery is Electronic, a process of bhopal carbide one or more surgical procedures that are used to restore or enhance the appearance of different parts of the body. Cosmetic Surgery is a specialty field that is growing in the medical profession. The number of cosmetic surgery procedures performed in the United States increased by nearly 1 million from. Breast implant , Hospital , Liposuction 1268 Words | 4 Pages. planning to have a cosmetic procedure?
There are many things that a person considering having a procedure should know. Cosmetic . Capital In The States. surgery has been practiced for many years however, it is dangerous and many people face addiction. Union. Before having a cosmetic procedure it is important to know all the Electronic Medical Records facts. Cosmetic surgery being so popular, many people are not aware that there are two types of plastic surgery : Cosmetic plastic surgery and Reconstructive plastic surgery . Bhopal Union Carbide. Cosmetic surgery is the improvement. Breast reconstruction , General surgery , Hospital 1593 Words | 5 Pages.
A rESEACH PAPER | AGAINST COSMETIC SUGERY | ENC 1102Instructor: Luse | | By Maria Garzon | 3/25/2013 | Background and Thesis . Opponents have historically overlooked the primary reasons for it’s against to plastic surgery . It promotes a continuing descent into all things vain. Rather than accepting their perceived flaws, growing, and Medical Essay, developing character, they take a chance going under the knife. Plastic surgery rarely produces the desired results and creates unhealthier obsession with. General surgery , Hand surgery , Hospital 2045 Words | 6 Pages. Teenagers and union carbide, Comsetic Surgery Joyce Jenkins Com 150 May 30, 2010 Angela Robles Teenagers and muckrakers today, Cosmetic . Surgery In our society today, what our bodies look like is a big money making thing. Therefore, being a teenager and bhopal union, have plenty of cry beloved money brings us to having cosmetic surgery done to carbide, our beautiful bodies. Real Story. The three factors that teens should consider when getting cosmetic surgery are peer pressure, the credentials and reputation of the doctor and finally the cost.
The peer pressure that. Adolescence , Hospital , Human body 1077 Words | 3 Pages. TEENAGE COSMETIC SURGERY How young should some one be before they are ready to have cosmetic . surgery ? According to the American Society for union carbide Aesthetic Plastic Surgery reports “the number of what girls eight-teen and younger getting cosmetic surgeries , such as breast augmentations has nearly tripled from 3,872 in the year of 2002 to 11,326 in the year of 2003“ ( Farrell 1 ). The increasing number of teenage girls under twenty having cosmetic surgeries should be aware of the carbide risks, know that their bodies. Adolescence , Breast , Breast reconstruction 1858 Words | 5 Pages. worth it.
What really is beauty, and why are people so obsessed with it? These days there is a cosmetic procedure to fix any kind of issue that . someone thinks they need to have, anything ranging from getting cosmetic dentistry work to Capital Punishment in the United Essay, getting liposuction. Today, people are under the impression that they have to do whatever it takes to be “perfect” even if that means going through extensive cosmetic surgery . Bhopal. People should embrace who they are for what God made them to be. A celebrity is Electronic Records and Charting, who everyone. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 2112 Words | 6 Pages. “I am totally against plastic surgery . A lot of people think I have breast implants because I have the union carbide biggest boobs in the business. Into The Wild Real Story. But I was . a 34C when I was 17…They stay up when I wear a push-up bra. But if people could see me when I come home and take off my bra, how could they think these are fake?” This is the famed quote from the famed retired supermodel/talk show host, Tyra Banks, an epitome of natural beauty. Harvard Medical School psychologist Nancy Etcoff says in “Survival of the bhopal carbide Prettiest. Body modification , Breast , Breast implant 764 Words | 3 Pages. beautiful and happy, one must look like these images.
To most, the easiest way to achieve this is United, my having cosmetic surgery . performed. Bhopal Union Carbide. With the change of times, also has come the advancement of medical procedures, yet how safe can a person be who is having cosmetic surgery performed on their body. No matter how good the technological advancements, there is always the risk of not only the surgery resulting in unwanted outcomes but in some cases death. United. Society today has brain washed not. General surgery , Hospital , Liposuction 1538 Words | 5 Pages. Plastic/ Cosmetic Surgery Plastic surgery is a special branch of surgery that deals with the medical . Union. correction of a person's form and structure. The word plastic comes from the Greek word plastikos which means to country, mold or to carbide, shape.
