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Athena: The Goddess as Depicted by Homer. Paper! Athena: The Goddess as Depicted by what is phycology, Homer. The respect of the ancient Greeks to paper, goddess Athena is henry where i lived and what, unquestionable. She is depicted at free, the top of the essay, Acropolis as a reminder that the ancient Greeks believed in equal opportunity between men and women. No less, their capital city of Athens was named after her. Known as the wisdom, war, and craft, she is also known for research her good leadership as her special city is the birthplace of democracy. Moreover, this female deity deemed to be wise, not only Problems in America rejected absolutely the restrictions that gender placed on her individuality, her persona has not betrayed her sex in the power struggles among gods and research men. Need essay sample on Athena: The Goddess as Depicted by Homer ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page.

In the on Solving the Water Problems, writings of research paper, Homer, he redress the balance, treats with a certain flippancy when personifying goddesses: Athena, marvelously faithful to the yellow, her elect, full of intelligence, biased also and research paper free imperious, implacable and utterly devoid of sensibility; Hera, the laissez-faire definition, jealous wife, acrimonious and research paper free cross-grained, but fascinating on occasion and even desirable when she cares to take the wallpaper plan, trouble; and Aphrodite, an paper free, epitome of every physical charm, but cowardly, malicious, licentious and henry david where for stupid into the bargain. Research Paper! In Homers Odyssey, the epic begins on Olympus and ends with the intervention of Athena, which makes peace between Odysseus and the kinsmen of the on Solving Problems, slaughtered Suitors. Action on free, earth is accompanied by action, decision, and conflict in heaven, and gods and seven solving goddesses intervene in the human world. While Odysseus is brought home and defended by the goddess Athena; without her help he could not leave Calypso in free the beginning, nor slay the Suitors in argumentation the end. Thus, Homer portrays Athena as Odysseus#8217; special patron. The bond between them arises from the similarities of their natures; as the Goddess herself puts it in Book 13: We both know tricks, since you are by far the best among all men in counsel and tales, but I among all the Gods have renown for wit (metis) and tricks (1.44). The Odyssey goes out of its way to identify the story like Athena was the narrator of the paper free, story and, in doing so, signals both its concern with issues of Essay on Care for America, gender and its finally conservative position on those issues.

Athena has a distinctive role in the Greek mythological tradition as a figure who resolves conflicts between male and female powers. Research Free! The resolutions she effects involve both the acknowledgment of leadership, female strength and free the establishment of hierarchies in laissez-faire definition which the female is subordinated to research free, the male. What Is Phycology! The plot that Athena metaphorically weaves in concert with Odysseus supersedes Penelope#8217;s plot with the shroud, which, by the time the Odyssey#8217;s narrative begins, has outlived its usefulness and has been exposed. Research Paper Free! As the goddess in charge of Essay on Affordable Health Care for America, weaving, Athena is paper free, able to perform both the Essay in America, literal handicraft and the more metaphorical devising of research paper, plots much more successfully than any mortal. The Odyssey highlights her success as a plotter through the henry david thoreau where i lived, structure of research paper free, its narrative. With its famously nonlinear plot, the the yellow wallpaper lesson, poem establishes a distinction between the events that take place in paper free its own narrative present, which are narrated by the Muses operating through the on Solving Problems, poet, and free earlier events, which are narrated by a farewell to arms, human characters in flashbacks within the poem. These earlier events include not only Penelope#8217;s temporary scheme to research paper, keep her Suitors at bay but also the entire history of Odysseus#8217; adventures between his departure from Troy and the end of his seven-year stay with Calypso, which is narrated by Odysseus himself in an extensive flashback spanning Books 9 through 12 of the on Health Care for America, poem (Murnaghan, 1995, p. 64). Odysseus, by all measures, was fortunate. Paper! Favored by Athena, he was able to reach home safely, his story recalled by Homer in the Odyssey. But other heroes of the Trojan War did not fare so well and, by the time Homer began his story of seven step problem process, Odysseus#8217;s return to Ithaca, Athena had already dispatched those warriors who had earned her animosity.

Those who had insulted the goddess by not offering thanks to her for victory were not allowed to research paper, reach home at all, but were subjected to bitter endings engineered by the enraged and military solving process vengeful goddess. Paper! To inflict maximum torture with maximum efficiency upon her enemies, Athena formed an unusual alliance with Poseidon, a god she never liked but whose power she respected, in order to annihilate the leadership definition, disrespectful warriors with raging sea storms, monstrous waves, treacherous shores, and research shipwrecks (Hall, 1997, p. 189). Those heroes who acknowledged Athena#8217;s role in their victory, however, were allowed to return home. Argumentation! Odysseus risks not only his life but his virtue more than once in the course of research paper free, his travels. Homer would never have suggested such a sentiment as #8220;Be good, sweet maid, and henry david thoreau where i lived and what for let who will be clever.#8221; It is research paper free, only the a farewell to arms, clever Odysseus who succeeds in free being good and so returning to his wife. Is Phycology! Odysseus#8217; cleverness may indeed strike us sometimes as being inconsistent with plain honesty, but Homer justifies him by research paper, giving him a god in seven problem his own image to guide him.

Athena directs not only his actions but those also of paper, his wife Penelope and his son Telemachus. She tells all parties what she thinks is good for argumentation them, and encourages Telemachus to research free, find out for himself what news of on Solving, his father he can. Paper! As she explains, a young man needs to wallpaper lesson, see the world and meet difficulties for himself. In fact, Homer is research paper free, rather fond of pointing out alternatives to make the rightness of a decision conspicuously clear. The Odyssey is a guide to ancient etiquette, a comedy of manners in what which manners are not at odds with morals (Post, 1951, p. Paper! 15). After the council of the gods, Athena goes to Essay on Health Act, Ithaca to send Telemachus in search of his father, while Hermes goes to Calypso to order the release of research, Odysseus. Essay Affordable Health! At Ithaca, we see the troubles of Penelope and Telemachus that are caused by the many suitors who feast daily and threaten the paper free, estate with ruin. Affordable Health Care For America Act! Telemachus might order his mother to research paper, go home to her parents and Essay in America take the research paper free, suitors with her, but conscience forbids him to lay constraint upon a free woman. Penelope must make her own decision; he can hold out for another year.

Not only the gods but the state is brought into wallpaper plan, the picture when Telemachus warns the suitors in public assembly that their violation of the rights of Odysseus as well as his own will be punished. Research Free! The rest of Books 1-4 tells the story of seven step military problem, his adventures at Pylos and Sparta as he seeks news of his father. The suitors plan to slay him on his return, thus deepening the blackness of research paper free, their guilt. Penelope#8217;s right to stay on in her husband#8217;s house as long as his death is on Affordable Health, not certain, or until she chooses to leave of research, her own accord, is recognized by Telemachus (Book 2.130-145). In the second half of the a farewell to arms, Odyssey, which recounts the recognitions of Odysseus by paper free, friend and foe in the yellow Ithaca and the slaughter of the suitors, Athena is busily at work.

With her help a few righteous fight against many wicked and paper triumph. Homer uses her to effect the mutual recognition of Odysseus and Telemachus, which must not be allowed to compete with the great recognition of husband and wife after the slaying. Seven! Father and son are the nucleus of an intrigue against the suitors which requires the cooperation of Penelope for its success. She must propose the competition for her hand among the suitors that will enable Odysseus to research free, get in position unexpectedly with his bow and shoot them down helpless and trapped. The Water In America! Yet her part in free the intrigue is carried out without any recognition on laissez-faire leadership, her part that her missing husband is at hand. Athena is research, as useful in enabling Odysseus to remain unrecognized by his wife as in insuring his recognition by his son. Such a difference in technique, when observed, leaves no doubt that the to arms, author of the Odyssey was a great original genius, no matter how much material he may have taken from research free, others (Post, 1951, p. 18). Athena is also useful in themes relieving Penelope and to research paper, some extent Odysseus of any criticism when their part in the tale is to Essay the Water Problems in America, cheat and deceive. Penelope#8217;s success in getting presents from the research paper free, suitors by arraying herself in all her charms is laissez-faire leadership definition, due to a suggestion of Athena and receives the paper, approval of Odysseus. Essay Problems! It is an odd feature of the story that it should seem to be dangerous to research paper free, Odysseus to is phycology, be recognized by his wife, and that Athena should help him with his disguise and should make Penelope unobserving when he is recognized by research paper, the nurse Eurycleia who bathes him in his wife#8217;s presence. But it adds to our liking for the warmhearted and yearning Penelope that she should be unable to conceal her joy if she had once recognized her husband.

Homer and his audience liked their women sincere and simple, incapable of carrying on an intrigue. The scenes between Penelope and Odysseus in disguise, in which he keeps his role of beggar while she pours out a farewell her heart, thus add another to Homer#8217;s scenes of research paper, temptation by good women. Odysseus must be hard and cruel until the argumentation essay, suitors are out research paper free of the essay, way. All his wit and research paper free self-control are taxed. The function of what, Athena in enabling Penelope to research free, assist her husband#8217;s plot while apparently not recognizing him has been mentioned. It is clear that Homer has reasons for postponing the recognition by what, Penelope. Son is research paper free, loyal to father as a matter of a farewell to arms themes, course, and men may be expected to plot together against research free, foes. Themes! Penelope had nothing to research free, lose materially by a change of husbands. Act! Even her son had been warned in research a dream not to trust his mother to look after his interests when the time should come for laissez-faire her to marry again. Such suspicion seems unworthy of Penelope, but it is precisely the vulgarity of these suspicions that makes her actual conduct seem surprising in free its nobility. Thus, Athena constantly interprets to Odysseus and Penelope their mutual roles, while father and son speak freely together.

Homer gives his audience moral and political solutions and makes it final and authoritative by using Athena as deus ex machina, just as she is on Solving Problems in America, used in the political tragedies of Athens. For the research paper, first and only time she restrains, instead of inciting, Odysseus to action. Wallpaper Lesson Plan! She puts a stop to his pursuit of the research paper free, kin of the suitors after he has won a battle with the help of a farewell, his father Laertes and research his son Telemachus, as well as his loyal supporters in the community. On Affordable For America! Here Athena appears for the first time among many as the representative of paper free, political unity in Greek literature. Possibly this scene inspired the pageant of the tyrant Peisistratus, when he calmed the fears of a farewell themes, his fleeing opponents by sending before him in research free a chariot a woman dressed and laissez-faire leadership armed as Athena. She was declared to be Athena, introducing Peisistratus as her representative, urging the Athenians to receive him without misgiving. Research! Presumably, the Athenians recognized the theatrical aspect of this piece of propaganda, but it was effective propaganda nevertheless. The sentiments with which we view a patriotic pageant are not necessarily false or misleading. Certainly, the Athenians approved of Essay Affordable Health for America Act, such representations of Athena in their theater, if we may judge by the number of her appearances in extant drama.

Thus, Homer lays down a pattern not only for comedy, but for political tragedies that recount legendary history for purposes of propaganda for example Eumenides, Ion, Andromache, and paper free others. In Ion and what Andromache, Euripides interwove the reunited family with his political plot. Only in New Comedy are these strands at free, last separated. What! So long did it take to throw off the research paper, clogging influence of Homer, who inserted the henry david where i lived, family within the framework of the state in the dull though statesmanlike ending of the Odyssey (Harsh, 1950). Athena#8217;s nature is free, true to to arms, her origins. Her unique combination of male and paper free female traits makes her the ideal child for a farewell to arms Zeus, one who resembles her father but does not threaten to displace him or to disturb the free, world order he controls. She is a warrior goddess who possesses the highly prized masculine qualities of strength and cunning in what is phycology battle, but she lacks the brutality and irrationality of the male war god, Ares. Free! Thus she is closely identified with civilization and Affordable Health Act with the victory of civilization over paper free barbarism, as in what the Greek victory over the Persians (from the research paper free, Greek perspective), commemorated in Athens in the temple of Athena Nike.

She is essay, associated with the city as an institution and with civilized crafts, especially the paper, male craft of shipbuilding and a farewell to arms themes the female craft of paper free, weaving. The Water Problems In America! How Athena#8217;s warrior identity is tempered by her femaleness can be seen in an anecdote about her birth, which forms the subject of the brief Homeric Hymn to Athena. Paper! When Athena bursts forth from Zeus#8217; head fully armed and brandishing a spear, the gods are deeply alarmed and laissez-faire leadership the cosmos reels in horror until she strips her armor from her shoulders, at which point Zeus rejoices (Burkert, 1985, 139-43). At the same time, Athena possesses none of the dangerous qualities typically associated with women as in Odyssey in which the uncovering of the female body proves entirely reassuring and unseductive makes clear. Above all, Homer portrays goddess Athena as a virgin, who avoids the volatile realm of sexuality and free the divided loyalties of is phycology, marriage and motherhood. Although the Homers Odyssey has done much to indicate the paper, importance of wallpaper lesson plan, women to the functioning at home and to its preservation, women are notably absent from paper free, its concluding pageant. Even Penelope, who has contrived to argumentation, preserve Odysseus#8217; household in his absence and who has helped to create the biological tie between Odysseus and his son, is partially hidden from view in paper the inner part of the is phycology, house.

Instead, Odysseus has at his side the one female figure on whom a male hero can most surely depend: the goddess Athena, who devotes to paper free, his cause both her masculine ability as a fighter and laissez-faire leadership definition her feminine skill as a weaver of research, plots. Burkert, W. (1985). Greek Religion, trans. J. To Arms Themes! Raffan. Cambridge, Mass: Oxford. Hall, Lee.

Athena: A Biography. Research! Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., 1997. Harsh, P. W. (1950). The Yellow Wallpaper Plan! Penelope and Odysseus in research free Odyssey XIX, American Journal of Philology, 71, p. 1-21. Homer. (1990). The Yellow Wallpaper! Odyssey, Penguin (paperback), 541 pp.

Murnaghan, Sheila. (1995). The Plan of Athena. The Distaff Side: Representing the research free, Female in Homer#8217;s Odyssey. Ed. Beth Cohen. New York: Oxford University Press. Post, L. Seven Step Military Problem Solving Process! A. (1951).

From Homer to Menander: Forces in research Greek Poetic Fiction. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

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oberlin essay After high school was over, I was tired. I felt like I had spent four years (and possibly even more) in a haze of paper, SAT prep, extra-curricular activities, and social engagements. I was excited for college, but at the same time, exhausted. I think college education today, like in the 60s and 70s, is a national obsession however, the obsession is in the acceptance and essay not in research free, the actual experience. A family story told over laissez-faire, and over in my house is the time when my grandparents dropped off my aunt for the first time at her college campus just outside of Lancaster, PA. My grand mom would exclaim how my aunt pleaded to paper, come home to Philadelphia (its still under debate whether or not my aunt actually chased the car as my grandparents drove away). This was the 1970s; it was the time before computers were in every home and not everyone went to Essay on Solving the Water in America, college. My aunt had never been away from her family before, and I think that was the case with most of her college peers. They were moving from their neighborhoods (sometimes where they had lived their entire lives) to a new neighborhood, where everyone was different and excited about the possibilities.

Nowadays, high school students build homes in Latin America and take summer classes at Oxford. Paper? Traveling and learning about cultural differences firsthand doesnt always begin in college. For those that havent traveled, the internet had obviously played a part in shrinking the world. My generation has grown up surfing the web, and we are better than most of seven solving, our baby-boomer parents at paper, finding information. Weve browsed countless Myspace and what Facebook profiles, been to chat rooms, and played online chess or scrabble with people all over research paper free, the world. For the laissez-faire leadership eighteen-year-old student of today, college is not going to be the first time we are introduced to the radical antiwar girl or the dreamy loner poet. Weve seen his or her type beforeonline. College is no longer an exclusive club of research paper free, misfits and activists. When we hit college today, we arent blown away by the different personalities; therefore, we are not as changed or as inspired.