So, plastic surgery basically means surgery that brings about the wild real, a re-shaping of a part of the body. A popular procedure in bhopal carbide ancient Rome was scar removal, particularly scars on the back which were marks of behaviourist shame because they suggested a man had turned his back in battle. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1108 Words | 3 Pages. In 2003, more than 223 000 cosmetic procedures were performed on patients 18 years of bhopal carbide age or younger and almost 39 000 were surgical procedures . Punishment In The United Essay. such as nose reshaping, breast lifts, breast augmentation, liposuction, and tummy tucks . Bhopal Union Carbide. As we consider under what circumstances plastic surgery is appropriate for teens, it is important to behaviourist psychology, recognize that very few studies have been conducted to examine the risks for teens of these increasingly common procedures.
Research is especially needed for the more. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 1291 Words | 4 Pages. Task A) Cosmetic surgery on teenagers OUTLINE Text 1 and 2 The overarching subjects to which we are introduced in carbide . texts one and two is, without doubt, the focus (or rather the criticism) on the many and more to in the, come plastic/ cosmetic surgeries on adolescent girls and boys. Bhopal Union. Subjects appearing in muckrakers today the texts are for example, Valerie Ulene’s view on carbide the increased procedures of plastic surgery , while Dr. John Canedy raises the question; does plastic surgery have a positive mental outcome, or. Breast implant , General surgery , Hospital 1069 Words | 4 Pages.
girls 18 years and younger had surgical and and Charting, cosmetic procedures done to enhance, alter, or fix body parts that were seen as awkward and . unfitting (Preface to). Union. For many girls, growing up in Punishment in the Essay the ever-changing social world can be very over-rated. With constant pressure being thrown at girls from television, magazines, commercial ads, and movies it is not a surprise that many believe their only option is permanent cosmetic alteration. Opting for plastic surgery can leave very harmful, even permanent damage. Breast , Breast implant , General surgery 1695 Words | 5 Pages.
Cosmetic Surgery and Its Affect on the World Today. their eyes, it has become nearly an epidemic. Plastic surgery is a medical procedure invented to bhopal union carbide, improve an country individual’s physical . appearance or to minimize scarring resulting from accidents, disease or birth defects as well as disfigurement. The word plastic is derived from the Greek, meaning molding or giving form. Included in plastic surgery is bhopal, cosmetic surgery , which can be used to reshape your face or body features. Cosmetic surgery is designed to improve an individual's appearance. Punishment United. Some women.
General surgery , Hospital , Human physical appearance 962 Words | 3 Pages. Should People Get Cosmetic Surgery? Should People Get Cosmetic Surgery ? Overview: Cosmetic surgery has become more popular for modern . Bhopal Union Carbide. people. Some people believe that it is a science to increase the behaviourist psychology beauty of a person. The basic aim of bhopal carbide this surgery is to behaviourist psychology, enhance the appearance of the individual that is done by altering the bhopal carbide parts of the body. On the Electronic Medical Records other hand, other people disagree with it. They say that cosmetic surgery involves risk which may cause serious side effects and diseases. In the recent years the technology and concept. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 686 Words | 3 Pages.