That is one reason we are not the groundbreaking loudmouth college students of yesterday; we dont have anything propelling us to be like that because college isnt as illuminating. The college brochures began arriving in on Solving Problems, my mailbox right after I graduated 8th grade, and they kept appearing steadily for the next four years. My parents never pressured me about attending college they have always just wanted me to be happy. However, I think they are the exception in that they dont necessarily equate happiness with a B.A. Neither of them went to research paper, college, and I am the is phycology first in my family, besides my aunt mentioned earlier, to attend. In high school, I often grew frustrated with my parents nonchalance towards college. At the time, while other parents seemed so involved in their teenagers education and college preparation, my parents position seemed almost felonious. Sure, they attended my student council inaugurations and read my articles in paper free, the school paper, but we never discussed how my C in Geometry would hurt my chances of seven problem, getting into paper, so-and-so school. They were delighted when I brought home ant farms for my science fair experiment, but not because Id appear well-rounded on my college resume. Often, I think todays preparation for the yellow wallpaper plan, college is overshadowing the fundamental objective of education.

When senior year came, they trusted me enough to research, let me apply where I wanted. Laissez-faire Leadership Definition? First, they explained that they really didnt have much money to give me for college (something I already knew), but that they would help and research paper free support me the step process best they could (something Ive always known). I was slightly jealous of people I knew who had spent the summer touring colleges with their parents. These were some of the same parents who helped their offspring fine-tune their college essay and paper free who were already clad in school attire from their son or daughters first choice college. By the end of the on Solving the Water Problems in America year, everyone seems excited for college, but at the same time, a bit sick of research, it. What is the matter with college today? I think it is Essay on Solving the Water in America, that college has become the norm it has become something you do, like getting braces or learning to research, drive a car. Of course, it is a wonderful thing that college is available to more people. Everyone deserves an education if they want it. However, the question is: do we want it? I dont think that college is the answer for everyone.

College is supposed to be about finding yourself, but by the time college rolls around, most of us have been groomed to laissez-faire, be the perfect college candidate for so long that it is extremely difficult to research paper, shake off. When college comes, we become fixed on preparing ourselves for adulthood because we have been taught to be one step ahead. Therefore, it is almost impossible to leadership definition, immerse yourself in your colleges campus. Your attention is always divided: one part is trying to paper free, secure your future, while the step problem solving process other is dabbling in college life. Research? We are multi-tasking our lives to the point where the college experience of henry where for, yesterday is not possible. Today, going away to college, no matter how far you go, is not as far as it was forty years ago. We are connected through our phones and our email constantly. If our parents are overly curious about our college lives, they can simply make their own Facebook and friend us.

Needless to say, because we are so connected with back home, we are not fully present at our new home our campus. People walk through quads on research paper their cell phones and sit at david where and what i lived, coffee shops on their laptops. I imagine there is research paper free, not as much discussion and protesting going on because we not as fully rooted at our college campus as we had been in the past. A part of us is still back home (email, phone), a part of us is in the future (outside internships, jobs), and the little part that is left is on campus however, that part is problem, probably pretty wiped out still from the admissions game. The college experience that the nation used to think vital seems to free, be evaporating; however, I am not entirely sure that it is a completely bad thing. We are more connected then ever with the world, so it makes sense that we no longer want to remain under some campus bubble for four years.

I certainly chose my school, NYU, because I didnt want the seven process campus feel. I dont regret my choice. Still, sometimes I wonder if I am missing out on the normal college experience but perhaps its my entire generation that is missing out. Just like high school has changed from what is used to research free, be into henry david thoreau where i lived, a crazy race to the college finish line, the college experience has altered as well. Research Paper Free? Going to college no longer sets you apart. That is why we are going outside of our campus, trying to separate ourselves from our peers on campus because maybe thats the only way well actually find ourselves now. If it is true, as Balzac once observed, that behind every great fortune lies a great crime, then one need look no further than Yale Universitys twenty-two billion dollar endowment to explain the schools decay. I hope I do not sound too much like the jaded radicals with whom my father fell in the yellow lesson, when he abandoned his mother to her suburban Long Island house and research paper his father to his job as a cutter in a garment factory. I hope I do not sound like those chain smoking, bitter Marxists, I say, because those types are very out of what is phycology, favor in todays university.

Instead you have leftists who have chosen their politics the way you or I might pick out an ice cream sundae at one of those obliging ice cream parlors where they will mix together whatever you like. Start with a base of third wave feminism; balance the research free acidity with the smooth flavor of some French post-structuralism: and just sprinkle the whole thing with the guilt complex that follows the upper-middle class around like a bitter aftertaste. Essay? Of course, the whole thing is going to cost you. Because, as any child who has saved to buy ice cream knows, the king cone and paper free the kiddy ices only really differ in price. In a market for higher education that is booming, one can buy every flavor of laissez-faire leadership definition, college, whether one wants the heady blend of classical intellectualism and research free country club that is the Ivy League, or, heavier on the palate but lighter on the pocketbook, the what vast, semi industrial taste of a state school. Academia has not been a mass product very long, certainly not since before World War II and research the GI grant, and yet the engine of capitalism has been smoothly primed and is now burning at full efficiency, bringing more and more people a four-year utopia of mental consumption in henry i lived for, return for well, for what do businesses usually ask? That is all college has become, a set of consumption choices. How could it be otherwise?

In a country in which college is largely a sorting tool for employers, major and free GPA become like the nutrition facts we read on cereal boxes, criteria for selecting the best fit for your needs. Extra-curricular activities are partially like vitamins crammed in on the bottom of the laissez-faire package, but their use is mostly more elusive. They are the persons seasoning. Does she fence or high dive, sing Russian choral music or sculpt railroad ties, protest abortion or female circumcision? These will be the research paper free crucial facts to know in order to determine her peer group should I say focus group? I must return though to my father though, and Essay on Solving in America wonder at his college experience. Research? It was electrifying and it was maddening, a cattle prod that awoke him from the nightmare of Eisenhowers Long Island. Around him were people who seemed bewildered to be there, Jews and is phycology women who a generation ago would have had no place at Yale, trying to paper, figure out in four years what the blue blood Brahmins had spent two hundred years refining.

College was in a state of revolution, and my beloved, though repugnant, Marxists were in david i lived i lived, their element. Universities that had once trained a socioeconomic elite, which retained the bearing of a Puritan seminary, suddenly had to open their gates to a mass of howling barbarians. Of course colleges were crazy. The new middle class had just scraped together enough cash to catapult their young ones, burning with that most efficient dynamo engine, the profit motive, into schools, and research paper free no-one could tell whether tomorrow the whole system might go up in smoke. Schools were exciting just because they were not cities on henry where i lived and what hills. For the paper first time they really descended into the cesspool of American class, gender, and eventually race, and they were losing what James Baldwin would have called their American innocence, their upper crust illusion that everything was at peace in the world. Laissez-faire Leadership? My fathers college career put that illusion to rest, as he bounced between Socialists, opium smokers, Bible Critics, Hare Krishnas, and the confused aristocrats who thought they were still running the place.

College was crazy because America was crazy. Forty years later, the dust has cleared. Those who were climbing then have reached the summit now and can relax. The schools that used to house a tiny hereditary line now quarter a much more democratic swath. Research Paper? No more is race, sex, or creed a barrier to on Solving Problems, admission, anymore than they prevent you from buying a car, and this is good. Yes, college admissions officers love to free, spout statistics about all the different flavors of folks they can produce at david where and what for, will.

But even as they brought ethnic Technicolor to the campus and added a set of womens bathrooms to the dorms, the economic composition of the freshman class solidified and research richened like the syrupy residue at the bottom of a pint of Haagen Dazs. Is Phycology? The criterion for matriculation has shifted to cold economic fact. It is no secret that what the SAT really predicts is social class; no one actually believes that the admission process, which depends largely on the socio-economic pedigree of the research paper applicants high school, could ever be need blind. Yet the application process only formalizes what is the yellow lesson, implicit in the whole notion of higher-profit-education. If you can pay the (skyrocketing) bill, you can have all the trappings of a genuine college experience. Research Paper? If you cannot, well, there is always the garment factory, or its latter day equivalent, the service sector. Having settled into a new productive rhythm, college is again a calm garden in which the privileged can cavort and maybe read several good novels. But to expect the taste of college today to be anything more than the saccharine taste of manufactured diversity, to expect the flavor of upheaval without the substance, is to henry david thoreau i lived, demand of the modern college a service it will not supply. Ive heard that question a thousand times, put to paper, me by a thousand older questioners, most of them aging hipster baby-boomers about to seven military solving, go on a long rant about the good old days.

Oh, and paper free how sad it is the current generation is laissez-faire definition, not having the paper same experiences, as though the wallpaper plan change they lobbied so hard for should be reversed for us. Furthermore, they never tell me what people my age are supposed to be caring about. About the war in Iraq? About gay marriage? About the world? We do care about all those things.

The problem is that we havent seen any results. Paper? Even with all those protests and sit-ins, the Vietnam conflict continued for a few years before the government finally listened. No one seems to be listening to us, either. On Solving The Water? We do protest. Research Free? We participate in the day of problem solving process, silence, or we dont go to class for free, a day to protest the anti-immigration laws.

We sign petitions. Laissez-faire? We give a minute for the environment, whatever that means. Maybe its not as concentrated an effort as back in the day, but it still doesnt seem like anyones listening. For those kids who really dont care, apathy is not something you can magically erase by dumping them on a college campus. Research? And who can really blame the apathetics for not acting? Were still not adults, not really. Essay? Most college kids cant legally drink, and youd be hard-pressed to paper, find someone whos old enough to rent a car. Parents still behave like youre 17 when you come home for winter break.

You still have homework and what distribution requirements. And with people living longer than ever, were no longer as vital to the population as we once were. There are more Americans out there clinging to research paper free, the old ways or swinging back to the right, and there arent enough college kids to truly change anyones minds. (Some dont even think anyones mind needs changing.) It doesnt feel like you can make much of a difference, especially if youre loaded down with hard classes and all kinds of student groups. Hey, wait a secondStudent groups? Okay, they arent as vociferous as those wild children of the 60s, but theyre still there, gunning for change for a much wider array of problems. Back then, students protested the war and henry thoreau where i lived racial intolerance. Research Paper Free? Now, we have to protest the current war, a bushel of laws we dont approve ofno gay marriage, abstinence-only education, anti-immigrationmyriad countries experiencing genocide, the abysmal state of healthcare and what social security, and the even more abysmal state of the environment. Im sure there are many more, but its hard to keep track. You see how its so easy for our statement-making to get lost in all the cacophony? But while were at that ambiguous age where no one seems to take us seriously, its nice to know we, at least, think of ourselves as capable, sentient people with valuable opinions.

Its even better when were all congregated in paper free, the same place. Like on a college campus. Laying the problems a few kids have with college at the feet of every university in America is an alarming position. I love my school. Its the home I felt I never had, its where I met the best friends I never had, and i lived for Ive never doubted my decision to go there for a second. But not everyone picks a winner on research paper the first try, even though thats precisely what were expected to laissez-faire leadership definition, do. I wasnt allowed to pick the next president when I applied to college, but I was supposed to pick my future. For someone who doesnt have the research paper free rest of her life mapped out, that can be a scary proposition. And parents dont help.

They pressure their kids throughout the process, passing on henry david thoreau i lived and what for their prejudices and dreams. But all that can disappear when you step onto the right campus. Its hard for paper free, some of these kids to realize that, once youre at college, youre not under your parents thumb anymore. Even if theyve got that financial string still attached, your daily doings go unknown. You can gorge yourself on ice cream if youre so inclined, or start your Psych paper four hours before its due. You get to choose your own lotthe whole world is yours. You dont have to laissez-faire leadership definition, wake up at 7 a.m. to sleepily ready yourself for another day of work. Free? You dont have to worry about process, TPS reports or jargon-filled memos. Unless youve failed a few classes, youre not going to get fired from research paper school.

If you dont feel like going to class, you dont go to class. Fiddle around with your schedule enough, and you could have a three- or four-day weekend, every weekend. You can take any number of fascinating classes, or learn a new language because, well, you can. (Da!) Plunging directly into the real world after high school would probably have resulted in my commission to an asylum. Or I would have ended up as interesting as a head of cabbage. Now I can at least trot out a few Russian phrases or a cursory explanation of DNA synthesis. Of course, we have to make forays into the real world during the argumentation summer of these glorious years, prepping us for the next few decades of research free, toil. Essay The Water? These forays are not necessarily pleasant. Research Paper? I have a job of the 8:30-5:30, Monday through Friday kind, in a cubicle among rows of cubicles, where the only way I can get a glimpse of the sun is by walking past the Head Honchos office. I participate in mindless office chatter.

I have a hideously expensive apartment (because thats what you do in New York City, you pay a lot of money to live in essay, a closet). I have to worry about rent and ironing my business casual slacksOh god, Im wearing slacksand paying back loans, and research catching that next train. There is no such thing as summer break. Bleak, no? But thats the beauty of collegeyou have a few more years to make that transition. Its not about protests and stifled creativityif youre truly creative, no force, not even The Man, can stop you. Its about learning the most you can about yourself and your world, so you dont just run off, half-cocked, into the real world, where things are not all hugs and puppies. Seriously, this depressing shell of a summer has me salivating for the start of school. I need a vacation. College as America used to understand it is coming to on Solving the Water Problems in America, an end In this brief sentence I believe that Mr.

Perlstein accurately. assesses the changing, perhaps already changed, nature of the free college. experience and the role it is perceived as playing in the. intellectual and social advancement of the college student. Argumentation? He is.

undoubtably right in realizing the tides are changing; we need only. look at research free, the social and political environment of the previous eras in. which men like Doug Mitchell attended college to see the disparities. in social perception and life experience between the college youth of, for example, the sixties, and the college youth of today. Mitchells. was a time of social upheaval, when America and Essay the Water in America its children were. questing for free, a new identity and an opportunity to improve the world; it was indeed the liberal hour during which the Essay faith that. intellectual idealism and free political progressivism held the key to the. future of humanity ran rampant. Colleges at the time were, of course, intimately linked to this phenomenon, and served as incubators for.

budding intellectuals and safe-havens for political theorizing and. debate. What? Today, we live in a very different social climate, one in. which faith in the government has greatly dwindled, and dwindles. still, and a certain mixture of fear and paranoia have cast a. paralyzing shadow over the sunny progressivism of days now gone by. Disillusionment with the two-party system, or at least with the two. parties themselves, widely publicized government fiascos and scandal, floundering support for the president, and fear of disturbing world. realities like terrorism have created a situation where people have. insulated themselves from the paper realm of on Solving the Water in America, external world affairs, Politics and all it entails. Others have cynically decided that, for. them, opportunism and not philanthropy promises to be the most.

fulfilling of philosophies. This I think, is paper free, integral to understanding. the circumstances of the change. If the average college student now. grows up in an environment where political expression and. philosophical cultivation is much less encouraged, he or she will. reflect that, and the old perception of david i lived for, American colleges as hotbeds.

of political activism will come to be outdated. This being so, the. questions remain What is the nature and consequence of this change? and What is the perceived role of college now for most students? Writing from the viewpoint of a second year student at a highly. competitive American university, I hold the research paper free experiences of my freshmen. year still clear in my mind, and from that reserve I think I can draw. several observations that may cast some light on these questions and.

demonstrate their relevance. As soon as I first set foot on campus, I. was bombarded by what is phycology, returning students, painted and clad in school. colors, who danced about, assuring us we would love our new home. Congratulations were thrown about, we took part in wild orientation. celebrations, and all was carried out with an energy and cheerfulness. that both amazed and wearied me. Things continued in this fashion for.

several days, and most students welcomed the festivities with much. gusto and research paper free open arms. My story has a point: Looking back and judging. solely by these memories, I would not have thought I had stepped into. the environs of an institution of high learning but instead arrived at. some strange party where the attendees needed no other social.

lubricant than a strong sense of complacency and self-celebration. Henry Thoreau Where For? Of. course, the early days were indeed a light-hearted celebration before. the heavier days of work and study, but that strange feeling of. self-satisfaction never left the air. These college students were not. so much concerned about paper free, fixing the world and sharpening their. ideologies as they were about jealously hanging onto something they. feared losing: their complacency and security.

For them, I think that. college served almost as an elite club, where they could feel good. about their achievements, work at realizing even greater personal. glory, and be with other like-minded individuals. Perlstein writes. about students he talked to who viewed college as a small town they. wished to escape, and I think this sense of a small town is. intentional and desired-smallness here insuring homogeneity, familiarity, and wallpaper lesson predictability. This is a manifestation of the free social.

withdrawal from, and ignorance of, the turbulence of the outside. world, and is a form of escapism into a comfortable, organized, and. Evidence of this is manifest on the Facebook website, a tool and. social forum designed for college students. Among the personal data. listings, Political Views is one such item, and david thoreau where i lived for I was surprised to. find many students leave this space empty, or use the pre-made choice.

Apathetic, even while they fill in other areas such as Favorite. Music and Looking for with comprehensive eagerness. Research Free? This apathy was. present in the student body itself as well. Among students not. directly involved in political study, it was very difficult to arouse.

conversations concerning the validity of certain ideologic positions, political agendas, or the what merits of research free, various religious tenets. Where I Lived For? As a. student interested in research paper free, International Relations, such topics of. discussion held interest for me, and while I did not go out of my way. to coerce or corner others upon the yellow wallpaper plan the subjects, I did note their. reluctance to address them. The usual excuses either concerned a. flaky, ethereal I think everybodys right in what they choose to. believe in or an outright disdain for the topic in general, or those. who felt differently from the person in question.

This again calls to. mind the notion that college no longer serves as a place of. difference, of exploration and research newness of experience, but as a place. of sameness, a place to preserve certain comforts and securities. I. think many students have adopted such positions of neutrality because. they are hesitant to deal with new and different viewpoints because. such things threaten the stability they are trying so hard to insure. for themselves. Caroline Ouwerkerk, the Organization Kid, is Essay on Solving the Water in America, a. product of such sentiment: her college experience is strictly. scheduled and regimented to free, keep it within the bounds of comfort and.

So what do these students hope to find at henry where and what i lived for, college? They have withdrawn. from the grander arena of ideological debate into themselves; the. previous desire to better the world has become the drive to advance. the self.

By turning ones back on the greater troubles outside, most. college students are free within their small towns to paper, pursue the. easier and less troublesome dream of laissez-faire leadership, personal success. Theirs is a. dream of research paper free, escapism. The greatest enemy has become personal failure, and. the attitude toward college has changed with it. College is now seen. as a stepping-stone to a career path, and its value proportionate to. its marketability to military, would-be employers. This is why students like.

Jonathan Hersh experience confusion when questioned about the pure. intellectual merit of learning; for them, it holds no place in the. equation of success. Research Paper? The retreat from the failures and harshness of. world affairs has led college students to see their time at school not. as an opportunity for intellectual broadening and what is phycology understanding, but. as a means to create a safe and comfortable bubble to live in; a. buffer against free the worlds unpleasantries. When I began studying at Hendrix College, I remember the seniors complaining about how everything was different when they were freshmen. They had even channeled their angst into t-shirt form with the catchy slogan I remember when Hendrix was cool. Of course, we freshmen were not allowed to buy them; after all, we didnt remember when Hendrix was cool. What we thought was cool was actually the watered-down college experience given to us by a tyrannical administration.

This year, however, Im a senior, and I received word that someone in my class (without any sense of what, irony) was trying to revive this concept and sell the shirts themselves. So has my college really degenerated so much in four years that the graduating senior class has to constantly redefine what is cool? More importantly: has college as a whole? To my mind, the argument Rick Perlstein makes in his article is a similar mix of generational chauvinism with just a smidge of paper, shadenfreudeonly he asserts that college life has depreciated on what a much larger scale and over a much longer period of research paper free, time. He enjoyed his enriching college experience and leadership seems to have the paper free appropriate pity for the college students of today who only think theyre being similarly enlightened. Granted, I can never experience Mr. Perlsteins college, but I argue that college as a whole is still transformative. Although I see the logic of his point that through internet and greater freedom of expression for high school students, they are less isolated from people of similar interests and quirks before they reach college. However, while it is is phycology, perhaps less of an exciting shock to research free, find kindred spirits in the college atmosphere, the transition is still a unique one. I grew up with fairly open and trusting parents, but still every day I would go to a very regimented public school.

I dont want to polarize the issue between those who attend public schools and those privately educated, but I will say that I believe that college still represents a strong change and argumentation essay an opening of creative freedom for myself and paper many of todays bright eyed high school graduates. Sadly, this change is due not to the upping of creativity in military problem solving, college but rather the further restriction of freedom and expression in high school. An increase in standardized testing accompanied by an increase in mistrust of the student body, arguably for paper, good reason, that leads to leadership, random searches of research paper, students personal belongings all make the public school environment one that the public high school student of today is none too loathe to military solving, part with. Paper? Thus the entering of college with all the trust and freedoms that entails is wallpaper lesson plan, still an awakening for many of research, us who werent lucky enough to is phycology, attend prep schools and specialized high schools. I am reluctant in this point because I do not want to suggest that the change from high school to college is only the same because we have effectively lowered the bar for creativity expected of college students. But looking at research paper, the issue as simply the importance of college as an Essay the Water Problems in America experience, its relevance is still strong. College is research free, one of the last chances in my life that I can make my personal enlightenment my full time occupation. The opportunities for lectures, concerts, cultural activities, and independent research is leadership definition, still high. Also, the courses themselves are getting more rich in research paper, detail and highly specialized. As an English major, I enjoy the privilege of not having to essay, take seminars on T.S.

Eliot (not that I dont enjoy him from time to time, and am thankful the option is research, still there) in is phycology, light of such courses as Cross Dressing and research paper the Trans-gendered Body in Childrens Literature and Film. And then there is the chance to travel. An increasing number of college students study abroadwhat was a trickle in the 60s has now become positively mainstream. And I dont believe that this exodus is an attempt to escape the oppressive American colleges that stifle creativity, but rather as a chance to augment the college experience with cultural perspective. I see this as a positive change in the college system as students evolve in an increasingly globalized society. Surely there is something in lesson plan, this trend; a certain independence and paper free interest in argumentation essay, the world around them. I will agree on the point that the research relevance of what, college in the larger political and research paper social context has diminished. I think that this is self perpetuating result of ennui of the public at large as much as the apathy of the students themselves.

A paradox of the chicken and egg variety: people dont look to colleges for political cues and the students give up on trying to david where i lived and what i lived, be heard. I was involved in the protest scene, largely on the issue of gay rights, my first year of college and research paper free soon came to Essay the Water in America, the conclusion that most of what we were doing was more for our benefit than the people whos minds we were ostensibly trying to change. I grew dejected and felt that as a world changing force I was approximately equivalent to a bumper sticker or email petition. Apathy was far more potent a deterrent than negative energywe preferred to have obscenities hurled at us from passers by research paper free, than to the yellow wallpaper lesson plan, be completely ignored by all those who saw us. College students throughout history have been the beginning of research paper, stirrings of revolutionary trends. But now I feel were a little immobilized before we can begin by virtue of being ignored. And, at the risk of getting into an entirely different issue, it isnt only the college students who are having their political input ignored at present.

For the present, therefore, college students internalize their political leanings or channel their social consciences elsewhere. I wish that I could entirely refute Perlsteins observations, if for no other reason than because I am a little defensive about a period of my life that I feel has altered me a great deal. However, for better or worse, circumstances and institutions evolve and change with the times. In as much as we can generalize about what is phycology, a generation of students, mine is one of intense focus that at times sacrifices creativity in free, a drive to Essay on Solving the Water Problems in America, get the competitive edge. A litany of college prep courses and resume fluffing amounts often to experiences that are more superficial than substantive. Some admittedly do lose sight of why they have come to college in an intense effort to appear impressive on paper. Nevertheless, the undercurrents of college and paper college students are still ones of experimentation. We may appear a little too focused at times and we may seem to ignore and be ignored by henry i lived i lived, the political arena, but we are changing and finding ourselves nonetheless. At any rate, I can take comfort in the fact that after enough time has passed I too can look back with fond nostalgia on paper my experiences in college and argumentation essay save a little cup of pity for the college students then who have the misfortune of going to school when all the relevance of college clearly disintegrated with my generation. After all, I will remember when college as an experience was still cool. From the paper free Tour Group to the Octoparrot.

I do not encourage people to apply to my university. Its a great school, I always say, but it has its problems. The food is terrible, financial aid is so-so, and the people from New Jersey think Im from South Carolina. As a college student who does not varnish truths or exude enthusiasm without questioning, I believe that after two years I know enough to honestly reflect on the experience. From beyond the confines of the ivory tower, Rick Perlstein asks whether colleges have lost their centrality in the American vision.

The answer is inarguably yes as Perlstein demonstrates, in the 1960s it was inevitable that college life occupy an important place in high-stakes political campaigns; now, the same situation is unimaginable. Argumentation Essay? Perlstein argues that colleges fall from influence is due to a change in the way students approach the college experience. Research? He quotes University of Chicago undergraduates who see college as a small town which they are eager to escape, rather than the cultural paradise that Perlstein loved. He emphasizes this dark current of student opinion at Chicago (Perlstein notes that Most of my interviewees were happy, but suggests they were naive cogs in the organization ), and extends his argument, based on several students reactions to a particular school, to a national trend of argumentation, undergraduate apathy. In pointing to shifty societal changes, Perlstein overlooks a glaring demographic factor. Colleges influence in American society has waned through the force of numbers. I invoke the analogy of a rabbit moving slowly through the gullet of a python; in this way the paper free baby boomer population, which provided the political and cultural impetus of campus life in step process, the 1960s, has moved through the demographic stages.

It is free, clear from current television commercials (and evidence present in my own home) that baby boomers are approaching hearing-aid age. Is Phycology? Their interest in college is in research paper, the admission of their children, a point that Perlstein notes. More troubling to this college student is not colleges lessened influence in the political and cultural spectra of American society, but rather Perlsteins negative portrayal of todays undergraduate experience. Perlstein aligns his younger self, who grew up in a suburban jail and Essay the Water Problems found in college an ecstatic adventure, to Hamilton Morris, the filmmaker, painter, photographer, [and] experienced professional standup comedian. It is on this parallel that Perlstein bases his argument that college has changed significantly in the past thirty years, and research paper free it is an unfair comparison.

One of the first lessons I learned in college a shocking one is that people come from different places. Perlstein and Morris had radically different backgrounds, and it is henry thoreau i lived for, unsurprising that their reactions to the college experience were likewise dissimilar. I offer myself as a more fitting parallel to the young Perlstein. I looked forward to college as an escape from the crowded hallways of research paper free, my high school (where students were not allowed to use the bathrooms or check out books.) I wanted to leave parking lots filled with pick-ups and overgrown kids leaning against them, smoking. Six hours north by car, I discovered that paradise looked differently than I had imagined.

I soon learned to keep quiet the fact that I do not own a passport. I did not mention how my middle school principal pulled shades over the windows (to hide shootings in a nearby parking lot.) I wondered uncomfortably why I had never heard of dichotomies, paradigms or close readings. I began to think I was outmatched. Why, after all the hard work, passion, and dreaming, did my confidence trickle away? I blame myself, but also enter Morris, who finds his classmates insanely uncreative and seven military problem solving the entire college academic experience enervating. I know many a Hamilton Morris. Sometimes they dress in black. Paper Free? They raise their hands in the middle of lectures to mention abstruse points about chalcolithic pottery, or they begin sentences with, When I was in [Kazakhstan, Romania, Jordan, etc.] I noticed And then they wonder, disdainfully, at the bewildered silence that surrounds their additions to leadership definition, class discussion. The TAs gamely try to keep up. Although intimidated by Hamilton Morris, I also feel sorry for research paper free, him.

Then I hear what he has to say about people like me, students who had to spend their entire high school experience studying for the SATs or something and didnt really get a chance to live life or experience things. My sympathy rapidly changes to anger at such callous misunderstanding, the same kind of anger I felt when a friend referred to the ignorant South. I left my home because I had no faith in it, but I found, in leaving it, that I was being judged in ways and by means that I had always meant to avoid by what, people like Hamilton Morris. These are people who believe they have cornered creativity and research paper free trapped it in a cage; they think that others live conventional existences and cannot have the same essential knowledge to offer about life that they do. The Hamilton Morrises of the world label entire ways of being, of which they know none of the details, insanely uncreative. It was people like Hamilton Morris who occasionally, that first semester, made my paradise into a prison (and simultaneously taught me a difficult lesson about the power of judgment I reconsidered the overgrown kids and their pickup trucks.) Perlstein does tap into a problem that colleges face today (perhaps they always have; my knowledge of how college used to be comes from my parents memories); colleges must bring together students who come from places that, with globalization and generous financial aid, are increasingly far apart. The admirable byword at todays universities is not revolution but diversity, and (at the risk of sounding like a slick college handbook) college is the only place in America where scholarship students from Singapore meet Coloradan trust fund babies and prep school graduates and community college transfers run against each other for the presidency of the student association. Small town intellectuals encounter Southern aristocrats, and sons of automakers study with daughters of biochemists for the theology final in the yellow, college, people from free across cultures, classes, and laissez-faire definition continents collide in a splendid shattering of tension. Sometimes, though, if one is not willing to peel the layers off of research paper free, every life and see the spectacular adventure at each core, ones classmates become insanely uncreative and the experience is enervating instead of deeply challenging. Whats the matter with college?

In seeming contrast to todays experience, Perlstein warmly describes Doug Mitchells undergraduate days, a social life that kind of revolved around the dorm lounge some people would argue night and day. I remember, in parallel, nights on the wind-whipped campus I call home. My friends and I carry conversations from Essay Problems dinner late into the night, avoiding thoughts of economics homework and unwritten essays on Shakespeare. We talk about God, we place acquaintances in circles of Dantes Hell, we argue whether or not it would be morally right to create an octoparrot, we argue about whether there is a moral right. Then someone mentions coolly ignoring the tour groups that surge around campus this time of the year and we remember the research free days when we were them, and we rightly imagined this place to argumentation essay, be paradise. The Good Old Days: Passion in Higher Education. One of paper, this things which has struck me most in sixteen years of education is the persistent belief that things were better in the Good Old Days. It is a belief which is clearly alive and very much with us even into the twenty-first century, if Mr. Perlsteins article is anything to go by. As an undergraduate at the University of Chicago myself, it is process, understandable that I had a strong response to research, this article.

In fact, the first (and second ) time I read the article, I took it somewhat personally. What? Badly. But whatever I disagree with in Mr. Perlsteins argument (and there is a great deal), I must admit that he is right on one count: as a discrete experience, college has begun to disappear. Our highly commercialized and academically competitive culture does make high school experiences closer to college and college experiences closer to the working world. There is less border space between experiences, classes, work than there has been before.

Yes, college is research paper, not as discrete an experience as it was in argumentation essay, the past. Free? Yes, what Mr. Perlstein sees today at the University of Chicago is substantially different than what he saw during his own days as an undergraduate. Why is this a bad thing? The whole tone of Mr.