Reseach Essay : Plastic Surgery Plastic . surgery Plastic surgery is a medical specialty concerned with the union carbide correction or restoration of form and function. Though cosmetic or aesthetic surgery is the best-known kind of plastic surgery , most plastic surgery is not cosmetic ; plastic surgery includes many types of reconstructive surgery , hand surgery , microsurgery, and the treatment of burns. General surgery , Hand surgery , Microsurgery 1400 Words | 4 Pages. Reading (II) 22 March 2011 Persuasion Essay ( Cosmetic Surgery ) Outline I. INTRODUCTION 1. Background . Into Story. Information: For modern people, cosmetic surgery nowadays has become more and more popular. Some people believe that it is a technique to raise the beauty of a person. The basic intention of this surgery is to enhance the bhopal union carbide appearance of the Punishment United States individual by changing the parts of the body. Carbide. On the other hand, other people disagree with it, saying that cosmetic surgery can post a risk of serious diseases. Anorexia nervosa , Body dysmorphic disorder , Body modification 644 Words | 3 Pages. To what extent do different positions in structure versus agency debate affect our understanding of cosmetic surgery? This essay centres on the structure versus agency debate and the extent to which different positions in this debate affect our understanding of . cosmetic surgery . Structure refers to external factors which are beyond an behaviourist individual’s control and how these factors have a determining effect on the individual’s actions and behaviour. In contrast, agency refers to the “characteristics of the individual which serve to construct the world around them.” In other words, as O’Byrne neatly puts it “do we make.
Anthony Giddens , Emile Durkheim , Evolutionary psychology 1432 Words | 4 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery: Does It Help or Hurt You? Professor Perkins Rhet/Comp 1302 6 May 2013 Cosmetic Surgery : Does it help or hurt you? Everyone has seen that picture . Bhopal Union. perfect model on United a billboard or in a magazine that seems to be flawless in every way. Union Carbide. These types of things convince people that they need to behaviourist psychology, alter their appearance in order to become what is perceived as beautiful. Union Carbide. There are approaches to attaining the what is a pardoner designated look they are trying to bhopal union carbide, reach; cosmetic surgery is Electronic Medical and Charting Essay, one of bhopal union carbide them. Cosmetic surgery continues to cry beloved country, become a popular trend among. Hospital , Microsurgery , Patient 1874 Words | 5 Pages.
Cosmetic Surgery: Is It a Solution or a Problem in Today's Society. M. Sandra Wood. (2005). Intenet Guide to Cosmetic Surgery for Women. Union Carbide. New York: The Haworth Press. R. Merrel Olesen. (2005). . Behaviourist Psychology. Cosmetic Surgery For Dummies. New York: John Wiley Sons Inc. James Partridge. (1996). ?Face Values', Health Education, 3/2:pp30-33 Time. (2002). ?Changing Faces'. Bhopal Carbide. August pp49-55 Her World. (2006). ?Why are we so quick to erase time?'. January pp116-118 Health Today. (2005). ?Face Off'. March pp66-67 Time. (2004). ?At what cost beauty?'. February pp48-50 . 1916 , 1920 , 1922 475 Words | 3 Pages.
Building the perfect face: New trends in cosmetic surgery. ?Building the perfect face: New trends in cosmetic surgery for men NOW THAT GOING UNDER THE SCALPEL IS CHEAPER, FASTER, AND LESS . PAINFUL THAN EVER, SOME MEN ARE HAVING SECOND OR EVEN THIRD ROUNDS OF NIP/TUCK PROCEDURES. ARE YOU READY FOR A LITTLE WORK? BY LESLEY ROTCHFORD, Published April 18, 2013 http://www.foxnews.com/health/2013/04/18/building-perfect-face-new-trends-in- cosmetic - surgery -for-men/ Despite being chronically sleep-deprived and frequently hungover, not to mention regularly stressed. Chin augmentation , Microsurgery , Oral and maxillofacial surgery 1100 Words | 3 Pages. The Plastic Generation (Persuasive Speech on Child Cosmetic Surgery)
The Plastic Generation Famous actress and model Patricia Heaton once said “Plastic surgery is like the big elephant in the Hollywood living . Medical Essay. room,” (Brainy Quotes). For celebrities, a plastic surgery operation is just another trip to the doctor’s office. After all, in union carbide this day and age, image is everything. Today. We see this in high profile professions, and in large cities across the country. Bhopal. However, recently in Beverly Hills, California, girls as young as 16 are getting nose-jobs as a “Right of Passage”. Chin augmentation , General surgery , Hospital 954 Words | 3 Pages. Cosmetic Surgery In 800.B.C. India, people’s desires to obtain beauty had resulted in a process, nose job. Punishment In The. . Union Carbide. Cosmetic surgery was the result of human beings’ desires to be beautiful. Pardoner. Beauty was always important in carbide society. Muckrakers. The more beautiful you are, the more you will be admired.
This value and the desire had brought the cosmetic surgery to this world, but the bhopal surgery had only recently become accepted by the public, so here the what questions come. Bhopal. Should cosmetic surgery become more accepted. English-language films , Mass media , Plastic surgery 647 Words | 2 Pages. spotlight. People are already put off by country, the idea that surgery could go wrong and instead the industry needs to bhopal carbide, set targets to reduce . complications and infections arising after cosmetic surgery . Cry Beloved Country. The UK market for cosmetic surgery is estimated to have grown by ?617 million (17%) between 2008 and 2010 to reach an estimated worth of ?2.3 billion.
A fear of surgery going wrong coupled with high costs put people off having cosmetic surgery and has propelled the growth of non-surgical procedures. Million , United Kingdom 416 Words | 2 Pages. or what about a new nose? Well Cosmetic surgery is not new, but the popularity of it has rapidly increased in the last few years. . Not only adults but also teenagers want to do the union carbide cosmetic surgery . Cosmetic surgery before the cry beloved age of eighteen is becoming increasingly more and more popular, and nobody can’t stop it. Bhopal Union Carbide. Many factors are influencing the thoughts of young people for the wild doing cosmetic surgery such as their appearance.
Many doctors believe that cosmetic surgery is a science to increase the beauty. Breast , Breast implant , Breast reconstruction 659 Words | 2 Pages.
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Chapter 1. How to Write a Research Paper. What is a research paper? A research paper is a piece of academic writing based on its author’s original research on a particular topic, and the analysis and interpretation of the research findings. It can be either a term paper, a master’s thesis or a doctoral dissertation. This Chapter outlines the bhopal union carbide, logical steps to is a pardoner, writing a good research paper. To achieve supreme excellence or perfection in anything you do, you need more than just the knowledge. Like the bhopal carbide, Olympic athlete aiming for the gold medal, you must have a positive attitude and the belief that you have the ability to achieve it. That is the real start to writing an A+ research paper.
STEP 1. HOW TO START A RESEARCH PAPER? CHOOSE A TOPIC. Choose a topic which interests and challenges you. Your attitude towards the topic may well determine the amount of effort and enthusiasm you put into your research. Focus on cry beloved, a limited aspect, e.g. narrow it down from “Religion” to union carbide, “World Religion” to “Buddhism”.
Obtain teacher approval for your topic before embarking on behaviourist, a full-scale research. If you are uncertain as to carbide, what is expected of you in completing the assignment or project, re-read your assignment sheet carefully or ASK your teacher. Select a subject you can manage. Avoid subjects that are too technical, learned, or specialized. Avoid topics that have only Medical Records, a very narrow range of source materials. For general or background information, check out useful URLs, general information online, almanacs or encyclopedias online such as Britannica. Use search engines and other search tools as a starting point.
Pay attention to domain name extensions, e.g., .edu (educational institution), .gov (government), or .org (non-profit organization). These sites represent institutions and tend to be more reliable, but be watchful of possible political bias in some government sites. Be selective of .com (commercial) sites. Many .com sites are excellent; however, a large number of them contain advertisements for products and nothing else. Network Solutions provides a link where you can find out what some of the other extensions stand for. Be wary of the millions of personal home pages on the Net. Carbide? The quality of these personal homepages vary greatly.
Learning how to evaluate websites critically and to search effectively on behaviourist, the Internet can help you eliminate irrelevant sites and waste less of your time. The recent arrival of a variety of domain name extensions such as .biz (commercial businesses), .pro, .info (info on products / organizations), .name, .ws (WebSite), .cc (Cocos Island) or .sh (St. Helena) or .tv (Tuvalu) may create some confusion as you would not be able to tell whether a .cc or .sh or .tv site is in reality a .com, a .edu, a .gov, a .net, or a .org site. Many of the new extensions have no registration restrictions and are available to bhopal carbide, anyone who wishes to register a distinct domain name that has not already been taken. Today? For instance, if Books.com is unavailable, you can register as Books.ws or Books.info via a service agent such as Register.com. To find books in bhopal carbide the Library use the OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog). Check out other print materials available in the Library: Almanacs, Atlases, AV Catalogs Encyclopedias and Dictionaries. • Government Publications, Guides, Reports. • Yellow Pages, Zip or Postal Code and Capital States Telephone Directories.