Perlsteins article suggests that there is something wrong with my generation because we do not act like kids did in the good old days. I get the impression that Mr. Laissez-faire Definition? Perlstein feels todays students (represented by research free, his extreme portraits Mr. Thoreau And What I Lived For? Morris, Miss Ouwerkerk, and Mr. Hersh) have somehow sold out. Well, Mr. Perlstein, Ive got news for research paper free, you: so do we. Some of what, us think theyre funny and even if we dont, the point is that the University of Chicago, and paper free every other major university in this country, is home to far more opinions than fall under these three extreme portraits. Mr. Perlstein has failed to take into account the diversity of any campus and I dont mean ethnic diversity necessarily, either on its own terms or as a marketing phrase; I mean intellectual diversity.

My university is home to these three students, and an infinite number of others: communists, creative anachronists, ballet dancers, film geeks, and future grad students worried more about Ovid than their chances on the job market. There are even a few of us (most, by henry i lived and what i lived for, my tally) who really are students who have found in college a world apart, where 18-year- olds discover themselves for the first time in a heady atmosphere of cultural and intellectual tumult. I would consider myself one, and research free its very strange to see my genuine wonder tossed off as an outdated marketing ploy. College as we understand it may indeed be coming to an end (this is, incidentally, a difficult claim to grapple with because Mr. Perlsteins third person only applies to his own classmates, who themselves substantially redefined college), but I doubt this is quite the cultural catastrophe Mr. Perlstein foresees. For those many of us who did not grow up in Mr. Morris position, college is still a dramatic change from high school. Is Phycology? Because so many of us go to college in research free, different states, different time zones, or different countries, college still means independence and a new and exhilarating measure of freedom. College still means discovery of self, of people, of the world.

And most importantly to me, college still means passion. Like so many of my peers, Im an intern this summer. This is wallpaper, pretty normal even if youre not an Organization Kid (they intern with international NGOs or top investment banks). I work in the media relations office of research, a small liberal arts college on the east coast and I spend most of my time interviewing other students with summer research grants or college funding. This is my second year at this job and Ive lost count of how many people I have interviewed.

It tends to spill over into the rest of my year as well; being paid to talk to people for eight hours a day has turned me into someone who continues to ask questions even off duty. What I hear most, from everybody, is excitement. Whether they juggle or play varsity lacrosse or volunteer at the local soup kitchen, Ive learned that college students all have that excitement in is phycology, common. Research? Im not sure whether to call it exhilaration, passion, or energy, but it is Problems, something vibrant and nearly tangible. Dont know what Im talking about? Grab the free first person you can find who has recently completed a Ph.D. and ask them about their dissertation. My job is something like that and the answers I get are invariably interesting. Essay The Water? Who knew that local government could be that intriguing? Foreign reserve policy or hedge fund management that fascinating?

Yes, my generation may lack the paper political energy of the 60s, but just because we have ipods and laptops and the internet, please dont assume that we are passive couch potatoes. Because we do have passion: passion for biochemistry and Bosnia and what Harry Potter and pre-Socratics and child development studies. Free? For me, this is why college is important: because it teaches enthusiasm. College matters because it is exciting and because it is david thoreau where i lived i lived, all right to be excited. Ah, but Im not answering the question: is the college experience less critical to the nation than it was a decade ago?

Just think about free, that for a minute. College and students are a genuine sales niche (think of thoreau where i lived for, all the Citibank ads, the decorate your dorm room specials at K-Mart), nostalgia of the good old days at college is rampant, and paper overqualification is common. The Yellow Plan? I would argue that, far from research paper vanishing, the College Experience is virtually ubiquitous in American culture, like senior prom or the white wedding. Essay The Water Problems In America? Like the definition of college, the presence of research, college has changed rather than vanished. Argumentation Essay? Again, this term college may mean something different in a personal or national context, but it most certainly means something. Again, I challenge Mr. Perlstein to convince me that what it means today is research paper, actually worse than what it meant ten or twenty or fifty years ago. And if the indignation sparked by this patronizing and romanticized description of henry david and what i lived for, our world in the minds of myself and my fellow 09ers isnt evidence of research paper free, some kind of generation gap, I dont know what is.

So, why does college matter? Someone explained once that he enjoyed working in what, the U.S. academic system because it allowed the professors to talk about their research, both to students and colleagues. Its that kind of enthusiasm that defines my college career, that kind of enthusiasm that we learn in college. College matters because it instills in us the need to pursue, to master, to communicate passion for any and every belief. College shows us what we love (or hate) and how to research, express that to a purpose. And that function of higher education will continue, I believe, as long as there are colleges and students to attend them. College. I dread the day it will begin. Why must we be subjected to this institution as the only other option is to be unsupported by what is phycology, our own parents and our very own Corporate State. Yes ladies and research gentlemen, America has betrayed us. We are not living in a society of absolute freedom and liberty.

We are disillusioned as such, but as we enter our teenage years, our once thoughtful, expectant hopes of bright futures slowly fade to seven step military solving process, the misery of the reality we are about to face. I once was excited at the prospect of going to college; The idea of living on my own away from parents and free restrictions, a place to gain knowledge in a field of my choosing, a chance to explore myself and find new meaning in life all around me, all of this was something I looked forward to with pleasure. Until recently that is. The fact is, what do most people end up doing for the rest of their lives as the result of the yellow, four, six or eight years of college attendance? Their years are drained away working long strenuous hours in factories, offices, cubicles, driving in insane traffic, gulping down caffeinated drinks merely to keep them awake longer to finish up longer hours of work they soon come to research, dislike. Even those who tell themselves theyll get a reward in the end for their hard efforts see through it all in david i lived and what for, truth. They realize deep down that a vacation twice a year and a big flat screen tv isnt all that worth it when they come home to find the x box and television know their children bette than they do, the babysitters of todays day in age; When they are too exhausted by the end of their days and weeks and years to even enjoy lifes simple pleasures.

People are too tied up with work. Research Paper? Life has become all about work, work work and step military process it all starts out paper when one steps into the university campus today and begins the journey through years of studying, not necessarily what one wants, but courses that are ever-more required in order to graduate. More and more skills are suddenly mandatory, higher degrees needed, more technical training, etc. Lesson Plan? Its become a ridiculous phenomenon. Doctors and teachers for example, two careers most needed in America today are becoming more and more difficult degrees to achieve. Research Paper Free? Many teens feel its not even worth it to go to college for what they really want because theyll be spending so much time taking so many different courses they are uninterested in and then by the time they actually earn their degree and begin practicing it, their jobs have become so abysmally impersonal. Doctors rarely have a chance to actually get to know their patients on a personal level as used to be in the past. Most people working jobs today in fact, dont even care to lesson, becom! e person al with their patients, clients, customers, etc, all they care about is selling a product, getting through with what they need to accomplish, even if its not done whole-heartedly, abiding by research paper, the law, but really what it comes down to what is phycology, is making a buck at the end of the day. Sadly, college is no longer about learning to aspire to paper, a career of your dreams, enjoying your classes, and plan being motivated to study, to work hard for research paper, your goals simply because you want to help the public interest, you want to laissez-faire leadership, make a difference to another human being, to the society and world at large, you want to do good for someone besides yourself. Rather, college is research paper free, merely a tool the the yellow lesson plan Corporate State uses to train human beings to act quite selfishly for their own good, to research paper free, make money for themselves, to wallpaper, work tirelessly in college only to work tirelessly forevermore at a most likely dull job in the future. With all this in paper free, mind, college is certainly not something to be looked forward to.

A more apt assertion than college as America used to understand it is coming to an end is that America as America used to step solving, understand it has already ended. Higher education, both the idea and tangible manifestation, is not the same as it was forty years ago. But neither is the research free United States, or the world, for that matter. Expecting the current collegiate crowd to undergo an undergraduate experience like that of their parents is to put campus life in a formaldehyde-sealed, shrink-wrapped bubble, immune to the cultural, socio-political, economical, and technological changes of the past four decades. College used to be not only a privilege but also something to look forward to as Rick Perlstein points out in Essay, Whats the Matter with College. Todays students, the paper free baby-boomers babies, are jaded by the time they enter college, now an expectation. According to figures on the National Center for step military solving, Education Statistics website, the 18 24 year old population rose 15% between 1995 and 2005, prompting a 33% increase of the number of free, full-time students. NCES predicts that this number will increase an additional 13% by henry david where i lived for, the year 2015. Because todays American college education is research paper, mostly the norm, graduate school enrollment has also skyrocketed, rendering the undergraduate degree itself unimportant if one wishes to become a significant and for successful component in research paper free, the consumer culture in thoreau i lived, which this generation is saturated.

Growing up in the fast-paced New York City prep school circuit, I was educated among peers who knew what Ivy League school they wanted to attend by the age of twelve. Competition was fierce and is becoming even fiercer. Research Free? Its hard to where i lived and what i lived for, determine the source of the research paper ever-prevalent competitive nature: is it the fourteen-year-olds negotiating for thoreau i lived and what i lived for, an extra two points on an exam like their lawyer-parents or the parents who make their kid practice the trumpet or glockenspiel for two hours a day starting at the age of five, hoping to guarantee acceptance at research paper free, Ivy League University X, regardless of SAT scores and GPA, when the laissez-faire leadership time comes? College has changed because high school has changed. You can blame the Internet or televised violence or whatever but its unreasonable to expect that the college experience of previous generations can prevail in a country thats no longer as hopeful or innocent. We dont have a common cause. Were not fighting, united, against a draft for a war we dont believe in.

There may be some (or a lot) who dont believe in the war, but were not united. Thats not to say that we dont care; we do. Its just that as a generation, we care about a cornucopia of causes. One student wants to research paper, save Darfur, another is a gay-rights activist fighting for gender-neutral housing, and another is trying to step military process, protect migrant workers by kicking Coca-Cola off campus. Free? We do have movements and there are people trying to argumentation, do whats right but theres no primary, umbrella cause that has gripped every student across the country.

Today, colleges make headlines because of shootings, not protests. This is a collegiate generation that watched Columbine and September 11th on their 70? high-definition, plasma televisions. Weve grown up with the world, both good and bad, at our fingertips from our wireless laptops. We are the product of the consumer culture America has become. Student life is no longer an American centrality because rather than steering culture, we feed it. We absolutely adore our iPods and cell phones and retro converse sneakers and designer jeans. We are a generation rooted in irony and cynicism, raised by technology that has trained us to dismiss the once present value inherent in the idea of paper, college: that its a place to transform, to learn, and to grow into our adult selves who will, someday soon, be calling the shots.

We come, see, and conquer, and what often dont consider how it affects others. Were emotionally stunted because we spent our formative teen years replacing a large percentage of our peer interactions with instant messaging, isolating ourselves and arriving at college with a heightened sense of individuality, perhaps, but not much sense of community. Technology is the only thing we have in common were fragmented across all other arenas: religion, culture, politics, economics. Weve misinterpreted Mr. Rogers message and have taken the concept of special to new, unimagined levels. Research Free? Were hardcore individualists and its near impossible to find cohesion in a population of people who think that theyre different from everybody else. The application process itself encourages the notion through its predominant, overarching question: What makes you so special? We arrive at college already incredibly individualized and laissez-faire leadership definition aware of who we are (or who we think we are, at least), prompting us to try harder to preserve our individuality, the research feeling that we are each a special, unique snowflake different from all others, than to become a part of henry, something bigger and more powerful. Research Paper Free? Most of us prefer to leadership definition, be separate from our peers rather than unified. College campuses and the students they house have lost their place as this nations focal point because, as disparaging as it may be, college is now a waiting room for research paper, the real world. Its not that everyones miserable and spends four years isolated from their peers but that they know that this is Problems in America, not the free end of the line.

That theres a lot more waiting for them and expected because the argumentation world is different. Research Paper? Weve seen the world change before our eyes and are far too cynical to believe its going to stop. And because were so individualistic, its hard to effect positive change. We may each think that were special in our own way, but not very many of us think we can change the plan world all by ourselves. So we recede to research paper free, our respective corners of the ring, fight our own battles, inner and outer, and argumentation essay continue to devote our energies to our continuing self-discovery, perhaps over-emphasized and over-developed. We spend our undergraduate years waiting to take control of an ever-changing world as a generation mostly fragmented. And while forbearing college generations may have stood united, the truth is that we are very much divided, prompting college as American used to understand it, to paper free, fall.

Whats The Matter With College: A Rejoinder. College is wallpaper, known to be a citadel of research free, learning. It could as well serve other purposes to different people depending on ones perspective. Therefore a person could either pass through college or have College pass through him or her. Although a lot has been written in the past about Essay on Solving Problems in America, students and college life both past and present, but none of paper free, those articles wear a crown of criticisms as to be compared with what Mr. Rick Perlistein wrote in whats the henry david thoreau i lived matter with college. I agree that every author has its own style of writing and it is evident in research free, each piece of step solving, his work. The same way college life experiences in the 70s and now have been portrayed in paper free, writing in so many different ways by so many different authors, across the on Solving the Water Problems in America pages of so many different print medias. However a reader may find differences and similarities in the opinions of these authors about college life experiences then and now including the one written by Perlistein which is paper free, an in dept analysis of what is phycology, how college life in America is coming to paper, an end due to what is phycology, its being less critical to the nation than it use to paper, be a generation ago. Peristein in the article summed up college life experiences as it affects students in the late 60s and 70s and how those experiences has made them better students and an enviable generation.

This is against the back drop of todays generational colleges and what it offers. Essay On Solving Problems? Although the article did not address major issues-like standards of education and learning achievements as it concerns colleges in the 60s and todays colleges, rather it dwelt on the social transformation offered to students through college life experiences as they transit through it. However, one could argue from the standpoint of Mr. Perlistein as he viewed college life then which actually shaped his belief about todays colleges loosing its central place in the broader society as being real and true. The picture painted by research paper, Perlistein about what is phycology, students and colleges in the 70s is in no doubt incomparable to todays college and students. I quite agree that in research paper free, the 70s, according to Essay on Solving Problems, Perlistein that students and the structures in it; make up colleges which tend to research free, be the heart and soul of politics.

In as much as every adult should have a say on how he or she is governed, by the yellow lesson, participating in free, politics, I never knew that college students of the 70s shouldered such huge political responsibility to laissez-faire leadership definition, the point that they became the research paper bedrock of modern politics.-that is good to know. This actually explains the military solving intensity that comes with students body elections in research, colleges then in the 70s. Research shows that a whole semester could be dedicated to on Solving the Water Problems in America, such game of politics and research paper free little or no attention paid to studying during such election period. Is Phycology? Now I understand the involvement of the 70s graduate in todays politics more than any other generation. My discussion with Matt, a close friend, a product of the 70s college and the head of a small group here in south bay-Los Angeles working as one of the small political front canvassing support for Barrack Obama- who is research, seeking for the yellow plan, Democratic Presidential nomination come 2008 actually confirmed my fears. He relived his college days experience for me in a short story and research free crowned it up with that is why I am a politician. Consequently, the anti war movements in colleges then in the 70s thrived beyond expectation. The tendency to affect societal change socially bore heavily on the shoulders of these people who called themselves students. They sacrificed so much in other to alleviate the social change that society needs as against plan their own self goal attainment.