Check out online resources, Web based information services, or special resource materials on CDs: Online reference materials (including databases, e.g. Bhopal? SIRS, ProQuest, eLibrary, etc.) Google Scholar Wall Street Executive Library Index to Periodicals and Newspapers (e.g. MagPortal.com, OnlineNewspapers.com, etc.) Answers.com – an online dictionary and encyclopedia all-in-one resource that you can install on your computer free of charge and is a find one-click answers quickly. Encyclopedias (e.g.Britannica, Canadian Encyclopedia, etc.) Magazines and Journals Newspapers International Public Library Subject Specific software (e.g. discovering authors, exploring Shakespeare, etc.) Check out public and university libraries, businesses, government agencies, as well as contact knowledgeable people in your community. Read and evaluate. Bookmark your favorite Internet sites.
Printout, photocopy, and take notes of relevant information. As you gather your resources, jot down full bibliographical information (author, title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, page numbers, URLs, creation or modification dates on bhopal union, Web pages, and your date of access) on your work sheet, printout, or enter the information on behaviourist, your laptop or desktop computer for later retrieval. Bhopal? If printing from the Internet, it is wise to set up the is a pardoner, browser to print the URL and union carbide date of access for is a pardoner every page. Bhopal Union Carbide? Remember that an article without bibliographical information is useless since you cannot cite its source. STEP 3. Country? MAKE YOUR THESIS STATEMENT. Most research papers normally require a thesis statement. If you are not sure, ask your teacher whether your paper requires it. A thesis statement is a main idea, a central point of bhopal union carbide your research paper. Capital Punishment In The United States Essay? The arguments you provide in bhopal carbide your paper should be based on cry beloved country, this cenral idea, that is why it is so important. Do some critical thinking and write your thesis statement down in one sentence.
Your research paper thesis statement is like a declaration of your belief. The main portion of bhopal union your essay will consist of arguments to support and defend this belief. A thesis statement should be provided early in your paper – in the introduction part, or in the second paragraph, if your paper is longer. It is impossible to create a thesis statement immediately when you have just started fulfilling your assignment. Before you write a thesis statement, you should collect, organize and analyze materials and what pardoner your ideas. You cannot make a finally formulated statement before you have completed your reseach paper. Bhopal? It will naturally change while you develop your ideas. Stay away from generic and too fuzzy statements and arguments. Use a particular subject.
The paper should present something new to the audience to make it interesting and educative to cry beloved country, read. Avoid citing other authors in this section. Present your own ideas in your own words instead of simply copying from other writers. A thesis statement should do the following: Explain the readers how you interpret the subject of the research Tell the readers what to carbide, expect from your paper Answer the question you were asked Present your claim which other people may want to dispute. Make sure your thesis is strong. If you have time and opportunity, show it to your instructor to revise. Muckrakers Today? Otherwise, you may estimate it yourself.
Does my statement answer the union, question of my assignment? Can my position be disputed or opposed? If not, maybe you have just provided a summary instead of Electronic Medical Records and Charting creating an argument. Is my statement precise enough? It should not be too general and vague.
Does it pass a so-called “so what” test? Does it provide new/interesting information to your audience or does it simply state a generic fact? Does the body of my manuscript support my thesis, or are they different things? Compare them and change if necessary. Remember that changing elements of your work in the process of writing and reviewing is union carbide normal. A well-prepared thesis means well-shaped ideas. It increases credibility of the paper and makes good impression about its author. STEP 4. MAKE A RESEARCH PAPER OUTLINE.
A research paper basically has the following structure: Title Page (including the title, the author’s name, the name of a University or colledge, and the publication date) Abstract (brief summary of the paper – 250 words or less) Introduction (background information on the topic or a brief comment leading into the subject matter – up to Medical Records, 2 pages) Manuscript Body, which can be broken down in further sections, depending on carbide, the nature of research: Materials and what Methods Results (what are the results obtained) Discussion and bhopal union carbide Conclusion etc. 6. Tables, figures, and appendix (optional) An outline might be formal or informal. An informal outline (working outline) is a tool helping an author put down and organize their ideas. It is subject to revision, addition and canceling, without paying much attention to Electronic Medical Records and Charting Essay, form.
It helps an carbide, author to make his key points clear for him/her and arrange them. Sometimes the students are asked to submit formal outlines with their research papers. In a formal outline, numbers and letters are used to arrange topics and Medical and Charting Essay subtopics. The letters and union numbers of the same kind should be placed directly under one another. Today? The topics denoted by their headings and subheadings should be grouped in a logical order. All points of a research paper outline must relate to bhopal union carbide, the same major topic that you first mentioned in your capital Roman numeral. Example of an outline: The purpose of an behaviourist psychology, outline is to help you think through your topic carefully and organize it logically before you start writing. A good outline is the most important step in writing a good paper. Check your outline to make sure that the union carbide, points covered flow logically from one to country, the other.
Include in bhopal your outline an today, INTRODUCTION, a BODY, and a CONCLUSION. Make the first outline tentative. INTRODUCTION – State your thesis and union the purpose of your research paper clearly. What is the chief reason you are writing the paper? State also how you plan to approach your topic. Psychology? Is this a factual report, a book review, a comparison, or an analysis of a problem? Explain briefly the major points you plan to cover in your paper and why readers should be interested in your topic.
BODY – This is where you present your arguments to support your thesis statement. Remember the Rule of 3 , i.e. find 3 supporting arguments for each position you take. Bhopal Union? Begin with a strong argument, then use a stronger one, and end with the strongest argument for your final point. CONCLUSION – Restate or reword your thesis. Cry Beloved? Summarize your arguments.
Explain why you have come to this particular conclusion. Organize all the information you have gathered according to your outline. Critically analyze your research data. Bhopal? Using the best available sources, check for accuracy and verify that the information is factual, up-to-date, and correct. Opposing views should also be noted if they help to support your thesis.
This is the most important stage in writing a research paper. Here you will analyze, synthesize, sort, and digest the information you have gathered and hopefully learn something about your topic which is the Records Essay, real purpose of doing a research paper in the first place. You must also be able to bhopal union carbide, effectively communicate your thoughts, ideas, insights, and research findings to others through written words as in psychology a report, an essay, a research or term paper, or through spoken words as in an oral or multimedia presentation with audio-visual aids. Do not include any information that is not relevant to your topic, and do not include information that you do not understand. Make sure the information that you have noted is carefully recorded and in bhopal carbide your own words, if possible. Plagiarism is into the wild real definitely out bhopal, of the today, question.
Document all ideas borrowed or quotes used very accurately. As you organize your notes, jot down detailed bibliographical information for each cited paragraph and have it ready to transfer to bhopal carbide, your Works Cited page. Devise your own method to organize your notes. One method may be to mark with a different color ink or use a hi-liter to what is a pardoner, identify sections in union your outline, e.g., IA3b – meaning that the item “Accessing WWW” belongs in the following location of is a pardoner your outline: Group your notes following the bhopal carbide, outline codes you have assigned to Capital Punishment Essay, your notes, e.g., IA2, IA3, IA4, etc. This method will enable you to quickly put all your resources in the right place as you organize your notes according to your outline. Start with the first topic in union your outline.
Read all the relevant notes you have gathered that have been marked, e.g. with the what, capital Roman numeral I. Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to use in your essay. Use a technique that suits you, e.g. write summaries, paraphrases or quotations on note cards, or separate sheets of lined paper. Mark each card or sheet of bhopal paper clearly with your outline code or reference, e.g., IB2a or IIC, etc. Put all your note cards or paper in the order of your outline, e.g. IA, IB, IC. If using a word processor, create meaningful filenames that match your outline codes for easy cut and paste as you type up your final paper, e.g. cut first Introduction paragraph and Medical Records paste it to bhopal carbide, IA. Before you know it, you have a well organized term paper completed exactly as outlined. If it is helpful to you, use a symbol such as “#” to mark the cry beloved, spot where you would like to check back later to edit a paragraph. The unusual symbol will make it easy for you to find the exact location again.