Therefore, is it not interesting to note that a generation of students-70s college students is research paper, known to be trendsetters especially and only culturally? What an achievement! Most of us benefited from this infamous ideology. More so, Perlistein mentioned about the structural makeovers colleges got then in the 70s. He attributed this to the economic boom then, but one thing he mentioned which is quite interesting is the idea that between 1957 and 1967, the number of college students doubled. Meanwhile is essay, this an indication that 70s colleges turned out research free more graduate professionals as compared with todays colleges? While there are reasons to be concerned and also applaud the achievements of the 70s college students with regards to their role in the society then, todays college and students by many measures are actually faring as well or better than the 70s students. Therefore it is Essay on Solving the Water Problems, pertinent to say that college as America used to research paper free, understand it is not coming to an end, rather it is blossoming beyond Perlistein comprehension.

No wonder Perlisteins views about todays college students are mauled with skepticism and frustration-with due respect sir. Come to think of it, if getting into college becomes ones innate desire as a way of succeeding in life, which I know truly confront many of todays college student. Then it is debasing to say the least that college students with such big viable dreams could be branded dissidents and labeled noisy as the argumentation essay case with the research paper free 70s college students. Yet it seems to be alright as agreed by what, Perlistein. Research Paper? What then do people call a person who is excited and going to the circus to have fun?

Nevertheless, college life experiences then in the 70s is still the same with college life today except with few distinctions which has to do with generational time gap, modernization, and technological advancement, new breed students with better focus as well as job market place competition. These distinctions are generational exceptions with regards to time which separate the world of the 70s from todays world. College students in the 70s, acts out movie scripts written by societal norms, produced by the students themselves and directed by the schools they attend. Essay? The movie set becomes their dorm lounge. Yet their reward does not speak volumes in terms of success like that of paper free, real actors and actresses rather it comes, based on hard work and ones ability to scale through the hurdles of graduation if at all it is possible.

Therefore if we say that college in henry thoreau i lived and what for, the 70s is better in paper free, cultural setup, we mean that school is fun. yes school is fun both then and now, although then in the 70s, it is is phycology, a creed recited by every student. Paper Free? Having fun had an what is phycology upper hand in the life of the 70s student and that is what defined college education in the 70s. Perlisten wrote school was fun. There is nothing wrong in having fun in school. Research Free? I am a big advocate of the popular saying all work and no play make jack a dull boy. But should fun define citadel of learning? Even so, when fun in colleges cease to wallpaper lesson, be in paper, full swing just as it is seven military problem process, today, should it be seen that college as it used to research paper, be is coming to an end? No of course!

It is just a generational gap problem. Again, does modernization have a hand in this issue? Maybe yes, what of technological advancement? Oh good idea, for how else do one explain the role and the Water in America importance of research paper free, modern educational gadgets like computers and internets in todays college student life. Essay? The evolvement of technology from the 70s to paper free, what it is today, speaks volume about the difference in seven, 70s college students and todays college students. If at free, all technology mean anything in this issue, it is absolutely an abracadabra to the students of the 70s.

They really missed out on this, no wonder instead of them surfing the internet and doing educational research work, they are busy partying and inviting artiste to the campus to perform. These generation of fun loving students accounted for the decline in the number of graduate professionals that would have filled the job vacuum in an ever growing economy. Although 70s experienced an increase in the number of what, registered students, but survey showed that fewer students graduated. what happened to the rest? Surprisingly, those that graduated did so in areas not so competitive and which is considered less professional, for paper free, example majoring in linguistics as oppose to medicine. The so called graduates of the 70s college education were no less important to the nation and the economy. The ignorant attitude of the American college students in laissez-faire leadership definition, the 70s, contributed immensely to the shortage of paper, professionals in areas like Medicine, Engineering and Information Technology etc. This resulted in American ever increasing need of professionals in those fields mentioned earlier. Eventually, the economy resorted to david thoreau where and what for, the importation of these professionals from other countries in other to fill the free vacuum. On Solving Problems? Out sourcing of jobs which started in the 80s, although it has stopped is a direct consequence of the free inability of the 70s college students to meet up with the is phycology professional manpower of Americas growing economy. If all is well with the college of the 70s with all these lapses and it did not come to an end then, therefore, somebody should tell Perlistein that college is paper free, not coming to leadership definition, an end now instead it is research paper free, getting better.

Interestingly, todays college is a new experience inspired by the desire to learn and perfected by the numerous competitions out Essay on Solving the Water in America there in the job market. How else would one explain to research, Perlistein that the world today especially when it comes to essay, college and learning is no more about fun? It is now a world driven by paper free, the desire to be self reliant and seven step having money to free, meet ones need. This can only on Solving Problems, be achieved with a good college education in a recognized field that allows one to compete in the world of money making by getting a good job. Having fun in college instead of trying to achieve these feats, which 70s college students did, amounts to one writing an research paper obituary in henry thoreau where i lived i lived, his future. Todays college students avoid politics as much as they can, but do more of studying. They have relinquished the paper free title of social reformers and have back slide in terms of laissez-faire, championing cultural trendsetting. Instead they have challenged themselves to setting educational goals and research paper reaching self actualization. As an advocate of the popular saying, children are our future, teach them well and david thoreau i lived i lived let them lead the way. I have stopped imaging and started believing in Perlstein word puzzles that college in the 70s use to have social boundless verve a panacea for paper, failure because having fun or socializing in college is not a recipe for goal accomplishment.

Therefore I will be stuck with the laissez-faire leadership reality that if not for todays college students and paper what they have to offer, our future looks bleak and unassuming. Finally Ronald Reagan and the yellow wallpaper lesson plan brown in politicizing education then in the 70s, insist that they value college either as a moral training camp or as a mere structure respectively; however that is where their agreement ends. What followed next becomes a testimony of how politics as a cankerworm ate deep into our college education system in research free, the 70s by seven step military problem, coarsening unsuspecting student who ought to be pursuing their dream and finalizing arrangements on research free how to solidify their tomorrow into argumentation essay, a nasty game of politics. Research? What did the students get in definition, return, nothing but their final grades at the end of the whole saga? This is the one reason why many students in the 70 passed through school but did not allow school to pass through them? According to paper free, Perlisten good colleges were social- mobility prerequisite then so what? The question remains what did the students achieved. Laissez-faire Leadership Definition? Nothing but fun!

What Perlisten stated, did not justify the learning standard of colleges then. Remorsefully in research, contrast, the same Perlisten wrote it does not mean that all of them graduated. Why not? What happened! So it is not a priority to what, graduate from college then. I guess it is research paper, a priority in todays college system.

I now know why todays colleges are better and is not coming to process, an end as against research paper free the notion that college as America used to understand it is coming to an end. Who is going to be the judge? You I guess. For dedicated parents living in on Solving the Water Problems in America, America, there is no goal they truly want more for their children then for them to have a lifetime of success and to be happy. Most children have to grow up constantly listening to paper, their parent(s) lecture about maintaining good grades and going to college. To children, this was just their parents harassing them. But to parents, its them instilling the voice that constantly echoes in the back of their heads. Henry Thoreau Where And What I Lived For? For the most part, children plan to go to college right after high school. Some vow to become doctors. Others may decide that teaching will be their passion.

Their ambitions are endless. But somewhere between puberty and college, their minds change. Research? With the influences among our children and with the growing population of technical schools, children veer off the road to college. Unfortunately, because of this decision, not only is the future of our lawyers, doctors, teachers, and a plentiful amount of essay, other careers in danger, the road to a one tracked mind world has already been set to be paved. Although electing to go to a technical school rather than a traditional college is not a bad decision to research free, make, it does have its drawbacks. Wallpaper? When responding to inquiries about technical schools, recruiters make sure they express how much money can be made once the program is completed. However, what they dont express is that the classes that have been taken and the certificate that is earned have no bearing on a transcript when it comes to college. Paper? So if a decision is argumentation, made to paper free, go back to school, whether during the time of the program or long after the seven step solving program is completed, its back to square one.

A strong knowledge in a specific task can make your success in that field easier but a continuous knowledge of everything will serve a better purpose and can give more opportunities for paper free, endless experiences. In todays society, many careers do not enforce the requirement of a college degree. Everyday on T.V. they advertise how easy it is to start a moneymaking career and boasts about laissez-faire leadership definition, how it cuts out paper free years of laissez-faire leadership, time spent learning in school. It suggests a quick and easy fix to research paper free, societys financial problem and with the economys status and the price increases, who could blame a person for wanting to find an easier way to make money fast? Most people have obligations that cannot wait for years while a person works on step problem their college degree. Nevertheless, many careers cannot risk the paper hefty time cut that technical schools make toward their education.

Would anybody feel comfortable putting their life in the hands of step military problem solving process, a doctor who only took a sixteen month course on research free a couple of Essay on Solving, specific tasks? Would it be ok if an elementary teacher only had a few months of training on a specific subject but no training or experience with children and their endless needs? Or how about entrusting a criminal lawyer who saw a flashy commercial and decided to cut their time in school to earn money fast? Experience does not start on the job; rather the classroom and slashing class time would be like drawing conclusions without all the research paper facts. The conclusion may be right, but knowing all the facts can rule out is phycology other possibilities and turn that maybe into it is. Research Free? Its the reassurance most people need. By no means am I trying to diminish the essay importance of research paper, technical schools that have been slowly integrating into mainstream. Their education has resulted in some of the essay best workers around and has given people the opportunity to gain financial freedom without the long wait. Nevertheless, in doing this were slowly brainwashing people by paper free, enticing them with their fast learning, easy money motto. Henry Thoreau Where I Lived For? Not only is college a learning experience for independence and maintaining balance in life, but also a guarantee that the graduate has had extensive training both physically and mentally in their chosen career and also other aspects of research, life. With the popularity of technical schools rising, one must acknowledge the consequences.

If more people keep feeling forced to avoid the experience a traditional college gives us, what will become of our future doctors, our lawyers, and all the other careers that cant be condensed to sixteen months of schooling? Moreover if we keep going in the direction were headed, it may bring us back to a method long forgottenthe barter system. Is the college experience less critical to laissez-faire leadership, the nation than it was a generation ago? College as a higher education institution is critical to the individual student and to the nation as a whole but, the college experience is of much lesser value than it was in the 1960s and 1970s. Today, the college student is more competitive; career focused and has a different agenda for their education than they had in the past. Students now are taught by the very nature of the research free college admission process that they must compete with grades, SAT scores and many other individuals to be admitted to the college of their first choice. Students have been groomed from a very young age with the question, What do you want to be when you grow up? that many have been focused on their lifes aspirations for many years prior to what is phycology, stepping foot on campus. Students seem to research paper, almost grow up quicker and have many more life experiences prior to college age. The Water Problems? They read books in high school that were once required reading for college and paper this puts them ahead of leadership definition, where previous college students were at paper, the start of their college experience.

They have the chance to go abroad on school trips and have life experiences that were once reserved for the college student. Students in the 1960s and argumentation 1970s led more sheltered lives prior to college. Paper Free? Theses students life experiences with politics, taking action for a cause and new found freedoms, began when they left the confines of their homes and arrived on a college campus. Students today have much more information available to them via the what internet and 24 hour cable news reports and are informed and aware of the world around them at a much younger age. Research Paper Free? The students from a generation ago had a more limited amount of exposure to seven step military problem solving, the worlds events. Their parents had more control over the amount of information one received from radio, television and newsprint. Good or bad the children of today are exposed to a constant amount of news from all areas of media. Todays students have already had opportunities to join and be part of many causes such as Relay for Life or MS walk and do not have to research free, wait until they are out of the house and on step military problem solving a college campus before becoming part of a cause. So to free, answer the question, Is the college experience less critical to the nation than it was a generation ago? I believe the answer is yes. The competitiveness of high school students to achieve high grade, win scholarships and seven step military problem process choose lucrative careers for themselves all before they even graduate is much higher than that of the past generation.

Generations past were allowed the research free luxury of their trip to college for the experience and take the time to find themselves, discover the world around them and choose a lifes path without the competitive pressure that todays students face. In a sense, incoming students have already experienced a large portion of their lives or had more life experiences than their counterparts had in the 60 and 70s. I also think that because this generation has grown up with the news all around them for so long that going off to college is not the sense of major discovery about the world that it once was. There are no great political items that had been kept from them that would make the need to picket and protest a necessity. I also think that this generation does not have that burning desire to cause waves or stir up trouble on what campus. I think they are focused and goal orientated and are on research campus for a specific reason and have goals and objectives for their lives that take greater preference over the doings about the world.

So, whether it be right or wrong, or just plan disheartening to seven step problem solving process, those who truly went to college for the college experience I think that the days of the college campus being a hot bed for social issues big and small has come to paper, a close. The hipsters and Essay the Water Problems hippies have destroyed college for my generation. Now to research, be fair, I do not completely blame them for the deterioration of the college experience. They had such a great time in collegesitting the sit-ins and seven military process walking the malls, creating, discovering, writing poems, smokingthat they have taken the research paper experience that was once remote and discrete and projected in saturation to our entire culture. In receiving, we must be grateful, and grateful we are. Essay Problems? Our generation has accepted the hand-me-downs of the hippie aftermath and written thank-you cards in the form of reviving the art of research free, homemade granola making and resurrecting folk-rock music as homage. Essay? We are able to research paper, discover previously banned books, independent films, innovative music and controversial conversations. They have enabled us to receive quality education, to step problem process, live freely, to discuss, to discover, to create without question. But as nice as the hand-me-downs may be, any youngest child will attest that they are not always appreciated.

The youngest-child generation of college students is responding similarly. Weve lost the motivation to paper free, be innovative, to discover on our own, because at definition, times, it seems as it has all been done for us 40 years ago. Generations before us have paved the way of creative discovery by seemingly ending the road with construction of technologies and cultural freedoms that simultaneously shrink and research paper expand our world. Whenever a question arises, the Internet in all its glory waits with open arms to laissez-faire definition, coddle us with answers. Our culture has been both blessed and cursed with an explosion of information, entertainment and possibilities for creativity, thankfully made possible by those who attended college a generation ago. With this emerging ease of free, explorationan onslaught of information and ideas handed out like blinking trinkets slapped with sponsor logos at concertswe have lost the idea of argumentation essay, discovering for research free, ourselves. If this were an episode of Historys Mysteries on is phycology the History Channel, Id say the lost passion of discovery in college students is lying in the dust in the basements of limestone university buildings. On the research free back-end of the Renaissance, Romanticism, Realism; beatniks, hippies and wallpaper lesson plan dot-comers, our generation has relied on others to develop ideas. We simply master their creations, quite well, if I may. We can create facebook and myspace with their technology to end up finding each other, but we are often left in the dark when looking for ourselves and paper free discovering new ways of thinking. Weve hit a growth stunt in creating the self due to the bright reflection of the leadership culture.

We are not likely to discover the next ideologies, poems, paintings, medical breakthroughs, and solutions for research paper free, world peace without some thought growth-hormones. Unlike what some may believe, the problems that lay at the feet of the nation today are matters of importance to our young minds. We are not as apathetic as the stereotypes portray. Unfortunately though, we do not take a stand as those who protested on what is phycology the malls and sat the sit-ins did before us. By now, we have resigned ourselves to the fact that we are not necessarily in control of the volume of paper, our voices. With so many to the yellow lesson, be heard, is one really much more important than another? We attempt to make a dent in din, but the conflicting opinions and growing number of venueseach wonderful attributes in the freedom of speech and acceptance of differences in all peoplemake it more than difficult for our generation to have a unified voice.

While we can follow the free news in free newspapers handed out in the Starbucks on campus and laissez-faire leadership definition discuss our thoughts and research paper free feelings on essay the issues in Intro to Poli-Sci, we know that the world moves too fast with too many decibels for free, us to directly impact what is happening right now. Modern students must prepare for a global environment that acts similar to the neighborhood soccer star who could always tally more juggles than us or the kid with the perfect SAT score. From this day forward, the world will always be a step ahead. We have inherited the obligation to discover a way to work in this world by creating a solution to the technology that crafted our thoughts and life as we know it. The generation before us, the pioneers of creativity with booming imaginations may have invented the Internet, but we are left to master it. Taming the goddess and beast that is the technological world will not be an leadership easy feat. It is not important now that we have discrete solutions to problems that are developing in our world.

In its quick-witted nature, exact solutions are impossible. Free? There is not one right answer for any question. (Just try googling your namethe Internet does not even agree with who we are, unless we are Lindsay Lohan. But then, even that is seven military, debatable: super-star or super-screw-up?) The world is full of paper free, challenges that are still awaiting creative elucidation. We are in the unique position as college students to rely on our professors to teach us how not to rely on the technology their generation created. In their dorm days they learned how to be creative, how to discover, how, in on Solving Problems, fact, to learn.

In a world that no longer allows for paper, textbook answers and step-by-step procedure, they can help us revert back to a thinking that existed in a world without technology as a cross to bear. We must continue the tradition of discovery on a college campus, preferably taught this vanishing art form by those who perfected it. Our professors went to college in the 60s and 70s surrounded by the yellow wallpaper lesson plan, the magic air of the edge of a cultural revolution. Free? Who better to laissez-faire definition, teach our lost generation such important ideals that are imperative to developing minds as we totter on our developing future? It is here in the mess of technology that makes up our world and college campuses that our professors may be able to give us the principal lesson of learning.

While they are busy teaching us why a Russian Cherry Orchard is important to a political climate that is not our own or how pH levels effect the oxidation of guaiacol by paper, catalase, they are also imparting upon us the real reason we still go to Essay Problems, college: that we learn is more important than what we learn. In our future, our majors, GPAs, and campus activities will not necessarily matter. What we discussed will be less important than how we discussed. Abandoning the ideas of technological developments will allow us to see a bigger picture than what even the wide-screen monitors can hold. As we reach for discovery that does not hinge on the Internet, we will regain the sense of free love, free ideas and free discovery, as our professors did before us. The only place this can happen is on a college campus.

It is the only place these hippies with their great ideas still truly exist. And I would like to paper free, give them a real thank-you card one day for showing our generation that there is a world beyond the World Wide Web. If they are lucky, I may also throw in a batch of homemade granola. Students of the American Nightmare. Im a young woman from a well-educated, upper middle class Caucasian family in the Northeastern United States. Plan? Ive lived in the same three-story suburban house my entire life, taken tennis and research horse-back riding lessons. I play classical piano and sing.

I got a combined SAT score of 1500 and applied to a total of three colleges chosen primarily on the basis of family history and the prestige factor (Harvard, Princeton, etc). I dont stand out in any statistics and laissez-faire leadership no admissions offices are scrambling over themselves to research paper free, fill the upper-middle class Caucasian woman quota so I guess you could say Im that faceless college student that were all competing against, the overachiever that threatens us with their well-rounded resume and impressive GPA. Im everyones worst nightmare, just like every other college student with their original ideas and Essay on Solving the Water their up-n-at-em attitude are incentives for making my own college. experience a living hell. Mr.

Perlstein asked, Whats wrong with colleges today? I reply that the rat race mentality has poisoned the intellectual atmosphere of our nations universities and turned college into just another cog in the societal machine that rushes us into our graves on the 9-to-5-shift assembly line. Instead of being leaders of research free, our national culture, the college-age. cohort has been demoted to the bottom of the corporate ladder, and henry david where and what i lived for as college students were all battling for the next promotion. The summer after graduating from high school is usually when college stops being an exciting prospect. Forty-something year old family members inevitably whine, Oh, to be young and in college again, or I would kill to be a freshman in college one more time. You also receive plenty of warnings about the inevitability of gaining 15 pounds, bad mornings-after, the wailing siren of procrastination and subsequent all-nighters.

By the time September arrived, I was so nervous about everything related to college that I had backed myself into a corner: I was going to work really hard on my school work, not gain the freshman 15, strengthen my resume, start a new club, improve my leadership skills, and free essentially avoid any mistake anyone has ever made in college. After all, theres always Harvard Law. Interestingly, upon arriving at a prestigious womans college in an upscale Philadelphian suburb, I realized everyone was planning to work really hard and be thinner and leaner and Problems meaner and get into Harvard Law, while simultaneously being good, sociable networkers and having fun on the weekends. Research Paper Free? I was stung and confused and didnt understand why it wasnt easier to prove my worth as a human being when I was staying up until 4:00 am to finish calculus and ecology labs, going for days without speaking to anyone and eating meals in the dining halls alone, not daring to look up and make eye contact for fear of striking up a. conversation and throwing off my tightly organized schedule. I just knew that if I didnt stay one step ahead of laissez-faire, everyone else academically I would be unremarkable and utterly unemployable. Hence, everything I did was devoted to paper, sculpting a well-focused resume with adequate extracurricular range: I headed multiple clubs, participated in laissez-faire definition, internships, externships, campus jobs, lab work, tutoring, volunteered for community service, and applied to scholarships during. most of my free time.

If this is research, college, who needs the real world? So by the end of the yellow wallpaper lesson plan, my sophomore year, I maintained a 3.9 GPA, was a semester ahead with the research amount of credits I had taken, and had secured exactly zero friendships. Seven Problem Solving? There was an research free underlying sense of apathy in everything I did: in every essay, at every political protest, with every music ensemble and argumentation club meeting, I felt the research free absence of any real passion. I felt as though I. was doing nothing for my own benefit; it was all for improving my resume, for the future. By that time I had begun to realize that something was significantly wrong with how I was approaching the whole concept of college: I was behaving as if for these four years my quality of life was of minimal importance compared to the wondrous expanse of argumentation, real life that awaited me. after graduation, when I would be wearing a white collar, making all that delicious money. The agony, the relentless self-torture would all be worth it once I landed a job at the big, impressive law firm with the two-story fountain in the lobby.

At least thats how I justified it to myself. Until I started to feel that someone was cheating me out of enjoying life. Research Free? Why was I not experiencing the dynamic, perspective- changing force of college that I had heard so much about from my parents generation? Why was I not discovering myself, finding out what I wanted out of life? Interestingly, this kind of education isnt being encouraged anymore in is phycology, the higher tiers of Americas university system. One step into the career guidance/major adviser/deans office and youll be up to your eyebrows in graduate school fact books, internship applications, and some guy coaching you on how to research paper free, be yourself in an interview. Wait a minute, wait a minute! I want to shout. WHO IS MYSELF?? I dont even know anymore. This is how college has become one more introductory step in crushing the human spirit, making nineteenth century warehouse factory jobs look like the solution to mans alienation from himself. Student is Essay in America, just another occupation in a long list, and if you cant do your job well theres a thousand other people just like you ready and willing to take your position.

So much of the college experience has been reduced to paper free, a series of judgments: exams, applications, interviews. Wallpaper Plan? The weak students are consistently being weeded out, made aware of their inadequacy and free encouraged to step aside for the brighter individuals to continue up the ladder of success. The students that excel in the tests of organization, memorization, professor-pandering and busy work are able to definition, make it to the top of the class and move on research free to the best graduate schools, lucrative careers and decision-making positions. Competition for these limited positions. of success has gotten so fierce that college students have no time to question their motives for performance, or to discover how to live in a way most conducive to overall happiness. This beats down the human spirit of the leadership individual student while simultaneously. estranging students from research one another, completely destroying the symbiotic relationships that are so necessary to functioning academia. We must be willing to bravely critique each other, break down our theories and arguments together so that they can be built again, stronger and henry where and what i lived more resilient to the tests of time (and, dare I say, sexier to paper, the society at large). Instead, were. encouraged to educate ourselves in preparation for jobs, not to work together in preparation for the rest of our lives.

We should be working to build on to the expanse of knowledge that we have obtained from centuries of rigorous academic thinking, not just rounding out our resumes. When I began college at the University of Mississippi in the fall of 2004, I did not expect too much change from my high school experience. Out of 150 people in my graduating class, 60 made the trek 160 miles north on I-55 from our private high school in Jackson, Mississippi, to Ole Miss. Laissez-faire Definition? I felt more than adequately prepared for college work. My high school courses were primarily Advanced Placement courses, and paper free I had earned over 24 college credits as a result. But when I graduated this past May, I realized how provincial my outlook was coming into college and how much more nuanced and global my perspective was as a result of laissez-faire leadership, not only research, three years of studying English and classics but also three years of leadership, studying the research paper free ironies and complexities of my university, my state, and thoreau i lived and what our world. In Oxford, Mississippi, many present conversations invoke the past, true to our spiritual guide William Faulkner who said, The past is not dead. In fact, its not even past. We are a town devoted to remembering with narratives and photographs, with Confederate war memorials and Civil Rights monuments, with historical preservation districts and special collections rooms. These tangible reminders are equal parts Lest we forget and Lest we think weve come far enough. True to the essence of research paper free, these monuments and memorials, the forces of tradition and progress continue to play large roles in essay, the lives of students at Ole Miss and the broader university community.

On one of the hottest days this past fall, James Meredith stood in the shadow of the very building he had been denied access in 1962 as a bronze monument was dedicated in commemoration of the fight he led for research free, access for is phycology, everyone to higher education. Rep. John Lewis gave a rousing speech; Morgan Freeman made some remarks; a choir sang Ride on paper King Jesus just as Leontyne Price performed in concerts. Beyond the grandeur and stifling heat of the argumentation occasion, I noticed a group of orange-shirted students in the crowd of sweating hundreds. Their shirts read Respect Mississippi, the research free name of a newly formed student group aimed at addressing the stigmas attached to the state and laissez-faire leadership definition ending the de facto campus segregation. Paper Free? Their statement was more than appropriate on a day when the community celebrated progress and freedom, it was clear that James Merediths work must be continued. At that moment, I realized why fellow Oxonian William Faulkner said, To understand the world, you must first understand a place like Mississippi. Only a few hundred feet from this Civil Rights monument, between the david i lived Lyceum and the library, stood the statue of a Confederate soldier with his back forever turned to the north. In that very space flanked by memories of Civil Rights and Civil War, both Union and Confederate soldiers received treatment for free, their battle wounds over a century earlier. And this fall, in celebration of henry thoreau where i lived for, football, tents with lavish spreads of food, gentlemen in seersucker suits, ladies in too-high heels, and cups brimming with toddies as potent as the heat will make that same space a storm of Southern drawls. There are layers and layers of seemingly paradoxical narratives on the campus, infinite instances of irony. But, as Faulkner noticed, so is the rest of the world.

Over time, the same poets who have sung the greatest accomplishments of our human race often have mourned our deepest cruelties. College is an free opportunity to read, to learn, and to investigate these very complexities that make human life interesting, difficult, and rich. The opportunity to encounter the unanswerable, to struggle with the unjust, and to articulate what is valuable makes college matter. Lesson? The opportunity to express dissent with civility in a classroom or around campus makes college matter. Though I, as much of my generation, am exposed to massive amounts of information, I am often discouraged by the void, vapid popular political discourse.

We live in the age of the illiterate presidency; a time when political speech is reductive and polarizing rather than well-informed and consensus-building. The success of the us versus them mentality of the current administration, which has held office for the entirety of research free, my high school and college education, has only fueled my drive to essay, understand and use language judiciously and correctly. Words like troop surge, evildoers, stay the research paper course, weapons of mass destruction have been beaten senseless, bled to death. Language has suffered; it is our duty to reclaim it and to what, revitalize it. Otherwise, our ideas and research paper communities will fail to communicate meaningfully. At Ole Miss and throughout the is phycology South language had to be reassessed, reclaimed, and revitalized from racist and bigoted to respectful and inclusive. And as the language changed and the racial diversity of the campus changed, certain long-revered symbols had to research paper free, go. The Confederate battle flag, which was frequently waved by fans at athletic contests, is no longer allowed at such events.

And Colonel Reb, the official mascot until 2003, no longer is present on the sidelines. These changes were particularly important at Ole Miss considering its position as the states flagship university and its reputation among Mississippians as an intellectual and cultural leader. Ole Miss realized exactly what Nobel Laureate Derek Walcott said: To change your language you must change your life. In college, we converse with ourselves, our neighbors, great thinkers of the past and step military problem present, cultures and ethnic groups different from our own, and ideas that urge us towards reevaluating our own perspectives. Ideally, those conversations make us more humane individuals respectful and gracious; quick to consider before acting; reasonable and just. Over my three years in college, some of the paper free worlds sharpest minds and wallpaper plan most influential voices have come to campus and talked with us students. King Abdullah of Jordan brought to the forefront of my mind the need for developing interfaith dialogue among the many world religions. Research? He pointed us to his reasoning in the Amman Message. Salman Rushdie talked about languages effects on identity and the ability of art to make the leadership definition universe wider and more wondrous for others.

Samantha Power urged us to be neither indifferent nor uninformed concerning the history of genocide and current atrocities. The names and research ideas continue on what and on, and so do the conversations and people they have shaped. In Oxford, we all walk in Faulkners shadow as well as in the presence of great contemporary writers like Barry Hannah, Beth Ann Fennelly, Tom Franklin, and Ann Fisher-Wirth. Free? We are a community built on creation as a means of progression; we are a community invested in people and their stories. We are a community of students well-versed in the past and seven step problem solving process traditions and equally committed to cultivating fresh ideas and new solutions.

We are wordsmiths and worldsmiths. Ive heard several people say, If you stay in Oxford long enough, the research free world will come to you. I must agree. Henry Thoreau I Lived I Lived? The world has come in bluesmen and foodies, poets and storytellers, rock stars and royalty, preachers and protestors, actresses and modern dancers, photographs and medieval manuscripts, quilts and hand-carved drums, live oaks and Japanese magnolias. Thats why college matters: the world stretches out its hand to meet you; its your chance to take and shape it. In July, The Magazine published What's the research paper Matter With College, an essay by the historian Rick Perlstein, online and invited college students across the United States to respond.

Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to understand it is coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the occasion to critique higher education from an insider's perch. To continue the conversation, we're featuring the winning student essay and lesson four runners-up, and posting another 450 of the entries in a searchable format. (The other entries were withdrawn by their authors or did not follow the contest's rules.)

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History Department Essay Writing Guide. This guide is intended to provide you with information about the skills of essay writing, including how and research paper free when to wallpaper lesson, use footnotes or endnotes, presentation requirements and how to reference different kinds of sources (books, articles or web pages, for instance) and with more general advice about planning, introducing and developing your essays as coherent and effective arguments. The most important point to remember in working through this guide is that writing good essays and communicating your ideas effectively are skills you can learn, develop and build. One of the most important skills developed in an Arts degree is the ability to communicate your ideas in paper free writing clearly and effectively. Thoreau Where I Lived I Lived For? This involves numerous other skills, including the ability to summarise and research free paraphrase the work of other writers, the development of arguments and conclusions, and the effective use of evidence to henry david and what i lived for, support a case. Essay writing in paper History is particularly aimed at helping you progressively develop your skills in research, analysing different forms of essay source material, using different kinds of evidence, and writing strong, critical and clear arguments. In most History subjects, you will be asked to produce different kinds of research writing. Short tutorial and document exercises usually address specific skills or tasks (locating sources, analysing a documents point of view, or assessing how particular images or words help us understand historical context, for seven step problem process instance), while examinations assess your knowledge of the content covered in particular subjects.

Essays provide you with an opportunity to explore a particular issue or theme in more depth. In general, the research functions of an essay are: to introduce an argument, or contention, based upon the question or problem you choose to tackle; to develop and leadership definition defend that argument or contention by discussing and analysing a range of appropriate evidence, and by critically assessing the paper interpretations of other historians; and to Essay on Solving Problems, propose conclusions. The best essays have a clear line of argument, and they present a thesis. In other words, they state a position, defend that position, and arrive at strong, clear conclusions. They have a well-defined introduction which identifies the central problem or issue and introduces the argument, a body which logically develops the paper argument point-by-point, and a conclusion which sums up the argument.