Delete the symbol once editing is bhopal carbide completed. STEP 7. Electronic Records? REVISE YOUR OUTLINE AND DRAFT. Read your paper for any content errors. Double check the facts and bhopal union carbide figures. Arrange and rearrange ideas to follow your outline.
Reorganize your outline if necessary, but always keep the purpose of your paper and your readers in mind. Use a free grammar and proof reading checker such as Grammarly. 1. Medical And Charting Essay? Is my thesis statement concise and clear? 2. Did I follow my outline? Did I miss anything? 3. Are my arguments presented in a logical sequence?
4. Bhopal Carbide? Are all sources properly cited to ensure that I am not plagiarizing? 5. Capital In The United States Essay? Have I proved my thesis with strong supporting arguments? 6. Have I made my intentions and union points clear in States Essay the essay? Re-read your paper for grammatical errors. Use a dictionary or a thesaurus as needed. Do a spell check. Correct all errors that you can spot and improve the overall quality of the paper to the best of union your ability.
Get someone else to read it over. Sometimes a second pair of eyes can see mistakes that you missed. 1. Did I begin each paragraph with a proper topic sentence? 2. Have I supported my arguments with documented proof or examples? 3. Any run-on or unfinished sentences? 4. Any unnecessary or repetitious words? 5. Varying lengths of sentences? 6. Does one paragraph or idea flow smoothly into the next? 7. Any spelling or grammatical errors? 8. Quotes accurate in source, spelling, and punctuation? 9. Are all my citations accurate and in correct format?
10. Did I avoid using contractions? Use “cannot” instead of Electronic Medical Essay “can’t”, “do not” instead of “don’t”? 11. Did I use third person as much as possible? Avoid using phrases such as “I think”, “I guess”, “I suppose” 12. Have I made my points clear and bhopal union carbide interesting but remained objective?
13. Did I leave a sense of cry beloved completion for my reader(s) at the end of the paper? For an excellent source on English composition, check out this classic book by William Strunk, Jr. on the Elements of Style. Contents include: Elementary Rules of Usage, Elementary Principles of Composition, Words Expressions Commonly Misused, An Approach to Style with a List of Reminders: Place yourself in the background, Revise and rewrite, Avoid fancy words, Be clear, Do not inject opinion, Do not take shortcuts at the cost of clarity, … and union carbide much more. Details of in the United States The Elements of bhopal carbide Style by William Strunk, Jr. partially available online at Bartleby.com. Note: William Strunk, Jr. What? (1869–1946). Bhopal Carbide? The Elements of Style was first published in 1918. There is also a particular formatting style you must follow.
It depends on the field of cry beloved country your studies or the requirements of your University/supervisor. There are several formatting styles typically used. Bhopal Union Carbide? The most commonly used are the is a pardoner, APA style and the MLA style. Bhopal Union Carbide? However, there are such style guides as the Chicago Manual of Style, American Medical Association (AMA) Style, and Capital States Essay more. APA (American Psychological Association) style is mostly used to cite sources within the field of social sciences. The detailed information can be found in Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , (6 th ed., 2 nd printing). MLA (Modern Language Association) style is union most commonly used for the liberal arts and humanities.
The most recent printed guide on Capital Essay, it is the MLA Handbook (8 th ed.). Instead of providing individual recommendations for each publishing format (printed, online, e-books etc.), this edition recommends a single universal set of guidelines, which writers can apply to any kind of source. All formal reports or essays should be typewritten and printed, preferably on a good quality printer. Read the assignment sheet again to be sure that you understand fully what is expected of you, and bhopal union that your essay meets the requirements as specified by is a pardoner, your teacher. Know how your essay will be evaluated. Proofread final paper carefully for spelling, punctuation, missing or duplicated words. Make the carbide, effort to ensure that your final paper is Electronic Records and Charting Essay clean, tidy, neat, and attractive. Aim to have your final paper ready a day or two before the bhopal union carbide, deadline.
This gives you peace of mind and a chance to triple check. Before handing in your assignment for marking, ask yourself: “Is this the Capital Punishment in the, VERY BEST that I can do?”