There are no simple instructions for good essay writing. As you progress through your university course, you should be developing skills in research, analysis and communication which will not only allow you to write good essays, but to effectively communicate your ideas in other situations as well. The Yellow Wallpaper? The tutors assessment of your essays provides you with feedback on your progress in these different skills. The desired outcomes of essays in paper free third-year subjects include formulating research projects and Essay on Solving Problems acquiring independent research skills; presenting a sustained argument, based mainly on paper free substantial primary sources; placing secondary sources in their cultural, ideological and epistemological context by the yellow showing where they fit into research paper free the current state of leadership definition historical knowledge; and greater awareness of the ongoing debates about the philosophy and practice of history. The desired outcomes of essays in second-year subjects include developing skills in the use of bibliographies and other reference material, critical reading, putting more independent thought and reflection into essays; greater understanding of documentary criticism and interpretation, and the critical analysis of secondary interpretations by other historians.

The desired outcomes of essays in first-year subjects include: helping you learn to argue your own position against other points of view; development of the conventions of good historical essay writing, such as rigorous documentation and footnoting; awareness of the variety of representations of the past; familiarity with the different ways historians use evidence; and the ability to research, recognise, analyse and summarise an historical argument. Do not assume that you should target your arguments for particular lecturers or tutors. For a start, your predictions may be inaccurate. Moreover, arguing what you think you ought to argumentation, argue is a lot more complicated and a lot less interesting than arguing what you come to believe as you gather information, review different interpretations, and form your own perspectives on an issue or problem. Any teacher can tell you that some of the best essays they read develop arguments they dont agree with at all, or arguments which challenge their own interpretations. Writing is easier if you imagine an audience: a person you want to free, convince of henry david thoreau and what something, a person who wants to know about your ideas and perspectives. Your task, however, is not to tell your audience what they think, but to research paper free, tell your audience what you think, and give them reasons and evidence which show why your conclusions are significant, interesting and what convincing. 3. Choosing and comprehending the question or topic. Choose a topic or question you find interesting and challenging: it is easier and much more enjoyable to develop and defend a strong argument on something which interests and paper free intrigues you than on something you find boring or simple. Writing is not the outcome or the step problem process finished product of learning: it is a vital part of learning. It is a way of sorting out and clarifying your interpretations, trying out free your ideas, and leadership discovering new ways of research paper thinking about an issue.

Think about the question or topic in laissez-faire leadership these ways: what is the problem it suggests? what is the angle, the research paper free issue, which makes it interesting? what is my first reaction to the question: yes, no, maybe? do I agree or disagree with the contention or interpretation the topic suggests? what ideas and seven step military problem issues can I explore by answering this question? is there a simple answer, or might it be more complex than it looks? what kinds of information is the research paper question asking me to use? what themes can I explore? It is also important to look at the question and ask yourself: do I understand what the henry thoreau and what i lived question or topic is asking me to do? Have I interpreted the question correctly? If you are not sure, or if you want to research paper free, check that the approach you are taking does address the argumentation essay question, talk to your tutor. Essay topics are designed to draw on research paper the subject content developed in david i lived and what i lived for lectures and tutorials, and on paper free reading you have completed. Reading the works of other historians, such as those suggested in reading lists, will help you see how others have approached that problem or issue. Historians often disagree on where i lived and what the importance or the meaning of events of evidence, or use different kinds of paper evidence to henry david thoreau, challenge and amend prior interpretations.

They will take different approaches to the same question, and suggest different ways of examining an issue, be it gender relations in research paper free medieval Europe or the reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union or the impact of colonial rule in India. What you will see, however, is problem solving that all of research paper free these writers state a position. They address a problem. They answer a real or implied question. You should trace their strategies for developing arguments and drawing conclusions. As you do your introductory reading, review your lecture notes, and read more widely, think about your point of view, your own position in relation to other writers, and your own response to a problem. Laissez-faire Definition? Examine and evaluate the evidence: what conclusions can you draw?

Which interpretations do you think best fit the available evidence? Your interpretations and conclusions do not have to be new to be original, challenging, and convincing. You should argue the case which you think emerges most clearly from the research paper evidence and from your critical review of other historians work. Youve read the laissez-faire leadership definition books and articles recommended in the handbook or by your tutor. Youve come up with some ideas about how you might approach the question, and research paper youve got a pretty good idea about how other historians have interpreted the issues and addressed the topic. Youve collected some evidence from a range of different sources and youve tried mapping out some preliminary ideas and arguments on paper. Youve looked again at the major themes of the subject and thought about what is phycology, how you might address them in this essay. In order to plan your essay, you now need to come up with an argument, a point of view which will guide your writing towards a conclusion.

Would you agree with the free argument that respect for the natural environment is a recent discovery for residents of Mars? Having read a variety of sources, you should be able to state your thesis (your answer) in Essay in America a sentence or two. Yes, because prior to the environmental movements of the 1960s, the majority of Martians were more interested in exploiting than respecting the natural environment. No, because Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form. No, it is difficult to draw a simple, general conclusion on free this issue, as the evidence suggests that different groups of Martians have interpreted and viewed the environment very differently over time, and no clear trend is visible even now. When you begin planning your essay, you should always be able to state your thesis in a fairly straightforward way, based on your initial reading and research for the topic. This sentence or two states your case. Broadly, your essay is the exposition and defence of that case: it shows the reader how, and why, you have arrived at those conclusions.

To write a good essay, you must first decide what your central argument is going to be, and then plan your essay to develop that argument. Of course, as you write your first draft, you may find that the argumentation essay argument changes and develops in a direction you did not anticipate. Few writers are completely sure of their final conclusions before they begin drafting: the task of writing down and research free defending the argument often reveals unanticipated problems, or challenges and changes your first thoughts, or leads you toward one interpretation more than another. Often, too, you might need to go back to your sources, read through some of your notes, or do some further reading to clarify and expand an emerging point. However, the basic thrust and content of your argument or thesis should be clear enough to argumentation, allow you to paper free, plan the henry thoreau where i lived and what for stages of your argument before you begin drafting. Perhaps the single best way of ensuring a successful essay is free having a good plan . The plan should lay out your argument, for essay instance in point form, and you can also use it to indicate where you will use certain items of evidence and supporting arguments. introduction: state the case for no: Martians have persistently respected their version of the paper natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form explain the leadership thrust of the research free argument : dispute recent discovery, my essay focuses on previous century to show that respect for environment is always based on historically variable assumptions and preconceptions about beauty, usefulness and worth of nature explain idealisation/romanticisation of the natural environment (summarise Smiths theory of david where and what for idealisation, discuss paintings, use examples from Connor and Jones) list and research paper give examples of different idealisations of natural environment in the nineteenth century and show different assumptions about where i lived, beauty and usefulness behind each one (use examples from free Green and Brown) show how these different ideals were sometimes contradictory or came into conflict (use example of forestry in Mars Forest) case study: the Martian garden legend (discuss the garden stories); argue that an environment under exploitation also increasingly romanticised (review the different interpretations of Green and Red, show why I think Green fits better with the evidence) summarise above points about previous century; what is respected in leadership the recent past: argue that this is paper another idealisation (evidence: Martian tourist brochures); conclusion: restate the case , and argue that understanding respect for natural environment always means analysing the what is phycology idealisation of natural environments.

In the short essays common in first year, your plan is likely to be less complex, and may only have four or five main points. As you progress into second and third year, you are expected to research paper, develop more sophisticated arguments, which makes good planning even more important. 6a. Introducing and developing the argument. In your introduction , you should state your case and, as in the example above, set out the basic structure of your argument . Military? You might also briefly summarise two or three of paper free your main points. If you have decided to adopt a particular focus (for instance, using case studies from a particular time or place, or narrowing the seven process topic to concentrate on a particular theme), you should explain this in research paper the introduction as well. Developing the argument : The example above shows how an argument is then developed towards its conclusion. Basically, each stage of your argument should be developed and defended in turn, by showing your interpretation of the appropriate evidence, by step problem solving critically reviewing the paper work of other historians, and by using example, case study and explanation. Leadership Definition? A good way of thinking about this is to imagine that you are building your argument in research blocks . Each paragraph is a block which builds your argument towards a conclusion. The Yellow? Each block is paper introduced and described, and then its place in the whole structure is shown. Block 1: stage of the argument.

On Mars in the Water the 1850s, the beauty of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. Paper? If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in Rembrandts Martian Mountains. Lesson Plan? In her book Environmental Perception on Mars, Joan Brown argues that painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered. However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians usually depicted an idealised nature which was to be protected from the research free threats posed by civilisation. Block 2: next stage of the argument. The most crucial changes occurred after the leadership Martian titanium rushes of the 1870s showed the potentially lucrative returns of mineral exploration and paper free exploitation. Certainly, by the 1880s, most representations of the natural environment showed nature being tamed and civilised.

Even mining sites appeared in nature paintings, and the work of is phycology Joseph Smith is a good example of how even the most intensive forms of exploitation were represented as beneficial intrusion for the landscape. Block 3: brief summary, and introducing the next stage of the argument. By the 1880s, therefore, the idealised untouched nature of the 1850s had been invaded by paper free humans, and an ideal natural landscape was now represented as one which was productive and bountiful. Humans did not threaten nature; they unleashed its potential. It was important for Martians, Smith argued in 1883, to feel relaxed and comfortable about the past and future of the Martian environment. Yet representations of an ideal environment as one conquered and populated by humans never completely replaced the older tradition of mourning the degradation of Problems another form of ideal environment, the Martian garden. This alternative version became popular again in the 1890s. The body of your essay, therefore, uses evidence, examples and explanation to develop your case point by point. Each paragraph has a point to make, and occasional summary sentences guide the reader through the argument. 6b.

Using different kinds of evidence. In developing your case, you will need to research, make decisions about the kinds of sources you will refer to, and the best ways to use them. Sources can generally be defined into the yellow wallpaper lesson two broad types: primary or documentary sources (usually written at the time by an eyewitness, direct participant or close observer) secondary or scholarly sources (usually interpretations and explanations written after the fact by someone analysing the primary or documentary sources) For example, a book containing the collected speeches of Charles de Gaulle is a primary source; an analysis of them by a political scientist or historian is a secondary source. An article in the Age of 30 June 1900 about the bubonic plague epidemic which affected Sydney during that year is a primary source; an article in the Age on 30 June 1990 discussing the impact of the epidemic on public health policy in Australia is a secondary source. Broadly, the primary or documentary sources are the raw material used by historians , the subject of your argument, while the secondary or scholarly sources provide examples of how others have analysed and interpreted the problem or issue at hand. Paper Free? The distinction is not hard and fast, and the yellow wallpaper plan there will always be exceptions. Paper Free? For instance, if you are writing an essay about historians representations of race in Britain, the secondary sources of the historians are in fact your primary documentary source.

In most essays, you will be expected to critically analyse the interpretations of other historians in this way. In any event, these different types of sources should both be read critically: analysed for seven problem process their point of paper view, for the assumptions, ideas and understandings which inform them, and for the strategies writers use to advance their arguments. Dont take anything on trust: be a critical reader of all kinds of sources and texts , and use your critical analysis of both primary and secondary sources in your essay. You also need to make decisions about what is phycology, how to use evidence: in the form of free quotation, or in the form of summarising. Argumentation? It is best to use quotation strategically and sparingly : quote phrases or passages which best illustrate the point you are trying to make, or which really help you give your reader the paper flavour of the evidence you are using. If you use a quotation, make sure it fits with the stage of the argument you are advancing. Thoreau I Lived For? Refer to the language, analyse the assumptions or strategies it reveals. In other words, use quotation when the actual words are the research paper single best way of on Solving the Water Problems providing the evidence and developing your case.

If the quotation is less than about thirty words, combine it with your text, as in paper this example where I am quoting the following phrase which is not very long. Argumentation? You must always use quotation marks to indicate the paper separation between your words and the words of someone else. If it is the yellow wallpaper lesson longer than this, you should separate it from the text, and indent it: This is an example of research paper a much longer quote. It contains a few sentences, and needs to be distinguished from the body of the essay. When you are indenting a quote like this, note that you do not have to use quotation marks; as it is already separated, there is no need to indicate that by argumentation essay the use of such symbols. In general, use very little quotation from secondary or scholarly sources.

It is better to say what you mean in free your own words, quoting another historian or interpreter only where the phrase is particularly wonderful or where you need to laissez-faire, show precisely how that writer made their point in order to criticise, defend or develop it. Research Paper Free? In all other cases, it is Essay Problems best to summarise. Write reflective summaries of what others have written, relating those interpretations to your argument. You might find that the example paragraphs on the previous page gives you a more concrete idea of how a writer can use a mix of summary and direct quotation from different kinds of sources to develop their argument. In your conclusion, you should restate your case strongly and clearly by summarising your main points. It is also possible to raise issues and problems in your conclusion, especially broader questions which are beyond the scope of your essay. You might reflect on what your interpretation implies for contemporary debates or discussions, write briefly about the free broader implications of where and what i lived for your position, or consider what your interpretations tells us about the role and nature of paper free history itself. Use your conclusion to argue for the significance of your argument and your interpretation. Argumentation? Be careful, though: a poorly developed argument followed by sweeping speculations on the nature of the universe or the human condition is research unlikely to be either effective or convincing.

Again, as you develop your skills in formulating, developing and defending arguments, you will also develop your ability to write more reflectively and to use essays to open up these kinds of complex questions. 7. Writing clearly and effectively. The best single rule is to always use clear expression: write simply and with clarity and avoid complex sentence constructions . Use definite, specific and concrete language. Dont use unnecessary words, and make sure you understand the words you are using. Writing problems often occur when people try to use very complex language and syntax. A better idea is to establish a simple and clear style first, and then gradually develop more complex sentence forms and means of expression. As you develop your writing skills, vary your sentence structures and lengths to add variety. Seven Step Military Solving Process? Short sentences often add emphasis to a particularly important point. Spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors detract from an argument, whatever its quality: careful editing of your draft is free very important. It is also important to use accurate language, which is one good reason for using non-discriminatory language. For instance, the statement that men adapted themselves to these new conditions should lead any critical reader to ask what women were doing at that time.

It is a reasonable and accepted convention that all forms of public communication, including journalism, business language and academic writing, should use non-discriminatory language. There are at where and what i lived least five effective ways of improving your writing. Always read your own work. what is my main idea, my contention, my argument? am I getting it across to the reader? Take responsibility for critically assessing your own writing . Look at the comments made on your previous essays, and work out whether this one repeats the strengths and overcomes the weaknesses of your previous work. Research Paper? If you need to, speak to the person who assessed your work, and ask them for more guidance. Laissez-faire Definition? Reading other writers. Research Paper? As you read, evaluate the styles of different writers. What makes them more or less effective? What is laissez-faire most important to you as a reader, and research what makes good writers better to read?

Practice. Like any other set of skills, writing improves with practice and with constructive assessment, by yourself and by others. Read your own work out loud . You do not need to comprehend the rules of grammar or the intricacies of what syntax to know when something sounds clumsy, or when a sentence needs punctuation, or when a long paragraph has completely lost its drift. Reading your draft out loud is also a good way to add variety and paper free oomph to your language. If its boring you to tears, or if you have no idea what it means, it might be time for plan redrafting. Let other people read what you write . It is particularly good to research paper free, give your essay to someone who is not an expert in Essay on Solving the Water the area you are writing about. If it doesnt make sense to them, your argument might need clarification. If they struggle to read it, you might need to edit more carefully. University teachers will not usually be able to read drafts of paper free students work, but there are plenty of the yellow wallpaper plan other people who can give you feedback. Swap essays with fellow students. Get the people you live with to read them.

Distribute them on buses. 8. Referencing Instructions for Essays. Decisions about when to cite sources can be difficult. Effective referencing is another writing skill your university work aims to develop. The reader should, in theory, be able to retrace your steps in gathering evidence for your argument. In other words, you provide citations as a kind of road map that shows readers how you came to these conclusions, shows readers where you derived your information and, if relevant, shows readers where you derived the ideas or interpretations that you are paraphrasing, adopting or challenging. Therefore, you need to provide citations in the following instances: where you directly quote someone elses words; where you are directly summarising someone elses argument and ideas; where you are summarising arguments and ideas derived from research free a number of the yellow wallpaper lesson sources; to point your readers to the source of information; to translate words or phrase in a foreign language that a reader cannot reasonably be presumed to research paper, understand.

In general, you need to provide sources for argumentation statements that are problematic or debatable in the context of your argument, or that a reasonably well-informed person would not be expected to know. Again, the ability to successfully make these judgements is a skill you will develop with practice and experience. If you offer a translation of a word or phrase in free a foreign language, the basis of step military problem solving your decision should be whether a reader could reasonably be presumed to know the meaning of the phrase or word already. There is no need to translate coup detat or Sultan or Blitzkrieg, for instance. The use of citation to refer readers to the work of other writers is occasionally useful, but for the most part, your citations refer only to free, books, articles and other material you have used directly.

Only cite information that you have actually looked at yourself, or: always SIGHT what you CITE . It is fine to use a second-hand reference (like a quotation or a summary in a book from a source to which you do not have access), but you should indicate that in your citation. An example of how to do this is provided in the next section. You can also use citations to clarify specific points, or add a small amount of additional information or supporting evidence. You should not use footnotes or endnotes as a sort of second argument, nor to provide paragraph after paragraph of new information. If it is not important enough to put into the body of the essay, then leave it out. 8b. Numbering and placement of footnote and lesson endnote numbers. When providing footnotes or endnotes, number notes consecutively throughout the research text. Put these numbers at the end of sentences, if at all possible, and distinguish them from the text either by david i lived superscripting (raising above the line) or placing them in brackets.

If you use material from two different sources in the same sentence, it is often possible to research free, combine the the yellow two citations in research paper free one footnote, using a semi-colon to the yellow lesson, separate them. Research Paper? Usually, you will refer to information or material at particular places in a larger work so you will need to show the page (p.) or pages (pp.) on which the seven military material is located. This text produces the following footnotes: On Mars in the 1850s, the beauty of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over research paper, them, as in Rembrandts Martian Mountains. 1 In her book Environmental Perception on Mars , Joan Brown argues that painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered. 2 However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians respected an solving idealised nature which was to be kept separate from civilisation. 3. 1 K. Float (ed.), The Magical World of Ken Rembrandt , New York, 1965, p. 68.

2 Joan Brown, Environmental Perception on Mars , Sydney, 1995, p. 13. 3 Ann Ash, Joan Brown is Wrong , Sydney, 1996, pp. 1-23. 8c. Citing different kinds of sources. The following rules should help you through most situations.

The absolute rule is to be consistent. Inconsistency drives readers crazy, and is not a good tactic when you are attempting to convince those readers of the research paper free accuracy of your interpretations and henry i lived and what for arguments. There are also specific rules for the citation of classical texts like the Bible, the Koran and so on. If you are studying subjects in research which these texts are used, your tutor will provide you with the information you need to cite correctly. Please note: Some areas of history, especially those published by European and English publishing houses (and now more often Australian publishers), follow the conventions set out in the MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Associations) Style Guide (available electronically at, see section 10.2.2). The guide differs to the above in that it adds the publisher to the publication details, and step military solving is formatted differently. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp.

54-56. It is now common practice to use full stops only where the abbreviation of the word does not contain the last letter of the word. So, editor becomes ed., but editors becomes eds. Research Free? Doctor is essay Dr, but Professor is Prof.. Research Free? Also, where an abbreviated title is used very commonly, you do not need to put in full stops: for wallpaper lesson plan instance, ALP, ACTU or UNESCO . Primary or documentary material cited by another author. If you need to refer to a quote or to a piece of evidence which you accessed in a secondary or scholarly source rather than the original source, use these examples as a guide: R. G. Research? Menzies, speech in the House of Representatives, 23 March 1943, cited in Judith Brett, Robert Menzies Forgotten People, Melbourne 1992, p. 47. Letter from Lewis Mumford to wallpaper, Frederic Osborn, 2 April 1937, cited in Alison Ravetz, Remaking the Urban Environment, London 1980, pp. 148-9.

The general rule is free that if the original source is available, you should go to and use that original source, rather than borrowing your evidence from another writer. Author of document (first name, last name), name of laissez-faire leadership document (use italic or underline), in free editor (ed.) or editors (eds), title of david thoreau where and what for collection (use italics or underline), place and date of publication, page or pages. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in J.B. Free? Ross and what is phycology M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader , Harmondsworth, 1977, pp. 251-2. (Note: trans. is the abbreviation for translated by.)

If your area of history follows the paper MHRA Style Guide , this item in david thoreau i lived i lived for your bibliography would follow the same convention outlined earlier, namely: John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in The Portable Medieval Reader , ed. by J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977), pp. 251- 2. If the document was not published but has a title (for instance, an unpublished paper or a speech or an article), use single inverted commas around the paper name of the document. If it was not published and what has no title (a letter, for instance), there is no need for any marking. For instance: Friederich Engels, The evils of capitalism, in K. Kharkov (ed.), The Collected Speeches of Engels , Moscow, 1954, pp.

23-8. Yves of Narbonne, letter to Gerald of Mallemort, c. Research Paper? 1241, in Walter L. Wakefield and Essay on Solving the Water in America Austin P. Evans (eds), Heresies of the High Middle Ages , New York, 1991, pp. 185-7. If you are going to be using documents in archives, or other unpublished material, consult your tutor for assistance with citation rules. If you are referring to research paper free, normal newspaper writing (news of events, editorials, and what so on), you need only provide the name of the newspaper and the date: The Age , 25 April 1996. If you wish to refer to a specific article, usually by an invited contributor, or to a significant special feature (say, a four-page special report or a report in research a weekly magazine), use the same format as for articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title (use either italics or underline), place and date of publication, page (p.) or pages (pp.) of the information to which you are referring. So: Tim Bonyhady, The Colonial Earth , Melbourne, 2000, p. 13. These publication details are always on step one of the paper first pages of the book (and usually on david where i lived i lived for the page after the main title page): these details list the publisher and the place of publication, and paper free give other information, most of which you dont need to provide (though see the the yellow wallpaper lesson plan note below). It is important to check if this is the first edition of the paper free book, as subsequent editions may contain major revisions, which your reader will need to know in order to follow your research trail.

If the book is problem solving a second or subsequent edition, put that information behind the title. Some further examples: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the research free Male: Mens Bodies , Britain and the Great War, London, 1996, pp. 98-104. John Kasson, Houdini, Tarzan, and the perfect man: the on Solving the Water in America white male body and the challenge of free modernity in America , New York, 2001, p. 231. Thompson, Paul, The Voice of the Past: Oral History , 2nd ed., Oxford, 1988, pp.

53-76. Again, for those following the MHRA style of referencing (see above), the publisher is what included in research paper the publication details. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. Leadership? 54-56. Place of publication is always a city or town, not a state, province, region, nation or continent. Author (first name, last name), title of chapter (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), in research free editor (ed.) (or editors (eds)), title of book (use either italics or underline), place and date of publication, pages to which you are referring. Roger Cooter, War and henry i lived and what i lived for Modern Medicine, in research paper free W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156. E. Zinkhan, Louisa Albury Lawson: feminist and i lived i lived patriot, in D. Adelaide (ed.), A Bright and Fiery Troop , Melbourne, 1988, 27-8. Estelle Freedman, Uncontrolled Desires: The Response to the Sexual Psychopath, 1920-1960, in research paper free Kathy Peiss Christina Simmons (eds), Passion and Power: Sexuality in History , Philadelphia, 1989, pp.

187-99. Please note: for step solving process those following the MHRA Style Guide (see above), and are including the name of the publisher, a footnote reference would be styled like this example: Eve Salisbury, Spare the Rod and Spoil the Child: Proverbial Speech Acts, Boy Bishop Sermons, and Pedagogical Violence, in research free Speculum Sermonis , ed. by Georgiana Donavin, Cary J. Nederman, and Richard Utz (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004), pp. 141-55 (p. 153). (Here pp. 141-55 indicate the page span of plan Salisburys contribution to the volume, and the bracketed (p. 153) indicates the specific page reference.)

Articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title of article (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), title of journal or magazine (use either italics or underline), volume or number, year of publication, pages covered by the article, specific page(s) to which you are referring. Phil Scraton, Policing with Contempt: The Degrading of paper free Truth and seven step problem solving Denial of research paper Justice in the Aftermath of the Hillsborough Disaster, Journal of Law and Society , vol. 26, 1999, pp. 273-97, p. 275.

Emily K. Abel, Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients, Journal of Womens History , vol. 10, 1998, pp. 32-52, pp. 34-5. You will find information about volume number on the title page of each journal. The Yellow Lesson? If there is free both a volume and an issue number, just the volume number will usually do (for instance, American Historical Review , 102 (1995), or Australian Historical Studies , 26 (1994-5)). Most journals continue numbering pages throughout one volume, even if that volume has several separate issues or numbers. So a reference would read: Katherine Lowe, Elections of Abbesses and Essay the Water Problems in America Notions of Identity in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Italy, with Special Reference to Venice, Renaissance Quarterly , 54 (2001), 389-429 (p. Free? 390).

Director (last name, first name), dir, Name of the film (use either italics or underline), year of release. Hicks, Scott, dir, Shine , 1996. Hitchcock, Alfred, dir, The Birds , 1963. Name of the program (in single inverted commas) and, if this program is part of a series, the specific title of the program and the name of the series (use either italics or underline), location of the program, date of the program. Aboriginal Land Rights: A Special Report, ABC Radio National, 11 December 2002. Interview with John Howard, 3LO, 8 February 2003.

Golly Gee, Im Interviewing a Famous Person, Sixty Minutes , Nine Network, 13 February 2001. The Reckoning, The Frontier House , ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Author of the is phycology document (if known), name of the document (if relevant), date of the document (if known), at paper full WWW address, date on which you accessed the page. Social Conditions in Seventeenth-Century France, at, accessed 31 March 2003. Suffragists Picketing the White House, January 1917 (photograph), at, access 17 April 2003. Sojourner Truth, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from is phycology Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at, accessed 16 April 2003. Using Resources From the Internet and WWW. While there are some very useful sites for historians, including homepages describing research, or containing documents, photographs and interpretive materials, or providing primary documents like speeches, transcripts or debates, you need to be as critical and careful in your use of research paper WWW resources as in your use of any other kind of evidence . A good deal of the material on the web is not screened in any way: it is Essay the Water in America not edited, reviewed by research others, or subject to david thoreau where i lived i lived for, any control.

This is its greatest strength and its greatest weakness as a medium, and makes the research paper free task of critically assessing and using sources even more important. For the citation, you need to give your reader enough information so that they can easily locate your source: in this case, the full web site information. You also need to laissez-faire definition, tell your reader when you accessed the page: because web pages are updated, the information may have changed location or been removed. In fact, it is a good idea to print out a copy of the page(s) you are using: you can use them more easily, and you have a copy of the information should it subsequently disappear from the web. Citing something for the second time: use of abbreviations and short titles.

Once you have given full information in the first footnote, you should use abbreviations and short titles to refer to the same source again. What will usually suffice is the authors last name and a short title (i.e. the first few significant words of the title, as below). Ibidem (always abbreviate as Ibid.) indicates in the place just described, but it must follow directly from the previous citation. 1 Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Mens Bodies, Britain and the Great War , London, 1996, pp. 98-104. 3 Roger Cooter, War and Modern Medicine, in W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156.

4 Bourke, Dismembering the Male , pp. 126-9. 5 Cooter, War and Modern Medicine, p. 158. In endnote 6, the research information is contained on the same page as endnote 5, and therefore you do not need to repeat the military problem solving process page number. Again, keep in mind the principle of giving the research paper free reader the amount of information they would need to find the material for themselves. Lesson Plan? There may be particular conventions which you should observe for particular units: you will be provided with these where necessary. In general, historians do not use the paper free Harvard referencing system.

Archaeology students, whose discipline does employ this system when referencing, should follow the is phycology norms of history referencing when writing history essays. Research Free? Similarly, history students should use the Harvard referencing system when writing archaeology essays. Students need to be aware that in archaeology/ancient history a variety of styles is used: Harvard, Oxford and MHRA. Students in the Centre for Archaeology and Ancient History must be able to use all of them correctly; they also use unpublished materials of the types outlined for history and reference them in footnotes. In the end, it is a matter of communicating your understanding of your evidence in the style appropriate for is phycology your discipline and task. Unit coordinators will advise you if you are unsure.

9. Paper? Forming a bibliography and what an annotated bibliography. Your essay should include a bibliography of research free all sources. Seven Step Problem Process? If you have used a wide variety of different types of sources, it is helpful to paper, put them into different sections: for instance, the documents or texts (primary sources) you have used might be separated from the laissez-faire leadership historical scholarship (secondary sources). Research Free? In general, follow the same conventions described above with the henry i lived for exception that authors surnames precede their forenames/initials to allow for easier alphabetisation (as in the example below). List your sources alphabetically within each section. However, you do not need to include the paper free page numbers for specific information or citations in laissez-faire definition your bibliography. Films, television and radio shows and documents from web sites should be included: if there is research paper free no author, put them at the front of the list and order them alphabetically by title. Newspapers should be listed, but you do not need to provide the dates.

Note: those following the MHRA conventions will include the publishers name, along with slightly different formatting, as given in examples above (e.g. Burke, Peter, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998)). Contemporary documents and texts. John of argumentation essay Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in free J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader, Harmondsworth, 1977. Truth, Sojourner, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at, accessed 16 April 2003. The Birds, dir.

Alfred Hitchcock, 1963. The Reckoning, The Frontier House, ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Abel, Emily K., Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients, Journal of Womens History, vol. 10, 1998, pp. I Lived? 32-52. Kasson, John, Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and the Challenge of research free Modernity in America, New York, 2001.

All sources which you have used in order to assist your interpretation of your evidence (the historical scholarship, or secondary sources), should be annotated, when an what is phycology annotated bibliography is required in the unit. Annotation tells the reader what role a particular source played in developing your argument. Paper Free? A statement of two or three sentences is usually ample. For instance: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the is phycology Male: Mens Bodies, Britain and the Great War, London, 1996. Bourkes argument about the changing meaning of research disability provided a very important perspective on the links between wartime and postwar debates over masculine vulnerability. Her interpretation of what shell-shock taught doctors about manhood was particularly valuable for henry i lived and what i lived my argument, as was her discussion of dress reform movements during the 1920s. One of the most important skills in effective communication is formatting and presenting your work in ways which help rather than hinder your reader. The impression of clarity, fluency and organisation created by good formatting is very important; conversely, a good essay written without regard for research free the eye as well as the mind is an ineffective piece of communication. Some general guidelines: observe the word length, or at least a margin of error of about 10 per argumentation cent: one of the paper skills of the Water in America writing is to write to a target, and to tailor your argument to suit the demands of research that target. A short 1500 word essay on wartime politics in Nazi Germany or criminality in nineteenth-century Australia is meant to be a short essay, not a major thesis.

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